mines air dryers equipment how it works

rotary dryer design & working principle

For evaporating moisture from concentrates or other products from plant operations, Rotary Dryers are designed and constructed for high efficiency and economy in fuel consumption.Whenever possible to apply heat direct to the material to be dried, Rotary Dryers of the Direct Heating Design are used. If it is not possible to apply heat direct to the material to be dried, Rotary Dryers of the Indirect Heating Design can be furnished so that the heated gases will not come in direct contact with the material.

Rotary Dryer is a simple, inexpensive unit for reducing the moisture content of flotation concentrates, as well as chemical and industrial products. Frequently the saving of shipping weight so effected will pay for the dryer in a few months. Difficulties from freezing while in transit are also eliminated. Many industrial projects are now using Dryers for control and production purposes on many materials.

Three main types of Rotary Dryers can be supplied. The direct heat unit is used when it is permissible for the drying gases to come in direct contact with the material being dried. Partition plates increase the heating surface. Drying may be by hot air or exhaust gases from other operations. If this drying gas has a deleterious effect on the product, then an indirect type of dryer can be supplied. A further derivation is the Tedrow Steam Dryer.

Of the different types of dryers that there are the most common is the ROTARY DRUM DRYER/Kiln, This type of drier is common not only in the mining industry but you will find them in fertilizer plants, Cement plants, and peat hogs to name but a few.

The theories behind these machines are very simple, heat an air space up, and then tumble the material to be dried through this space until it is dried. All though it sounds simple there are problems that have to be solved before the required results are met. But first, so you know what we are talking about lets go through the design of a drier.

First is the KILN, this provides the heat, The BURNER is inside this portion. The fuel for the burner is usually diesel although heavy crude oil could be used in some cases. To be able to generate enough heat to dry the concentrate air must be added by way of a BLOWER. In front of the kiln is the point that the wet concentrate enters the drier. It is put into the revolving SHELL. The shell is on a slight incline. As the Concentrate is tumbled through the hot air mass of the drier it travels down this incline to the exit of the drier.

At this exit point the concentrate is either deposited straight into a storage area or taken to the storage area by a conveyor. It is also at this point that there is an EXHAUST HOOD. This provides a controlled escape passage for the fumes and water vapor that is generated by the concentrate drying. This is a very important function and the operator will have to be sure that it is open at all times. If it should become blocked the water vapor will not be able to escape. The concentrate will become wet and sticky which will result in the discharge plugging. The wet sticky concentrate will also lower efficiency level of the drier for an extended period of time. This happens because inside the drier shell are what are termed FLIGHTS these are flat pieces of metal that are bolted onto the shell.

They are there to lift the concentrate up to the top of the shells rotation and drop the concentrate through the hot air. If the water vapor isnt taken away, the concentrate becomes sticky from reabsorbing the water. This sticky concentrate will fill the spaces between the flights.

The concentrate will not be lifted and dropped through the hot air. This results in a long term condition of poor performance even after the initial problem has been cured. These flights will remain buried in concentrate. This removal of the water vapor is one of the functions of the blower. It assists the natural process of air movement as the hot air mass expands. To prevent the buildup of concentrate on the flights there are often CHAINS attached to them. As the drier revolves the chains slap the flights preventing concentrate from building up on dryers walls.

The drier shell is rotated separately from the stationary kiln section. To achieve the rotation a BULL GEAR is attached around the shell section. There are also two flat rings attached to the shell. These provide surfaces for support rollers to roll on. There is another problem that the inclined shell has, the incline causes the shell to want to slide in the direction of the incline. To prevent this additional rollers are attached to the last set of rollers.

refrigerated compressed air dryer | the workshop compressor

Refrigerated compressed air dryers are one of the most common used types of air dryers (for other types, check out our general page on compressed air dryers). They are simple in design, need very little maintenance and are relatively cheap.

Here are two pictures of the inside of an old refrigerated compressed air dryer. You can see the various parts of the refrigerant circuit (with refrigerant compressor and condenser). You can also see the condensate trap with discharge lines.

There are basically two types of refrigerated compressed air dryers. Cycling and non-cycling. The advantage of the cycling dryer is that it will increase or decrease cooling capacity according to air use. This reduces the energy used and saves you money.

The non-cycling is the most common type and is extremely reliable and have the lowest maintenancecosts.Example of a refrigerated compressed air dryer. This one is installed after a rotary screw compressor (Atlas Copco GA37, 37 kW compressor). On the control panel you see a start/stop button and the dew-point indicator.

Install the dryer in a cool, dust-free room. You will probably also need a drain somewhere to get rid of the water (can be liters of water per day!). Normally you just need a standard 115 (usa) / 230 (Europe) voltage power source.

By far the most common, number 1, breakdown I have seen with compressed air dryer is over-heating. When the condenser of the refrigerant circuits get dirty, or the room is just too hot, the dryer cant get rid of the heat. It will eventually trip on its over-pressure switch.

Maintenance: clean the condenser once in a while. Be careful, the small plates (fins) are sensitive. A good way to remove all the dust is by using a steel-brush and gently scrape off all the dust. There are also special condenser fin combs to clean and straighten the fins.

Sometimes this happens because somebody just set the setpoint too low, sometimes there is something wrong in the refrigerant circuit (a sensor or valve for example), in which case you will need to get a mechanic to repair it.

how does gold mining work? (with pictures)

Gold mining can use several different techniques, depending on the situation involved and the type of mining being done. Some techniques and tools are relatively simple, so much so that nearly anyone could do it. Other techniques are going to be very detailed and exacting, taking a great deal of expertise and specialized gold mining equipment.

One of the easiest types of gold mining is the technique known as panning. Mining for gold using this technique involves no more equipment than a simple pan and is, perhaps, the most well known type of mining. Ironically, it may also be the technique that yields the fewest results. To use this technique, one simply needs to find a pan and a pile of dirt or muck. In most cases this is done by rivers. Sediments are collected and placed in the pan. Water is used to wash out the lighter materials, leaving the heavier metals, hopefully gold, in the bottom of the pan.

