milling production line validation

planetary micro mill pulverisette 7 premium line / description

The Planetary Micro Mill PULVERISETTE 7 premium line with 2 grinding stations is designed for a broad range of applications and ideally suited for loss-free grinding down to a final fineness of 100 nm of hard, medium-hard and brittle materials. Depending on the desired final fineness, the grinding can be performed dry, in suspension or in inert gas.In addition to comminution, you can also use Planetary Mills for mixing and homogenising emulsions and pastes or for mechanical activation and alloying in materials research.

The comminution takes place primarily through the high-energy impact of grinding balls and partially through friction between grinding balls and the grinding bowl wall. To achieve this, the grinding bowl, containing the material to be ground and grinding balls, rotates around its own axis on a main disk rotating in the opposite direction. At a certain speed, the centrifugal force causes the ground sample material and grinding balls to bounce off the inner wall of the grinding bowl, cross the bowl diagonally at an extremely high speed and impact the material to be ground on the opposite wall of the bowl.Due to sunken grinding bowls, the high-performance Planetary Micro Mill PULVERISETTE 7 premium line reaches unprecedented relative rotational speeds of the grinding of up to 2,200 rpm and centrifugal accelerations of 95 times the force of gravity. Thereby is the application of energy approximately 150 % above that of conventional Planetary Mills. For ultra-fine grinding results down into the nano range in shorter times. Your advantage: the shortest grinding times down to any desired fineness, even into the nano range.

The sunken bowls with SelfLOCK Technology form a single unit with the lid no additional tensioning, no incorrect operation! The bowls are simply placed in the mill, where they position themselves and snap securely into place. The grinding chamber of the premium line opens and closes automatically and independently rotates the bowl mountings into a convenient position for handling. Removal and opening of the bowls are also performed with just two motions. For easy cleaning even the milling chamber cover can be completely removed.

The software MillControl enables the automatic control of the Planetary Micro Mill PULVERISETTE 7 premium line and validation of the grinding process. The actual rotational speed and power consumption are checked and documented. By using two EASY GTM-bowls with special lid and transmitter you transform your PULVERISETTE 7 premium line into an analytical measuring system for monitoring pressure and temperature during the grinding process.

The Planetary Micro Mill PULVERISETTE 7 premium line operates with two grinding bowls in the sizes 20 ml, 45 ml or 80 ml, which turn with a transmission ratio of 1 : 2 relative to the main disk. To achieve the best grinding results and for direct prevention of contamination of the samples due to undesired abrasion, all grinding bowls and balls are available in6 different materials. For grinding in inert gas and for mechanical activation and alloying premium line gassing lids are recommended quickly and safely. For grinding in suspension, we offer an Emptying Device for a quick and easy separation of the grinding balls and suspension.

