In modern industry and daily life, copper has a wide range of application and demand. It has an important and irreplaceable position in electric, marine, aviation, communication, petrochemicals, household appliances, high-energy physics, metallurgy, etc.
Composition of cooper ore is very complex, including chalcocite, chalcopyrite, azurite, tetrahedrite, malachite, etc. Different beneficiation process is designed according to different ore. Even if the same type of ore in different mining plant, the beneficiation process is also different. According to the properties of different ore, we will choose suitable beneficiation process.
Generally use relatively simple process, after a period of grinding, fineness -200 mesh occupy about 50% to 70%, once roughing, two or three times selected, one or two times scavenging. Such as disseminated copper minerals has relatively small size, consider to adopt the stage grinding and separation processes. Processing bornite concentrator, mostly coarse concentrate regrinding - a selection of stage grinding and separation processes, and its essence is mixed - flotation process. First by a coarse grinding, roughing, scavenging, and then rough concentrate regrinding recleaner get high-grade copper concentrate and concentrate. Rough grinding -200 mesh about 45% to 50% and then pulverized -200 mesh occupy about 90% to 95%.
Dense copper ore chalcopyrite and pyrite as tight symbiosis, pyrite is often secondary copper-activated pyrite content is high, difficult to suppress, sorting difficult. Sorting process requires both get copper concentrate and concentrate. Typically election of copper tailings is pyrite concentrate. Dense copper ore processing, often using two stages of grinding or grinding, fine grinding fineness requirements.
Weakly magnetic minerals beneficiation, for example: hematite, limonite, ilmenite, wolframite, tantalum, niobium, etc.. Non-metallic minerals deironing, purification, for example: quartz, feldspar, nepheline, fluorite, sillimanite, spodumene, kaolin.
Mining ores first by the jaw crusher for preliminary broken, in broken to a reasonable fineness through ascension machine, after to mine machine uniform into ball mill, ball mill by crushing, grinding of ore.
After grinding ball mill of ore materials into the next procedure and: grading. Hierachial machine with different proportion of solid particles in the liquid and the speed of the precipitation different principle of minerals, the mixture to wash, grading. After a wash and classification of the mineral mixture after magnetic separation unit.
Because of various minerals than magnetized coefficient of different magnetic force and, by mechanical force will mixture of magnetic material separated. After magnetic separators preliminary after the separation in mineral grains was sent into the flotation machine, according to different mineral properties of different drugs, make to the minerals and other material separation open.
An in-depth mineralogical characterization has been carried out to develop a suitable beneficiation process route for a low-grade copper ore. Characterization and preliminary gravity separation studies were undertaken on low-grade Malanjkhand mixed copper ore to remove siliceous gangue and improve the copper grade. The characterization results indicated that the mixed copper ore was of very low grade (0.48% Cu) with a predominant amount of Quartz (74.12%) and with a moderate amount of feldspar and mica. The presence of chalcopyrite and pyrite in minor quantity along with malachite in traces was noted. Preliminary experiments were performed in a Mozley mineral separator by varying flow rate, amplitude and time to discard maximum quantity of liberated quartz. The optimum values of the variables for the efficient pre-concentration were determined based on the separation efficiency. The characterization and preliminary separation studies indicated that gravity-based separation could be opted for the pre-concentration of such mixed copper ore.
Wills B A, and Finch J A, Wills Mineral Processing Technology- An Introduction to the Practical Aspects of the Ore Treatment and Mineral Recovery, 18th Edition, Elsevier Science and Technology Books, Amsterdam (2016), p 223.
The authors express their sincere thanks to controller general, Indian Bureau of Mines, Nagpur and the ore dressing division for kind support during the characterization studies. We thank Editor-in-Chief and the reviewer for their painstaking reviews to improve the quality of the manuscript.
Jena, S.S., Gharai, M., Mandre, N.R. et al. Mineralogical Characterization and Gravity Separation of Lean Grade Mixed Copper Ore of Malanjkhand Deposit. Trans Indian Inst Met 72, 245255 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12666-018-1478-6
The main method for beneficiation of copper-nickel sulfide ore is flotation, while magnetic separation and gravity separation are usually auxiliary beneficiation methods. When flotation of copper sulfide nickel ores, collectors and foaming agents for flotation of copper sulfide minerals are often used. A basic principle for determining the flotation process is that it is better to allow copper to enter the nickel concentrate, and to avoid nickel entering the copper concentrate as much as possible. Because the nickel in the copper concentrate is lost during the smelting process, the copper in the nickel concentrate can be completely recovered. The flotation of copper-nickel ore has the following four basic processes.
Directly use priority flotation or partial priority flotation process: When the copper content in the ore is much higher than the nickel content, this process can be used to select copper into a separate concentrate. The advantage of this process is that copper concentrate with low nickel content can be directly obtained.
mixing flotation of copper and nickel from the ore, and then separating low-nickel-containing copper concentrate and copper-containing nickel concentrate from the mixed concentrate. After the nickel concentrate is smelted, high nickel matte is obtained, and the high nickel matte is then subjected to flotation separation.
When the flotability of various nickel minerals in the ore is very different, after the mixed flotation of copper and nickel, then from the tailings Further recover nickel-containing minerals with poor floatability.
Copper is a harmful impurity in nickel smelting, and the copper grade in copper-nickel ore has industrial recovery value. Therefore, copper-nickel separation technology is an important topic in copper-nickel ore beneficiation. Copper-nickel separation technology is divided into two types: copper-nickel mixed concentrate separation and high matte separation technology. Generally, the former is used for copper-nickel minerals with relatively coarse grain size and not closely related to each other, and the latter is used for copper-nickel minerals with fine grain size and densely interspersed ore.
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