In popular culture, the panning method of gold mining has resonated with many people. In fact, in areas where gold mining used to be popular, tourist attractions trying to capitalize on that history by offering to recreate that experience. This is, perhaps, one reason why the mental image of panning for gold remains so strong in people's minds.

Hard rock gold mining is another popular technique, used among those who were truly serious about gold and mining. When people think of California mining, this is often what they think about. In this case, miners worked themselves into the mine using picks and other equipment to chip hard rock off the walls of the mountain. The hope was that among the ordinary rock, precious metals would also be found. This technique, or one similar to it, is likely the best way to find significant quantities of gold in many places in the world.

Another common technique is using a device similar to a cradle to rock heavier sediments to a screen on the bottom. Often, this technique will also involve using water, which can encourage the heavier particles down through the rocker. Thus, this technique was also used close to a river or lake, or at least at a location where water was easily accessible.

One very sophisticated technique, which required the use of machinery or animal labor, involved crushing quartz rocks to find gold. In earlier times, this was done using a spindle and using horses or oxen to turn the spindle, which ground the rocks and possibly revealed gold. This technique was perfected and often used in Mexico.

@lovelife -- Yes actually we do have active gold mines. Next to Australia and South Africa, America is the third largest supplier of gold.Most of the mines active today are in Nevada, with Alaska and Colorado coming in second and third, as the most active states for gold mines.

I love this type of history! We actually have old mines near where we live. The tourist bureau has used the panning for gold as something fun for tourists to do, while teaching them about our local history. Does anyone know if there are still active gold mines in this country today?

what is a desiccant air dryer how desiccant dryers work | nigen

It is virtually impossible to harness moisture free air for industrial use directly from the ambient environment. A failure to eliminate the excess moisture in compressed air generated for industrial use will alter the quality of process air and damage moisture-sensitive machinery.

A desiccant is a special adsorbent material with a high affinity for water. This special material has hygroscopic properties that allow it to maintain a dry immediate environment by pulling and holding water molecules within itself.

A desiccant dryer or an adsorption dryer is a piece of industrial equipment that uses desiccant materials to eliminated water from the air channeled through it. A standard desiccant dryer system uses a two-tower set up to ensure a continuous air drying cycle.

The term regenerative is used to refer to an industrial desiccant air dryer that can renew its desiccant material by reversing the adsorptive process. Typically, regenerative desiccant dryers have paired desiccant packed towers that permit water absorption and material regeneration to occur simultaneously.

Twin tower desiccant dryers are essentially dual desiccant systems that constantly switch between absorptive and regenerative modes. Indicators detect the level of water saturation in each tower and automatically switch phase when appropriate.

This dryer type possesses two towers equally filled with hygroscopic materials. During routine operation, one tower is used to actively eliminate moisture from compressed air channeled through it while the other tower undergoes a reverse process where moisture is actively removed from to regenerate the desiccant material.

Once the desiccant in the absorptive tower is saturated and the material in the second tower is sufficiently dried, a control unit is used to automatically reverse their functions. With this phase change, the fully saturated desiccant tower then enters a regenerative mode while the freshly regenerated material in the second tower is used to remove the moisture in the supply air feed.

Regenerating desiccant material is done by eliminating the moisture it has accumulated during a cycle of compressed air drying. There are different ways of regenerating the hygroscopic materials used in air drying systems.

This method forces a stream of heated air through the water-saturated desiccant tower to eliminate the moisture within it. This drying technique requires a fan, and an electric heater to dry the desiccant.

This air dryer system can simultaneously regenerate its desiccant and dry compressed at the same time. This air dryer has a rotating drum system where a quarter of the drum is involved in desiccant regeneration while the remaining portions are concurrently drying the compressed air.

Desiccant air dryers are most common in industrial applications that utilize compressed air. For example, the Oil and Gas Industry uses compressed air in almost all its operations from oil recovery to petroleum refining and transport. The equipment used in these operations are typically susceptible to moisture-related damage.

Although there are dozens of air drying systems on the market, not all of them might be suited to your unique air-drying needs. Seek help from a trusted firm with extensive knowledge in air-drying solutions before purchasing an air dryer system for your industrial process.

These air drying solutions are suitable for use across a broad range of industrial processes. Our high qualitycompressed air desiccant dryersare also available on a rental basis to cater to all your air-drying requirements.

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360 degree view on the e-air h250 vsd - atlas copco australia

The benefits of an electric compressor, ruggedized for the toughest conditions. With 7m of air per minute at less than 750kg, this quiet and exhaust-free compressor is a good fit for construction sites, mines and indoor spaces. If your work site has an electricity supply, the new E-Air H250 VSD is the best possible workmate. Discover all the features of this compact, but powerful compressor.

how capnograph monitors work explained simply

The capnograph is able to measure the expelled CO2. This is an extremely useful measurement as it can help detect problems along the pathway taken by the CO2. For an example, if the patient stops breathing (e.g. due to morphine) , CO2 will not be able to get out . This problem will make the capnograph show a low CO2 reading and trigger an alarm that alerts medical staff to the problem.

Capnography uses infrared waves to measure CO2. Infrared waves are waves that are invisible to the eye and have a lower frequency than visible light. The frequency is below red light, which is why it is called infra red.

In fact , infrared absorption can be used to measure , in addition to CO2, other gases that have different atoms in their structure. For an example, infrared can be used to measure nitrous oxide and isoflurane.

This property is useful for the system to measure a chosen gas. Therefore, to measure CO2, you will design your infrared source to emit a wavelength of 4.25. In this way, it will not measure nitrous oxide.

To be specific for a particular gas, the infrared source must emit waves having wavelengths within narrow limits. If the waves emitted have too much of a variety of wavelengths, the system will not be able to differentiate between gases.