Mixing two samples with a FRITSCH Planetary Mill Learn more about mixing white aluminum oxide and red pigments in an 80 ml agate grinding bowl with approx. 250 agate grinding balls 5 mm dia. in less than 90 seconds. more information Milling tests with the Fritsch Planetary Ball Mill Our application consultant Diels Ding, German Centre Singapore, comminutes mineral fertilizer down to nanoparticles. more information Rock, Paper, Scissors: Ways that Milling and Sample Prep Affect Our Everyday Lives Find out what the childrens game Rock, Paper, Scissors has to do with the science of milling and sample preparation. more information Micromilling of uniform nanoparticles Fritsch micromills have enhanced one NASA labs ability to develop optimized ceramic nanoparticulate materials for demanding research projects, including energy storage and thermoelectric device applications, written by Curtis W. Hill und Lee Allen, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. more information Influence of properties of grinding bowls in the planetary system A clean and constant wear on the inner grinding bowl surface is a question of the amount of grinding balls and size, material amount and size (coarse or fine), the grinding condition like wet or dry grinding, the grinding duration and the adjusted rotations of the planetary system. more information From Boulder to Nano-Particles Medium-hard to hard materials with edge lengths up to 95 mm can be pre-crushed with the FRITSCH Jaw Crusher PULVERISETTE 1 so an additional fine comminution with many FRITSCH mills is possible. more information Creation of Nano-Powders FRITSCH GmbH successfully launched and established the new planetary ball mill PULVERISETTE 7 premium line. With this comminution concept FRITSCH considers customer needs wanting to comminute small samples up into the nano-range (1nm = 10-9m). more information The Quantum Leap into the Nano Class Planetary ball mills have long been a popular tool for the finest comminution of powders down to the micrometer range. In many industry segments, however, this is no longer sufficient. Demand now exists for the creation of nano particles (1nm = 10-9m). more information Planetary Ball Mills as an instrument in mechanochemistry One of the most significant fields of application for FRITSCH Planetary Mills is mechanochemistry. This subject is in theory, as well as in practice very wide-ranging and versatile. In the article you will find summarized information about history, functionality and the fields of application of mechanochemistry. more information Speed-up your synthesis lab: Planetary Ball Mills as a tool in organic synthesis Global problems such as energy and raw material shortages are also an important matter for organic synthesis laboratories. New methods and improved synthetic strategies are developed by the Institute for Technical Chemistry and Environmental Chemistry in Jena with Planetary Mills. more information Characteristics of sand and criteria for its comminution Sand is a common unconsolidated sedimentary rock. The mineral composition varies. The analytical evaluation of the chemical composition and therefore the aptness for the intended uses make the comminution of quartz sand a prerequisite. With FRITSCH instruments, the tracking and optimization of the comminution processes can be excellently accomplished. more information Grinding teas herbal tea, black tea or green tea An efficient sample preparation for fast, reliable and reproducible analyses results is becoming nowadays increasingly more important. Especially in the food industry is an exact sample preparation as a prerequisite for fine analyses essential, in order to be able to comply with specified limit and tolerance values. more information Vanadium a metal with unlimited fields of application Vanadium a transition metal with special potential. An interesting topic which for example is broadened through the possible uses of vanadium in the energy transition. In this article, the material properties of vanadium are discussed and the sample preparation described. more information Comminution of Pills The determination of substances contained in tablets after the production process is mandated according to the analytical rules of the German and European Pharmacopoeia. These rules include an analysis in regards to quality, effectiveness and safety of all contained active components and auxiliary materials. more information

overview of milling techniques for improving the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs - sciencedirect

Milling involves the application of mechanical energy to physically break down coarse particles to finer ones and is regarded as a topdown approach in the production of fine particles. Fine drug particulates are especially desired in formulations designed for parenteral, respiratory and transdermal use. Most drugs after crystallization may have to be comminuted and this physical transformation is required to various extents, often to enhance processability or solubility especially for drugs with limited aqueous solubility. The mechanisms by which milling enhances drug dissolution and solubility include alterations in the size, specific surface area and shape of the drug particles as well as milling-induced amorphization and/or structural disordering of the drug crystal (mechanochemical activation). Technology advancements in milling now enable the production of drug micro- and nano-particles on a commercial scale with relative ease. This review will provide a background on milling followed by the introduction of common milling techniques employed for the micronization and nanonization of drugs. Salient information contained in the cited examples are further extracted and summarized for ease of reference by researchers keen on employing these techniques for drug solubility and bioavailability enhancement.

gx-series | hardinge

Hardinge has become a leader in grinding solutions with product lines like Kellenberger, Voumard, Hauser USACH and more. With offerings across the capability spectrum, let Hardinge be your partner for all your grinding needs.

By the use of most modern manufacturing means next generation technology is being created, which can meet the customers technical and economical requirements today and tomorrow. Wherever highly accurate grinding is required, Kellenberger precision grinding machines are in use

Voumard has been a leader in innovative ID/OD machines that can support small batch and production environments. Its product offerings represent multi-purpose, flexible and universal solutions for your ID/OD grinding requirements.

Hauser multi-axis jig grinding machines are specially developed for applications requiring complex double curvature profiles where very high standards of surface finish and accuracy are essential. Hauser machines are ideal for super-finished applications where accuracy must not be compromised.

Our focus is to address the demands of companies looking for a partner to help them find solutions to todays challenging, high precision grinding applications and automation projects. When a custom grinding solution is what you require, Usach can be your partner.

For over 100 years, Hardinge lathes have been and will continue to be a standard for quality, longevity and capability. Whether it is high volume production or holding tight tolerances, Hardinge can provide you with the right CNC lathe solution every time.