The CO2 being measured goes via a sampling chamber that has a fixed size. Not all materials allow infrared waves to pass through. Therefore the chamber is made of special material that freely allows infrared waves to pass through (e.g. sapphire).

When talking about capnography, one often hears the mysterious term called collision broadening . I will try and briefly introduce this term to you. It was mentioned before that a gas absorbs infrared waves maximally at a certain wavelength. If we have just pure CO2 molecules (i.e. no other gases present) and subject them to infrared waves of different wavelengths, we get a narrow range of wavelengths where the infrared is maximally absorbed.

If we repeat the measurement, this time having a mixture of CO2 and another gas , such as oxygen, we will find that the absorption pattern is not as narrow as when only CO2 is present. In other words, the absorption pattern has got broadened.

This broadening of the absorption pattern is due to a variety of complicated physics reasons. One such reason is that the oxygen molecules collide with the CO2 molecules. This results in the CO2 molecules slightly altering the way they absorb infrared waves, leading to the broader absorption pattern. Because this broadening of the absorption pattern occurs due to collisions between the gases, it is called collision broadening .

The relevance of collision broadening is that gases such as oxygen and nitrous oxide can affect the amount of infrared rays absorbed by CO2 leading to a potential source of error in measurement. Modern analysers measure the amount of nitrous oxide and oxygen present and use this information to correct for errors due to collision broadening.

In main stream analysers, the analyser is directly near the CO2 expired by the patient. The main stream analyser is attached to the patient. The analyser is connected to the monitor by long electrical wires (shown in red).

A long narrow tube (red tube shown below) is connected to the patient end. A pump (shown in pink) keeps suctioning a small quantity (e.g. 150 mL per minute) of the patients respiratory gases. This sample of gases flows across the analyser, which is located away from the patient.

Unfortunately the suction tubing doesnt only suck CO2. It also sucks in expensive anesthetic gases. To avoid wastage of the expensive anaesthetic agents, the sampled gas is returned (green arrows) to the patient anesthetic breathing system.

In an ideal world, our measuring instrument should instantly show the CO2 measurement. Shown below is a response time graph. The red arrow shows the moment a test sample of CO2 is given to the measurement system. In this ideal situation, as soon as the system sees the CO2, the graph rises instantly to show the CO2 measurement.

However, rise time measurement is slightly technically complicated. The problem is that the rising part is not actually a straight line. Rather, it is a S (sigmoid) shaped curve. The curved portions (green) make accurate measurement difficult.

To make it easier for the test laboratory to measure rise time, they measure rise time from 10 % of the final vale to 90 % of the final value. This conveniently gets rid of the curved portions that are difficult to measure.

In side stream analysers, the gases have to travel in the sampling tube before reaching the sensor. This delay (transit time), makes side stream analysers have a slower response time than main stream analysers, which dont have any delay due to transit time.

Side stream analysers continuously suction gases for analysis. This can range from approximately 50 150 mL/min, and if the patient has small breathes (e.g. neonates / paediatrics) the removed sample volume may become significant. Main stream analysers do not remove any gases, so do not have this problem.

Water can interfere with CO2 analysis and lead to errors. Therefore, it is important to prevent moisture from the patients expired breath from condensing onto the analyser. The condensing of water occurs when the warm expired water vapour at body temperature cools down to room temperature.

If this condensed water enters the sensor there will be errors in measurement of CO2. To minimise this error, before the tube enters the sensor, there is a water trap (green vessel shown below), which collects any water that may have condensed.

The lines near the baseline represent inspiration and the higher lines represent expiration .(While this is an approximate and easy way to remember it, a more accurate description will be explained to you later).

Before proceeding to explain the formation of a capnograph, we need to simplify certain things. First of all, I will represent the respiratory system as a piston ( or syringe if you wish) that is connected to a tube.

In real life, the patient in whom we monitor CO2 will most likely be connected to a breathing system (e.g. anaesthesia breathing system). In the example below, the patient is connected to such a breathing system and is inspiring oxygen.

The pink outline in the diagrams is the lung tissue (alveoli) where gases can easily diffuse. In the example below, the oxygen (shown in green) is diffusing out, to be taken up by the blood circulation.

The thick red lines in the diagrams represent the trachea and bronchi. Note that these transport gas, but unlike the alveoli, do not allow gas exchange. These areas are called anatomical dead space because they behave merely as transport tubes, that dont allow gas exchange across their walls.

Note that the first portion of the expiration is the gas in the dead space, which in this example is oxygen. Since there is no CO2 in the dead space gas, the capnograph trace in early expiration remains at the base line.

After the dead space gas passes the analyser, the lung (alveolar gas) reaches the analyser. This has CO2 and this causes the CO2 reading to rise. The rising portion of the trace (upstroke) therefore represents the transition from dead space gas (which has no CO2) to alveolar gas (which has CO2).

Capnograph monitors display a very useful number called end tidal CO2. End tidal means end of breath measurement. I.e. It is the CO2 measured at the very end of expiration (red arrow). In the example below, the end tidal CO2 is 5 kPa ( Note: units in your hospital may be different, e.g. mmHg or Vol %)

The end tidal CO2 is approximately equal to the arterial blood CO2, so is a non invasive and convenient way of estimating arterial CO2. However, various conditions can make this estimation incorrect. Please refer to physiology and clinical resources for more details.

Warning! This web site focuses on physical principles of how equipment works. It is not a clinical resource so do not rely on these waveforms for patient care. Refer to appropriate resources for clinical use. The waveforms have been exaggerated to make them more clear to you.

Normally the inspiratory gas does not contain CO2, and this makes the inspiratory part of the trace follow the base line (green trace below). When re breathing occurs, there is CO2 in the inspiratory gas, making the inspiratory trace rise above the baseline (grey trace).