Our Gang Plate/Gang Turret line of CNC lathes gives you not only the productivity you demand for lean manufacturing but also the Hardinge-exclusive patented interchangeable tool top plate to dramatically reduce setup and cycle times.

Through our Bridgeport brand of vertical machining centers, Hardinge continues to set the milling standard around the globe. Our milling machines are designed to achieve maximum capacity and performance in a variety of industries and manufacturing environments.

The Bridgeport Series 1 Standard Mill the original, all-purpose mill has been the real thing in milling, drilling, and boring for metalworking shops throughout the world. Today, the Series I Standard continues to fulfill the industrys need for an accurate, reliable, and versatile mill.

We have various product offerings of 3 Axis capable CNC mills that can fit a variety of manufacturing requirements. We have a product portfolio that satisfies versatility, performance, or production needs.

An investment in Bridgeports latest generation of 5-Axis vertical machining centers will bring instant and positive results. Our unrivalled technology coupled with an unswerving commitment to improving our customers productivity and business performance have contributed to a large, and loyal, customer base.

Hardinge and its reputable portfolio of products, resources, knowledge and experience are ready to tackle your next machining challenge. As the only machine tool OEM provider offering turning, milling, grinding, workholding and custom manufacturing solutions, Hardinge is ideally positioned to provide you with an innovative, cost-effective custom solutions that meets your needs.

The diverse products we offer enable us to support a variety of market applications in industries including aerospace, agricultural, automotive, construction, consumer products, defense, energy, medical, technology, transportation and more.

Hardinge Inc. is a leading international provider of advanced metal-cutting solutions. We provide a full spectrum of highly reliable CNC turning, milling, and grinding machines as well as technologically advanced workholding and machine tool accessories.

The Bridgeport GX-Series Performance Vertical Machining Centers and Drill/Tap centers are designed for flexibility and throughput and built for a production environment. Ideal for both job shops and OEMs, these high-quality, highly-specified and rugged machines were developed for applications that require speed as well as accuracy. The unique design allows the machines to literally overlap one another to better utilize valuable floor space and to promote cell manufacturing and perfect for automation. Add some robots or a gantry system and you can increase your productivity with virtually no labor costs.

Conversational programming features offered on the CNC control is the CNC control builders standard product, which may not fully support all machine functions. It is recommended the end user reference the control system documentation, or contact the control manufacturer, for further details of use or customization.

series 1 | hardinge

Hardinge has become a leader in grinding solutions with product lines like Kellenberger, Voumard, Hauser USACH and more. With offerings across the capability spectrum, let Hardinge be your partner for all your grinding needs.

By the use of most modern manufacturing means next generation technology is being created, which can meet the customers technical and economical requirements today and tomorrow. Wherever highly accurate grinding is required, Kellenberger precision grinding machines are in use

Voumard has been a leader in innovative ID/OD machines that can support small batch and production environments. Its product offerings represent multi-purpose, flexible and universal solutions for your ID/OD grinding requirements.

Hauser multi-axis jig grinding machines are specially developed for applications requiring complex double curvature profiles where very high standards of surface finish and accuracy are essential. Hauser machines are ideal for super-finished applications where accuracy must not be compromised.

Our focus is to address the demands of companies looking for a partner to help them find solutions to todays challenging, high precision grinding applications and automation projects. When a custom grinding solution is what you require, Usach can be your partner.

For over 100 years, Hardinge lathes have been and will continue to be a standard for quality, longevity and capability. Whether it is high volume production or holding tight tolerances, Hardinge can provide you with the right CNC lathe solution every time.

Our Gang Plate/Gang Turret line of CNC lathes gives you not only the productivity you demand for lean manufacturing but also the Hardinge-exclusive patented interchangeable tool top plate to dramatically reduce setup and cycle times.

Through our Bridgeport brand of vertical machining centers, Hardinge continues to set the milling standard around the globe. Our milling machines are designed to achieve maximum capacity and performance in a variety of industries and manufacturing environments.

The Bridgeport Series 1 Standard Mill the original, all-purpose mill has been the real thing in milling, drilling, and boring for metalworking shops throughout the world. Today, the Series I Standard continues to fulfill the industrys need for an accurate, reliable, and versatile mill.

We have various product offerings of 3 Axis capable CNC mills that can fit a variety of manufacturing requirements. We have a product portfolio that satisfies versatility, performance, or production needs.

An investment in Bridgeports latest generation of 5-Axis vertical machining centers will bring instant and positive results. Our unrivalled technology coupled with an unswerving commitment to improving our customers productivity and business performance have contributed to a large, and loyal, customer base.

Hardinge and its reputable portfolio of products, resources, knowledge and experience are ready to tackle your next machining challenge. As the only machine tool OEM provider offering turning, milling, grinding, workholding and custom manufacturing solutions, Hardinge is ideally positioned to provide you with an innovative, cost-effective custom solutions that meets your needs.

The diverse products we offer enable us to support a variety of market applications in industries including aerospace, agricultural, automotive, construction, consumer products, defense, energy, medical, technology, transportation and more.

Hardinge Inc. is a leading international provider of advanced metal-cutting solutions. We provide a full spectrum of highly reliable CNC turning, milling, and grinding machines as well as technologically advanced workholding and machine tool accessories.

The Bridgeport Series I Standard Knee Mill is the most popular milling, drilling and boring machine in the market, with over 370,000 machines built over the past 70 years. It continues to fulfill the industrys need for an accurate, reliable, and versatile mill. It features an innovative airflow cooling design that eliminates the need for external fans to prolong bearing life and prevent expansion from heat build-up. A full range of accessories are available, including optional chrome-plated ways and gibs, to ensure that the machine will last a lifetime. Hardinge is the only authorized provider of Bridgeport knee mills, parts and service.

process validation : new approach (sop / protocol) - pharma beginners

Process Validation: Establishing documented evidence through collection and evaluation of data from the process design stage to routine production, which establishes scientific evidence and provides a high degree of assurance that a process is capable of consistently yield products meeting pre-determined specifications and quality attributes.

Then the PV can include validation up to blend stage with three batches of common blend and validation of subsequent unit processes like compression, coating etc. with three batches each strength.

products - cutting machines & solutions - eastman machine company

Our promise to craft reliable, quality, American-made solutions means that your Eastman product is guaranteed to perform and ensure your production requirements are realized. Youre partnering with a team dedicated to your productivity and performance.

In order to be in business and considered a world leader as long as we have, you have to innovate, says Stevenson. Luckily, innovation is in our DNA. Read more about the amazing story of America Knits and the vital role Eastman plays within it. https://t.co/0HBHpBfJy7

Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. These cookies do not store any personal information.

condition based maintenance planning of highly productive machine tools | springerlink

The competitiveness of producing enterprises in high-wage countries is extremely dependent on the productivity of the production line. Consequently, the availability of machines displays an essential index. The aim of the research project Make-it (Condition Based Maintenance Planning of Highly Productive Machine Tools) was to improve the availability of machine tools. Therefore, within this joint project, new methods and approaches for condition based maintenance were investigated. Thereby, an important objective was to develop an innovative maintenance algorithm which enables to calculate the most cost-effective maintenance times based on a continuous prognosis of the remaining life time, maintenance costs, and potential failure costs. This paper describes the results of the developed maintenance approach. Within this paper, the fundamental mathematical foundations of the innovative, cost-oriented maintenance algorithm and the use of the data of machine condition are presented in the first part. Moreover, the implementation of the algorithm in a computerized maintenance management system is described. The validation of the cost-oriented maintenance planning by means of event-oriented simulation will also be part of this paper.

The results presented in this paper were obtained within the research project Maschinenzustandsbasierte Verfgbarkeitsdienstleistungen fr hochproduktive Fertigungsanlagen (Make-it). The authors would like to thank the Bundesministerium fr Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) and the Projekttrger Karlsruhe (PTKA) for its financial and organizational support of this project.

Denkena, B., Bluemel, P., Kroening, S. et al. Condition based maintenance planning of highly productive machine tools. Prod. Eng. Res. Devel. 6, 277285 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11740-011-0351-9

manufacturing process verification versus validation: which do you need? | labcompare.com

Differentiating between verification and validation for a manufacturing process can be confusing, because they are very similar. The difference is in the implementation, desired outcome and the phase of the process. To try to clear things up, lets look at a simple example of a gear cog that has been manufactured as per the requirements stated by a client:

Now thats just a simple gear cog, but when it comes to building more complex machinery, the likelihood of unforeseen hurdles increases exponentially. Both verification and validation play critical roles in quality management, reducing errors and making sure the product conforms to the users requirements, industry standards and regulatory authority guidelines.