When a patient has been given a muscle relaxant, the respiratory muscles are paralysed and cannot move. The patient with muscle relaxant is therefore connected to a ventilator, which does all the work. However, when the relaxant has worn off, the respiratory muscles (diaphragm) can contract.

In the relaxant notches, the wearing off of muscle relaxant lets the diaphragm contract and disturb the CO2 waveform. A similar effect can be seen when ,instead of the diaphragm, one of the surgeons presses on the chest wall.

So far we have seen that the diaphragm and the surgeons hands can cause notches to appear in the capnograph. In a similar way, the contracting and relaxing of the patients heart can repeatedly press on the lungs and disturb the capnograph waveform.

If a tracheal tube is mistakenly put into the esophagus and if this is not recognized quickly enough, the patient may die of hypoxia. Therefore early recognition of tracheal intubation is crucial and the capnograph is extremely useful in this situation. The most useful feature is that the lungs have CO2 whereas the stomach and esophagus have little or no CO2.

The method described so far for CO2 measurement is the most commonly used method. There are other methods in use as well. However, these are not as commonly used and will not be described in much detail. These other methods are:

Photo acoustic Spectrography: The CO2 sample is bombarded with pulses of infrared waves. This makes the CO2 sample rapidly expand and contract, producing sound waves. A sensitive microphone picks up these sound waves, which vary according to how much CO2 is present in the sample.

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how your home air conditioning system works

The workings of a home air-conditioning system are mystifying to many of us. Furnaces are easy to understandthey heat air and blow it around your home through ductwork. Boilers make hot water or steam and move it around your home in pipes. But how do air-conditioning systems make nice cold, dehumidified air during the dog days of summer? To understand it, you have to go back to a principle that you may have learned in a high school or college physics class: the scientific law that any gas cools as it expands in volume.

There aremany types of air-conditioning systemsthat can be used in the home, including window units, portable air conditioners, ductless air conditioners, and central air-conditioning systems. Despite their differences, however, the physics of how they work is the same, and they all use the process of direct-expansion refrigeration. In principle, thisworks very much the sameas your home'skitchen refrigerator.

The refrigerant is the "blood" pumping through cooling tubes in the air conditioner's system. It changes state from gas vapor to liquid as it collects heat from your house and ejects that heat to the outdoors. A refrigerant is a unique substancein that it has a very low boiling point. This means that it changes from a liquid to a vapor at low temperatures. This is key to making an air-conditioning system work safely without generating a dangerous level of heat. The refrigerant, however, does not move through the system on its own; it requires a compressor to pump it.

Think of the compressor as the"heart" of the system, the component that pumps the refrigerant throughall the refrigeration components in a big copper loop. Refrigerant enters the compressor as alow-pressurewarm vapor and leaves it as ahigh-pressurehot vapor. This transformation will be made possible by the condenser.

From the compressor, hot refrigerant vapor moves to the condenser. Here, the high-pressurehot refrigerant vapor is cooled as it passes through condensing coils. The coils have thin metal fins (similar to the structure on the front of a car radiator) that conduct heat from the coils. A condenser fanblows air over the fins to speed the cooling of the vapor inside the coils. (Using afincombduring routine maintenance helps keep these fins in shape.) As the refrigerant cools, it changes state from a hot vapor to a hot liquid at high pressure and moves onto the expansion valve. The compressor, condensercoil, and condenser fan are all located that big noisybox in your backyard, which is often called a condensing unit.

The expansion valve is what really does the work of cooling. As the hot liquid refrigerant passes through a tiny opening at high pressure in the valve on one side, it emerges as a coollow-pressuremist on the other side. This is the result of a natural property of gases: As a gas expands, it cools. The air conditioner is really nothing more than a device designed to force the refrigerant gas to expand, and that's what creates its ability to cool the air by expelling its heat.

The next step is where your home actually gets cooled. The low-pressurecold liquid that is now leaving the outdoor expansion valveruns indoors to the evaporator coil located in the plenum of your furnace. (The plenum is the big metal box between the furnace and the ductwork.) Here, the warmer air inside your home blows across the evaporator coil and heats it up, while at the same time the coil carrying cold, expanded refrigerant gas cools off the air blowing across the evaporator. This cooled air is then circulated through the ductwork. As the refrigerant now starts to heat up, it begins to boil and changes from a cold liquid to a warm vapor (a process of evaporation). The warm refrigerant vapor then travels back to the compressor and outdoor condensing unit, when the it expands and cools once more, continuing the cooling cycle.

In the typical central air conditioning unit, the cooling cycle is an ongoing process of cool refrigerant absorbing heat from indoor air and expanding into a warm gas, traveling to an outdoor unit where it expels that heat and returns to a cool liquid, then returning back indoors to absorb more heat and continue the cycle. Despite the seeming complexity of the components, the physics involved is quite simplethe principle by which a gas alway cools as it expands. Any air conditioning or refrigeration system is merely a system by which the expansion and condensing of refrigerant gas is carefully controlled to take advantage of that physical property.

what is a ventless dryer? | whirlpool

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Ventless dryers are a good option for homes that arent equipped for vent-style dryer installation. A ventless dryer constantly recirculates air through the drum to pick up moisture from the clothes, then condenses the moisture later in the process through a heat exchanger. This contrasts with vented dryers, which push hot humid air outside through a dryer vent.

The first type uses a heater element coupled with an air-to-air heat exchanger to condense water from the humid air in order to dry clothes. This condensation process uses a secondary air path, known as room air, to cool the primary humid air path via the heat exchanger. This causes the water in the air to condense.

The second type utilizes a compressor and heat exchangers and acts as a dehumidifier to condense the humid air through the evaporator heat exchanger. However, the difference in this process is the heat recovery. The secondary heat exchanger, called the condenser, is used to recover the heat and apply it to the drying process, which generally makes it more energy efficient.