Verification plays a role in almost every stage, from initial development to production and upscaling. Validation comes into play later in the manufacturing lifecycle once the product is verified and can be tested. Some of the verification processes in each phase of manufacturing are:

As per the FDAs Quality Systems Regulations, processes that affect the Critical to Quality (CtQ) criteria, can be validated with a high degree of assurance and approved according to established procedures. That is to say, to ascertain that defects arising from the unverified processes are unlikely, the process itself can be validated and variations can be controlled by employing suitable techniques like Quality by Design (QbD).

For FDA approval, the process validation will need to be rationalized and accompanied by appropriate documentation. To determine if a process requires validation or verification, many factors need to considered carefully. These include the sufficiency and accuracy of verification, risks related to the process and the feasibility of routine tests.

The likelihood of defects can be reduced significantly by thoroughly understanding the requirements, requesting additional details for variables and verifying at each point in the lifecycle. However, sometimes there are still glitches, and that is why validation can be well worth the investment.

twin-control evaluation in industrial environment: automotive case | springerlink

This chapter presents the evaluation of Twin-Control in an automotive validation scenario consisting in the production line of a RENAULT electrical motor component that is composed by three COMAU machine tools. Automotive industry requires very optimized and controlled machining process, due to large batches and tight margin cost. In addition, life-cycle features like energy consumption and maintenance costs are of special relevance. The evaluation covers the different stages of the product developing cycle. This document highlights different obtained results of the implementation of Twin-Control features and their impact. Great benefits are provided to the industrial end-users.

The previous chapters of this book have presented the different features developed in Twin-Control project, including results obtained in research environment. However, as this project has aimed to provide insights of industrial applicability and positive impact on end-users, a special effort has been done in the industrial evaluation.

Automotive sector is well-known for its large batch sizes and tight margin costs. Manufacturing processes are optimized at high level, and features like energy efficiency and maintenance are very relevant due to the correspondent cost reduction. In this line, the application of Twin-Control features is, thus, of special interests for this sector.

The chapter is structured as follows. After this introduction, an overview of the automotive validation scenario is provided in Sect.16.2. In Sect.16.3, the industrial evaluation approach applied in Twin-Control is presented. Section16.4 presents the implementation and results obtained with Twin-Control features, with a special attention to the impact caused by these features in the end-users. Finally, the last chapter covers the conclusions.

Section16.2 of this chapter provides an overview of the automotive validation scenario. In Sect.16.3, the industrial evaluation approach is presented. Section16.4 presents the implementation and results obtained with a special attention to the impact caused by these features in the end-users. Finally, the last section covers the conclusions.

The automotive validation scenario is located at Clon plant of RENAULT, in France. This plant produces gearboxes and engines for the RENAULTNissan Alliance car assembly plants all over the world. For the validation, three machine tools of the production line Module 6, dedicated to the machining of the stator housing of RENAULT electric motor, were used.

The tools and capabilities developed in Twin-Control create a new design environment for machine tool builders which allow to optimize the machine design through simulations. Since automotive energy efficiency is very relevant, the application of the developed energy simulation models is presented, together to the results obtained with the Virtual Machine Tool.

D=Tool Diameter (mm); Rc=nose radius of tool (mm); Beta=taper angle of tool (rad); Lam=Helix angle (rad); Nflut=Number of flutes (); ToolDir=cut rotation direction (); Zmax=max Z value for virtual tool (mm)

Results applying a sample part to the integrated simulation tool that combines machine tool dynamics and machining process are presented in Sect.4.1 of this book. The integrated simulation tool has not been used for the validation part. Instead, within Scenario of Use 2, the process models have been directly applied.

The first step in current product development process is to define, study and validate the concept of the new product. The second step is to study and manufacture a first prototype which will be used for internal validation tests. The third step is to study and manufacture a second debugged prototype which includes all improvements and/or modifications detected with the first prototype. The second prototype is tested in a real industrial condition (e.g. a customer product line). The last and fourth step is the product industrialization and adaptation for the serial and mass production. Usually, the first industrial project made by the new machine will be used for the industrial validation tests.