While these appliances use different processes, both types of ventless dryers collect the condensed water. Some ventless dryers have a container that needs to be emptied after each cycle. Others have a direct drain hose featureeither as an option or as a standard drain function. Before purchasing a ventless dryer, its important to decide which option best suits your familys lifestyle. Not sure if a ventless dryer is the best choice? The appliance finder can recommend the best dryer for you.

Ventless all-in-one washer dryer combinations are exactly what they sound likea laundry appliance that combines the functions of a washer and a dryer. Simply load your clothes and choose your settings; this appliance runs a washing cycle, then transitions to a drying cycle using ventless technology. Because they combine two appliances into one, ventless washer dryer combos can be a great choice for families who live in apartments or homes in which space is at a premium.

If you live in an apartment and don't have access to a dryer vent or have limited space for your laundry appliances, it can be a challenge to find a dryer that fits your needs. Fortunately, ventless dryers can offer a solution. Popular in Europe for decades, ventless dryers and more recently, ventless washer dryer combos have started to catch on in the United States thanks to their space-saving properties. If you have limited space for laundry appliances or want energy-efficient options, a ventless dryer may be a good choice for your home.

Our ventless washer dryer combo is the ultimate space saver, allowing you to wash and dry your clothes in one full cycle. This Smart appliance allows you to set, start, pause and monitor the wash cycle via your phone or tablet so you can get laundry done at home or on the go*. Best of all, its ventless design allows this appliance to be installed almost anywhere. If space is at a premium in your home, the Smart All-In-One Washer & Dryer may be a great choice for you.

Need a ventless dryer that makes the most of your space? Our 7.4 cu.ft Front Load Ventless Heat Pump Dryer with Advanced Moisture Sensing can help. This appliance is a good option for most homes, and its Advanced Moisture Sensing feature adjusts the drying cycle as needed to save time and help prevent overdrying. Thanks to its ventless design, this appliance offers a broad range of installation options.

Due to the impact of COVID19, delivery times may be longer than usual and some products may be out of stock. Our team is doing their best to resolve these issues and ensure a positive shopping experience, and we appreciate your patience as we work diligently to address these concerns. Learn more about Whirlpool Corporation's Response to Coronavirus (COVID19) HERE.

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what is an autoclave and how does it work? science abc

An autoclave is a machine that is used to eradicate biohazardous waste from the surface of tools or instruments. It was invented by Charles Chamberland in 1884. Autoclaves sterilize or disinfect through physical means by using pressure, temperature and steam. They are often referred to as steam sterilization machines.

Sterilization is a quintessential process of any medical procedure, such as surgeries. Surgery rendersits involved instruments contaminated with harmful microorganisms that can be life-threatening if reused on another patient without cleaning them first.

Other than surgery, sterilization is also mandatory forseemingly less important procedures, such as dental check-ups or to prevent the spreading of fungal infections in nail salons by regularly cleaning the tools used for manicures and pedicures.

A more palpable example is the boiling of water or cooking food in pressure cookers. Pressure cookersoperate at sweltering temperatures and very high pressures to kill everylast microorganism that colonizes and feasts on raw food.

An autoclave is a machine that is used to eradicate biohazardous waste from the surface of tools or instruments. It was invented by Charles Chamberland in 1884. Autoclaves sterilize or disinfect through physical means by using pressure, temperature and steam. They are often referred to as steam sterilization machines.

Microbes on medical or scientific instruments cannot simply be cleaned with water or swept away with a brush or cloth. They require extra care because microorganisms and germs are highly resilient and impervious to these frivolous attempts of cleansing. Theycan only be eliminated by killing them,which is done by subjecting them to harsh environments.

An autoclave, with the help ofa cloud of steam and elevated pressure, maintains a temperature that is too high for any bacteria, virus, fungi or parasite to survive in. However, other than these germs, sporesare microscopic varmints that are indifferent to high temperatures. Fortunately, they can be eliminated if these extreme conditions are maintained for a prolonged period of time.

The instruments to be sterilized are stored in a chamber in the belly of the autoclave. As soon as the autoclave is switched on, a dense cloud of steam is fed into the chamber. At that point, the pressure and temperature begin to increase. Generally, most autoclaves aspire to maintain a temperature of around 120C (about 250F).

The apparatus also includes multiple valves and pipes to allow the steam to enter the chamber and steer the contaminated air towards the exit. Moreover, the application of the particular combination of 120 C and 15 minutes is not obligatory. Different combinations are used depending on the materials inside.

These conditions are maintained for about 15 minutes, which is enough time to kill every microorganism and all the spores. The process destroys the internalparts of a microorganism and effectivelyceases its existence. After the necessary time has elapsed, the steam is removed, and pressure is gradually decreased.

The process is based on displacing the contaminated air in the chamber with saturated steam and forcing this steam to persist so that the extended exposurecan ensure effective sterility. It is to be carefullynoted that the steam is neither superheated nor allowed to contain more than 5% moisture.

The procedure can be executed in two ways, formally known as autoclave cycles. The first one is Gravity or fast exhaust, in which the chamber endures high pressure and temperature for aparticular period of time; at the end of this period, the valve is opened and the chamber swiftly returns to atmospheric pressure. This method is used to clean dry goods or glassware.

The second cycle is known as Liquid or slow exhaust. The cycleprevents a sterilized liquid from boiling. The steam is exhausted slowly at the end of the cycle, gradually cooling the superheated liquid. The cycle is primarily used for liquids,as the name suggests, but it can also be used for certain other materials.

One must ensure that safety measures are religiously followed, such as the use of gloves throughout the entire procedureand avoiding harmful burns by not touching the insides of the chamber while handling the articles inside.

The instruments are sterile and disinfected until theyare utilized again. The autoclave now awaits themuntil theyre done being used. The process must provide a Sterility Assurance Level (SAL) of 10^-6 or better.

Even though the autoclave is one of the go-to techniques for sterilization,many materials are strictly recommended not to be autoclaved. These include acids, bases and organic solvents. Non-stainless steel, chlorine, seawater, sulphates, and bleach are other materials that are also highly incompatible and consequently dangerous tofeed an autoclave.