The offline energy efficiency models, which are described in Sect. 2.3 of the book, have been applied in the automotive validation scenario. With the help of the developed library, COMAU Urane 25 V3.0 machine has been mapped. Manufacturers information such as fluid or electrical plans has been used for this purpose. The parameterization of the component models is carried out via data sheets, which allow a simple adaptability to different applications.

The process models developed in the project provide the possibility to simulate in advance the manufacturing processes analysing the effect of different process parameters. This way, end-users have a great chance to reduce design time and to define optimized processes, leading to a minimization of the set-up time and a better performance of the process.

One challenge for this simulation is that the original stock geometry is not known with certainty, where the stock ID from the forge set at 2531mm is provided. Furthermore, the large size of the tool relative to the part geometry created issues for determining tool workpiece engagement with precision. To account for these issues, the part STL geometry is created with a tapered inner surface, which starts with an ID of 254mm at the start of the cut, and 242mm at the end of the cut. Additionally, the tool mesh and the engagement precision are set very fine to capture changes to the TWE due to small changes in the part ID.

The results of the simulation are shown in Fig.16.8b, where the simulated torque is compared with the on-machine torque measurements. Both sets of torque data increase throughout the cut due to higher chip load as the stock ID decreases. The simulated data shows several locations where the torque drops to zero. These drops are due to errors in the TWE calculation, which are complicated here due to the large size of the tool relative to the part geometry. Ignoring these errors, the path of the simulated torque indicated by the thick dashed line in Fig.16.8b closely follows the measured torque profile throughout the cut.

Accurate torque predictions from the updated process model give process planners the opportunity to look for issues with a machining operation before a part is produced. Figure16.8b shows an example of how this can be used to prevent torque overload. The spindle used here has a torque limit of 27Nm at 5000RPM. It can be seen from these results that the torque limit is surpassed close to the beginning of the cut. It is known from the machine measurement that the tool feed slows during the operation, and it is also possible the torque overload caused a decrease in the spindle RPM as well. The overall result is an operation which takes longer to complete than planned and which pushes the spindle to its performance limits.

The resulting stability roadmaps for each simulation are shown in Fig.16.11b. It is clear from the stability roadmap results that the two operations, while removing the same amount of material, differ greatly in terms of chatter risk. From the FRF data, the part is significantly more flexible in the Z-directions, and this flexibility increases likelihood of chatter for side milling, where radial forces act primarily in the Z-direction. The stability roadmap results for the face milling operation show a significant reduction in the chatter risk. This is due primarily to higher part stiffness in the X and Y directions.

To provide additional means of comparing the two operations, torque loads are also simulated to determine if there is a significant difference in process loads between the two strategies. The results from Fig.16.11c show that the resulting process loads are similar in both strategies, with an approximate 20% difference between the two strategies throughout the operation. This result indicates the process should be decided based on the chatter simulations, where the results differ greatly between the two operations.

From the simulation results in Fig.16.11, the facing operation is better suited to this application. While it is predicted that no chatter will occur at 5500RPM for the side milling case, the conditions are close to the stability boundaries, and there is still a potential of chatter. The facing operation shows a larger separation between the stability boundaries, especially at 5500RPM. Furthermore, the predicted spindle torque load is approximately 20% lower throughout the facing operation. As a result, face milling at 5500RPM is recommended for this application with the current tool and part material. Note that these results and recommendations serve as a starting point for the process design based on the available information. At a later stage in development, the simulations should be updated with new data, such as actual part FRF measurements, to further improve the process design.

In the third column, the impact expected by the application of Twin-Control features is included, which is mainly linked to the reduction of the process design stage, the reduction in time to select the best machine tool for the process, and a minimization of trials for process set-up. A reduction of the 11% of the total design time is expected.

In Scenario of Use 2, features to optimize the design and reduce the set-up of machining process are presented. Under ideal conditions, the operator should only run the designed process each time a new part is required. However, real industrial conditions are far from being controlled and unexpected events can occur: tool breakage, collisions, variation of material and dimensions of raw parts, etc.