The advent of sterilizing instruments is fundamentally important in poverty-stricken countries due to their lack of excess tools, which forces them to reuseperceptibly clean tools. This act could be fatal in some instances and must be avoided at any cost.

Also, advancements in technology have led to the introduction of innovative waste converters, which can accomplish what an autoclave does without elevated pressure in order to sterilize rubber materials, such as gloves, gowns, dressings etc.

Akash Peshin is an Electronic Engineer from the University of Mumbai, India and a science writer at ScienceABC. Enamored with science ever since discovering a picture book about Saturn at the age of 7, he believes that what fundamentally fuels this passion is his curiosity and appetite for wonder.

rotary coolers

From pilot scale units, to commercial size coolers, we have the knowledge and experience to build a rotary cooler thats right for you. FEECOs rotary coolers are custom designed and built to meet the needs of your process. Whether you require short or long residence times, carbon steel or specialty steels, FEECO can design a rotary cooler for your application.

Rotary coolers work by tumbling material in a rotating drum in the presence of chilled or ambient air. The drum is set at a slight horizontal slope to allow gravity to assist in moving material through the drum. Lifting flights maximize heat transfer efficiency by lifting up material and dropping it through the chilled air as the drum rotates. Indirect water deluge coolers are also available.

All FEECO equipment and process systems can be outfitted with the latest in automation controls from Rockwell Automation. The unique combination of proprietary Rockwell Automation controls and software, combined with our extensive experience in process design and enhancements with hundreds of materials provides an unparalleled experience for customers seeking innovative process solutions and equipment.

Indirect rotary coolers rely on heat transfer through the drum shell to cool material, utilizing cool water bathed over the drum as it rotates in order to cool the drum shell and subsequently the material within. This method, commonly called indirect water deluge, is ideal in situations where lightweight materials such as pigments or other powders could become entrained in the air stream of a direct cooler, resulting in product loss.

Another reason for utilizing an indirect rotary cooler is that it allows for keeping a controlled environment within the cooler, for example, in situations where material will oxidize or burn should it come into contact with air.

Indirect rotary coolers can be designed as part of a recycle circuit, where warm water coming off the drum is run through a heat exchanger to cool it and send it back to the beginning of the process. They can also be integrated into existing systems.

Knowing When its Time to Replace Your Rotary Drum Seal, Leaf SealRotary Drum Drive ComponentsRotary Drum BreechingReplacement Rotary Drum BearingsResource of the Week: Rotary Dryer (Drier) and Cooler BrochureReplacement Drum Flights, Rotary Dryer (Drier) and Cooler FlightsReplacement Rotary Drum ShellRotary Drum Laser Alignment Process, Rotary Drum AlignmentWhy Post Maintenance Alignment is Critical to Rotary DrumsCauses of Tire (Tyre) and Trunnion Wear, Rotary Drum TireFEECO Tire (Tyre) Grinding Machine, Tire and Trunnion Grinding in ProgressRotary Drum Tire (Tyre) Wear Pattern from Excessive Wheel Skewing, Rotary Drum Tire in Need of Tire GrindingRotary Drum Tire (Tyre) Wear Pattern from Poor Housekeeping Practices, Rotary Drum Tire in Need of Tire GrindingRotary Drum Tire (Tyre) Wear Pattern from Misalignment, Rotary Drum Tire in Need of Tire GrindingRotary Drum Tire (Tyre) Wear Pattern from Using Improper Tire Lubricant, Rotary Drum Tire in Need of Tire GrindingTire (Tyre) and Trunnion Wheel GrindingTire (Tyre) and Trunnion Grinding Replacement Rotary Drum PartsRotary Drum Thrust RollersRotary Drum Trunnion Wheels (Rollers)Rotary Drum Riding Ring (Tire/Tyre)Resource of the Week: Girth Gears PageRotary Drum Knocking SystemsSpring-Mounted Replacement Rotary Drum Girth GearResource of the Week: Rotary Kiln Customization Slideshare PresentationFEECO Rotary Dryer (Drier) Flight SimulatorRotary Drum Drive BaseResource of the Week: FEECO Flight/Lifter Simulator BrochureResource of the Week: Tire Grinding BrochureResource of the Week: Unitized Drive Base BrochureRotary Cooler3D Image Showing a FEECO Rotary CoolerRotary Drum Floating Tire (Tyre) ConstructionRotary Drum Seal3D Model of a Labyrinth Seal for Rotary Drums3D Model of a Leaf Seal for Rotary Drums3D Model of a Labyrinth Seal for Rotary DrumsResource of the Week: Seal Options BrochureRoofing Granule Production EquipmentRotary Drum Ball and Tube KnockersRotary Drum Tire InspectionBenefits of Testing with the FEECO Flight Simulator for Rotary Dryers (Driers) and CoolersFEECO Unitized Drive Base for Rotary DrumsFEECO Rotary Drum Unitized Drive Base BrochureFlight Simulator Testing for Rotary Dryers (Driers) and Coolers BrochureThermal Processing Equipment InfographicBulk Solids Drying and Cooling: When to Choose RotaryRotary Drum Tire (Tyre) Washboarding, Drum Tire in Need of Tire GrindingHow do Leaf Seals WorkRotary Drum Laser Alignment3D Rotary CoolerDDGS CoolerAdvancing FlightsRotary Cooler for DDGSRotary Cooler for NickelDifferences Between FEECO Drive AssembliesRotary Cooler for Fly Ash Lightweight Aggregate (LWA) ProductionRotary Cooler for PhosphatesLimestone CoolerPotash CoolerRotary Drum Tire (Tyre) Damage, Drum Tire in Need of Tire GrindingRotary Drum Tire (Tyre) and Trunnion Wheel Grinding/ResurfacingRotary Drum Tire (Tyre) and Trunnion Wheel Wear, Drum Tire in Need of Tire GrindingDamaged Rotary Drum Tire (Tyre), Drum Tire in Need of Tire GrindingRotary Cooler for Roofing GranulesGirth Gear Run-out ProcedureRotary Drum Trunnion Wheel Skewing AdjustmentRefurbished Tire (Tyre) and Trunnion Wheel, Tire and Trunnion Wheel Refinished via Tire GrindingDamaged Thrust RollerDamaged Rotary Drum Tire (Tyre)Simplified Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for Producing Roofing Granule Production including rock dryer, pre-heater, coloring drum, rotary kiln, and coolerRotary Drums for Roofing Granule ProductionRotary Drum Tire (Tyre) Wear Patterns, Drum Tires in Need of Tire GrindingPreventing Buildup in Rotary Drums with Knocking SystemsBall & Tube Knocking Systems View All >

FEECO has been building rotary coolers since 1951. We are highly experienced in process design and material characteristics, meaning that when you buy a FEECO cooler, youre not just getting a single piece of equipment; youre getting a support system backed by over 60 years of experience.

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pneumatic vs. electric sanders - the wood whisperer

Firstly, I absolutely love your show. The reason I am writing is that I have been watching David Marks Woodworks and noticed in a couple of his episodes he uses a pneumatic power sander. There is not much literature on the web regarding these machines. I was wondering if maybe you could highlight some of the characteristics of these machines. Watching the video I could not see any visible dust collection and all I could gather about these machines is they are more powerful than the electric sanders. Thanks a lot!

To be completely honest, I actually dont have a whole lot of experience with pneumatic sanders. In fact, the only time I used one was in Davids shop. But I can still give you a some things to think about. There are a few key differences between pneumatic and electric sanders that may or may not matter to you. Pneumatics are generally lighter. After all, theres no motor. As a result, they can also be quieter and longer lasting. The tools themselves are usually much cheaper too. That is, on a tool for tool basis they are cheaper (again, no motor). But obviously to use a pneumatic tool, youre gonna need a big daddy air compressor. The smaller units will cycle repeatedly which will ultimately kill the compressor. And from what I hear, pneumatic sanders can also be more powerful than our standard electric sanders.

Now one big disadvantage that I see is the one you mentioned: dust collection. Although I have seen a few models on the market that have a connector for the dust. For most of us these days, good dust collection is a must-have. So thats something to keep in mind. Ultimately, if you already own a big compressor, or if you envision yourself using other air-sucking tools like die grinders, air guns, and conversion spray guns, the pneumatics might just be a good choice.

The way I see it is its kind of like saying go hard or go home and its like if you want to use air sanders its easier to load up on air tools because your gonna need a big compressor. If you have a smaller compressor say under 25 gallons then its going to be turning on every few minutes and that costs more money for the electricity to run the compressor then it does to use an electric sander. It also wears your compressor down

Ive got a pneumatic sander and I only use it for auto body work. When I do, I jump a 35 gallon Campbell Hausfeld to a Dewalt 30 gallon. The thing runs like a wild man but I dont like beating on my compressors like that. I think I have six or seven of the dam things and Im always working on or the other. If Im woodworking, which is typical, I run the 20v Dewalt random orbital and If I need to remove material quickly I fire up the Stanley belt sander that you can ride across the floor. Think it was built in 72 but I rebuilt it a couple years ago. The pneumatic sanders can really move, just depends on the workpiece. Also air hoses suck. My boss when I was a kid said,If Im in a airplane thats gonna crash, dont give me a parachute, give me an air hoseits bound to catch on something.

This is a great question. Id like to add that a pneumatic sander is primarily beneficial to the industrial woodworker who already has a big compressor. Theyre really cool (love that Monster Garage whirrrr-ing sound!), but in general a pneumatic sander is just not realistic for the hobbyist or even a daily woodworker due to that whole needs-a-pretty-big-compressor requirement. Your $69 Porter-Cable or similar brand random orbit sander will last a long time in the care of recreational woodworkers.

There is always a tradeoff between using electric vs. pneumatic. Pneumatic has advantages in a higher volume production shop and is commonly used in industry. You must have an affordable source of a large volume of compressed dry air to make it worthwhile. For most woodworkers, electric or battery is the best financial option. They are readily available and affordably priced.

I imagine car geeks are a lot more prone to have pneumatic wood toold, because they likely have other air tools already setup impact wrenches, etc. I have a smallish compressor to operate a few mail guns. I would take the sound of a spinning motor over the sound of that compressor charging any day of the week, and twice on Sunday.

The pneumatics never break down, since there are no motors in them; and because the air coming out of a compressor is super cooled, the machines never overheat (the biggest cause of electric tool failure).

If youre serious about your craft, you need to get serious about pneumatics. I even have a pneumatic chainsaw now. Get a compressor with at least an 11 scfm rating so you can scale up as needed. Expect to pay at least $600-$1000 or find a used one on craiglist for $300 or so.

Yeah find a rusted, clapped out piece of garbage on Craigs list. Theyre a real treat when they blow up. For my money you cant beat the brushless technology that is fairly common today. I still use my pneumatics when Im wrenching on a vehicle, I use my compressors with my hvlp spray guns, but so many of these new brushless tools are game changers. Not to mention the convenience of not having to worry about hoses or air leaks. Gets old dragging that hose around all daydamn air hose will get caught up on a peanut shellor anything on the floor for that matter.

I have used both pneumatic and power sanders for many hours. Obviously they both have advantages and disadvantages but ultimately I like the pneumatic better. I am a little spoiled with a very large compressor. I am a hobbyist turned pro turned back to hobbyist. During my pro days I was able to accumulate some nice equipment. If I didnt have that luxury I would have stuck with the Festool I purchased at one point.

Im not sure where people get pneumatic sanders for half the cost of an electric though. To purchase a nice new one runs at least $140. There are many random orbit electric sanders for half that price.