The monitoring equipment based on the ARTIS Genior modular and updated in Twin-Control will be able to improve process control and facilitate operators activities. Three new features developed in the project, apart from the process monitoring available in ARTIS, have been implemented in this industrial scenario.

The newly developed collision avoidance system (CAS), from ModuleWorks, provides real-time verification and clash detection during the milling process through CNC controllers. CAS has been implemented in the automotive validation scenario.

Implementation of CAS system is based on geometric computation of spatial positions of bodies that are involved in the machining process. As a mandatory prerequisite, a machine tool model must be provided to the CAS kernel. Such models must include not only the geometric descriptions of the machine tool components, but also kinematic dependencies and proper coordinate transformations of all machine elements to be considered.

Collisions on the machines tools are usually result in expensive and lengthy repair and maintenance procedures. The risk of collisions becomes much higher if a new operation is set up or changes in fixtures/tooling applied. Often such seemingly small changes are overlooked and executed on a machine without proper verification. CAS system can serve as the last guard to protect the equipment. If a collision is detected, the machining process is stopped before an actual collision occurs to prevent expensive machine damage and downtime. The end-users may assure that the human-factor or inefficient verification software will cause production losses.

In the following paragraphs, the results obtained through the application of the Kalman-Filter-based disaggregation algorithm in the frame of the automotive use case of the Twin-Control project are described. The aim is to determine the energy requirements of the machine tool at component level.

The accuracy of disaggregation increases if the individual components are switched on one after the other and have enough time for the teach-in process. However, this is not always possible due to the technical restrictions and the request for short cycle times. Since most components of the COMAU Urane 25 V3.0 machine tool are permanently switched on, the influence of the initial conditions is dominant. Therefore, a good training process, which requires either stepwise switched components or multiple successive switching operations of the same component, is not possible in this case. The presented disaggregation approach is much better suited, and will give better approximations of the consumed power, for machines that have such a training phase.

The presented approach can be used for cost-effective energy monitoring. Even if an exact power disaggregation of industrial components is difficult, the presented approach offers a cost-effective and simple possibility to estimate the energy demand on component level.

Currently, the Urane 25 V3.0 machine installed at RENAULT is used with two operating modes, a production mode and an idle mode. The power consumption of the two operating modes is shown in Table16.2. The axes are not moved in idle mode, and therefore have only low power consumption, but no automated switch-off has been realized. During idle mode, the power consumption of the other auxiliary units deviates only slightly from the power consumption in production mode. The cooling module compressor is switched on and off in a timed manner, which is why the power consumption is also independent of the operating mode. The HP-coolant pump and the hydraulic pump have reduced power consumption because the requirements for these components are reduced in idle mode, but there is no automatic switch-off.

To prevent downtime due to waiting periods during the start-up phase of the machine, the Urane should be automatically started, after longer switched-off periods, 15min before the first production order is scheduled in the production planning system.

The cycle time of the validation part selected for Twin-Control is 7.4min and represents the typical process carried out by RENAULT. Due to the high level of optimization at process design stage due to its impact in the large batch, there is no big expectation from the application of adaptive feed rate control and its impact in the cycle time.

RENAULT can produce up to 7000 parts per month at Cleon plant, with a very small rate of scrap part production (average of 25 scraps per month). This fact, together with the limited cost of each scrap part (for the validation part it is around 119 ), highlights the great automatization and process control of RENAULT and the limited impact of Twin-Control feature application.

A very small percentage of the total part cost is assigned to tooling. This is mostly caused by small tool wear in aluminium machining. The tool life is expected to increase from 5 to 10% with the application of Twin-Control process monitoring. However, the impact to the overall process is very limited.

Regarding the non-intrusive energy monitoring, the choice of the switching signals has a high impact on the accuracy of the disaggregation. Table16.5 compares the average measured values and the average disaggregated power values with the errors. By applying this approach with additional switching information, good estimations of the energy consumption on component level will be possible. A survey among different measuring equipment manufacturers showed that the costs for sensors, data evaluation modules, their implementation and maintenance for a hardware-based measurement set-up are between 8.000 and 18.000 , while the costs for a non-intrusive measurement are approximately below 3.500 . At this point, it must be emphasized that these are common market prices and not the prices of individual manufacturers. The actual cost savings depend on the number of auxiliary units, the implemented sensors and power analyser modules, as well as the workload during commissioning. Therefore, considerable cost savings can be realized on each machine by implementing a non-intrusive energy monitoring algorithm.

Main activity to ensure good performances of machine tools consists in preventive maintenance intervention. Most of the time these interventions are scheduled according to machine operating hours or number of produced parts.

Although that systematic preventive maintenance reduces, the number of unexpected failures not all is avoided. On the remaining failures, a small percentage is not predictable, but most of them can be anticipated by analysing behaviour drifts of the machine tools.

The cloud-based fleet-wide platform for machine tool developed in Twin-Control project runs performance and health index algorithms on a huge number of machine tools that automatically upload collected data on the fleet server.

Algorithms are based on a multi-criteria analysis framework. They are parametrizable to fit with machines specific characteristics and usage. Also, they are robust to consider real working conditions of machine tools.

Within the project, the cloud platform for machine tools is hosted on a dedicated server and available at https://twincontrol.kasem.fr/. RENAULT machines fleet, used for the evaluation of the automotive use case, is composed of three machines. For this industrial use case, fleet-wide platform receives and analyses data in batch flow.

RENAULT produces small parts in series with a short cycle time. It means that, for each part behaviours, indicators are computed and, then, a trend analysis is performed for each indicator. Next, some examples of the results obtained in the fleet-wide platform are presented. These results present the detection and correlation of different events, which will serve as reference for predictive maintenance actions in the future.

Spindle torque-based indicators can be used to follow the tool wear curves. Several experimental studies show that the tool wear is given by a characteristic law depicted in Fig.16.23. Three zones are considered: the adaptation zone (1), the linear wear zone (2) and the accelerated wear zone (3). Systematic tool change is based on a theoretical evaluation of the end on linear wear zone.

Trend analysis of torque-based indicators when not cutting, i.e. when tool comes out the workpiece, has been correlated to streak failure detection in the machined part. In this case, the considered behaviour is not an accelerated increase, but an abnormal decrease as depicted in Fig.16.27.

Wait for the next planned machine stop without stopping production by keeping drift under control using compensative maintenance actions. For instance, in case of chip accumulation in one axis motor, a solution could be to clean the affected area periodically.

In case of linear motor failure, used in COMAU machines, the replace of the motor takes around 20h for two experimented maintenance technicians. It means that, in case of motor failure, it is necessary to call off-duty people which adds extra costs to the intervention and increases machine downtime. In this scenario, the knowledge of the risk of failure several days in advance will avoid, at least, these additional costs and, also, unplanned machine stops. In case of RENAULT, each of these types of maintenance activities causes a reduction in production of more than 170 parts.

In case of spindle failure or drift, early detections reduce the overall production costs. Indeed, any abnormal behaviour on the spindle can decrease workpieces quality. As quality control is realized according to a random sampling law, once a quality problem is detected, several workpieces can be degraded. By instance, in RENAULT cases, spindle abnormal behaviour is detected between 24 and 15h before alerts. It means that between 130 and 170 parts may be out of specification and must be geometrically controlled by a specific service with a specific machine. These controls increase the overall production costs.

RENAULT makes quality monitoring using QDAS quality management system (www.us.q-das.de/en/applications/). There is currently no interaction between the quality data stored in QDAS and the manufacturing processes.

Due to short cycle times in automotive use case, it is not possible to measure the 100% of the machined parts. Normally, one part is measured by working turn (every 8h). If incorrect parts are machined between measurements, they are not detected.

By using the monitoring infrastructure of Twin-Control, and integrating QDAS data inside, a correlation between process parameters and quality measurement can be done. This should allow 100% scrap detection and reduce measurement work power.

A first application covers the big boring machining of the automotive validation scenario, presented in Fig.16.8. Figure16.31 shows the first results of the integration of process (spindle torque) with quality (cylindricity and diameter) data in KASEM.

This chapter summarizes the evaluation of Twin-Control project in an automotive validation scenario. A specific evaluation approach is defined, based on different Scenarios of Use defined in the project. The results and the impact of Twin-Control features are structured according to these Scenarios of Use.

Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.