There arent many good random orbital sanders for no 140 bucks, my Festool 150 Rotex was like 650 bucks, their cordless 5 RO is north of I think 600 as well with two battery packs and all that, you can get a killer pneumatic Mirka for just over 200. To get anywhere near the performance of a Mirka air sander your options are really Mirka Electric or Cordless sanders or Festool, seems over the long haul, buying a compressor that will run a Pneumatic sander would ultimately save you money. Not sure about you but I have 5 different sanders, linear sander, 6 rotex, 5 RO cordless, Festool RO 90 Rotex, 1 1/2 Mirka, total cost was north of 2K for sure, seems I could get a 1000 dollar or so range compressor and comparable set of tools for perhaps a little less, guess it comes down to which is preferred but if the carbon footprint is less it leans to air tools, too late for me, too heavily invested in Festool at this point.

If I had the room I would probably switch, I have the air but like Marc mentioned there is a problem with dust control. Typically in larger shops pneumatic tools are used in conjuction with large down draft tables to handle the dust. No room in my closet for one of those so

From a hobbyist standpoint: given a small shop, the compressor size required to run many air tools is often the choke point. Then, theres the fact you need to either run air lines (metal or hose) or have a way of getting the air in a portable fashion to the tool. Images of air hose snaking across, over, and through tools cause me to shudder.

If, however, you plan on setting up shop in the garage, you can feasibly get a larger tank that can be mounted (or stored, if it has wheels) in the corner. YOu could put the dust collection nearby, or in the opposite corner, so you dont lose too much space. The benefit of going large tank in the garage is you can use it for other purposes. (car repairs, filling tires or pool toys, etc.)

My big concern is the dust collection. my understanding of the way air tools work is that the air flows from the tank, through the tool, and out across the work surface. Helpful when you are worried about project visibility. but this will scatter dust around unless, as mentioned earlier, you use a downdraft table. A serious air filtration unit would probably not be a bad idea, either.

I ruled it out for my shop for the time being. Three reasons: price is out of my budget for the next year or two, space requirements are more than what I have right now, and health hazards with the dust control issues. (Im not far from serious need of a serious dust collector, as I have found more dust than I was comfortable with in the filter of my furnace.) But thats me. You may have different concerns. (By the way, Handy Magazine had an article on running air lines last year. I found it helpful in coming to my decision.)

I have managed several shops where sanders were used hours on end every day. What I learned is that pneumatic sanders were able to handle this work load with very few breakdowns. On the other hand, an electric sander of the type used by woodworkers, would burn out in just a week. I would think the average woodworker would not require the extra durability that a pneumatic sander offers. Also considering the cost of not only the sander, but the air lines, large compressor, and air dryer, I would think the average woodworker would not be able to justify changing to a pneumatic sander.

Hey guys, great topic. As with most of us I have a small compressor for pin nailers, staple guns and blowing up the odd basketball. I manage an automotive repair center and its air tools all the way. But what we have found is that along with large volumes of clean dry air, we also needed a constant supply of lubrication for the air tools or they would not stand up.(and these are all Snap-on tools) We needed to have an oiler installed in the main line. My concern though, is this very light oil film going to be coming out the tools exhaust port contaminating the work surface and possibly posing finishing problems later on ?

Since I work in a fairly large professional shop and have a more than adequate supply of air, its a no-brainer for us. Everyone has pneumatic sanders, everything from high-end Dyna-brade to the cheapest thing from the discount houses. As has been mentioned, the pneumatic stuff holds up very well. Some of the cheaper units have been around there for years. As I would expect with electrics too, the biggest difference you notice between them is in vibration. The more expensive models dont vibrate your hand as much. My favorite feature of pneumatic sanders is the ability to slow them down. IMHO most of the electics run too fast. Of course some guys run the air powered units on full blast too? Running slower does several good things. It is easier on the sandpaper to start with. It lasts longer and doesnt create nearly as much heat. It also doesnt fling the dust around as much. It also gives me a better feel as far as what is actually happening. This ruduces the potential for the pig-tail scratches.

There is however a place for electrics. Once in a while we make and install a Solid Surface (Corian,etc) counter top that requires a field seam. Since this to be glued and finished on-site.no air. That is when the Festool comes to the rescue.

Hi all, I in a past life I sold and repaired power and electric tools in a small tool shop in South Australia most air tools have a CFM rating on the box or in the paper work and should not exceed your air compressor pump

A good quality pneumatic sander has a much better dust collection capabilities. I have 150mm sanders with 21 hole pads. They hook up to any standard dust extraction and if you couple this with the Abranet sanding disc system, you get little or no dust remaining on the part you are sanding and more importantly, in the air.

Oh and a final note, most hobby compressors are set up to run at 8bar. However, on most compressors the parts (check your equipment first) are rated to happily run at 10bar. so you can crank the pressure up which will give you an effective larger volume. run through a regulator and dropped to around 5bar will power most tools effectively without having to shell out for a larger compressor.

hello lex this is john from scotland i have just bought an areo elite for polishing and some sanding of table tops that have a very high gloss finish. i have a rigid twin tank 5 gall will this work if i follow your 8 bar / 10 bar procedure.

When working with wood such as pine, I usually stop at 220 and then use 320 to 600 between finish coats. However, I made a small weather station out of maple the other day and since I was only finishing with beeswax, I decided to sand up to 1200 before applying the wax. The pores being sealed, the wood had less tendancy to absorb too much wax and I was able to really polish it out. I love the finish and I find myself passing my hand on it whenever I walk by it.

I made the rookie mistake of buying a pneumatic sander thinking I could use it with my 6 gallon pancake compressor. HA! What WAS I thinking??? The motor runs constantly and there isnt enough CFMs to sand anything under any pressure.

Just to chime in on a long inactive thread, I WISH that I could afford to run air sanders in my shop. The vibration of the electric models makes them harder to control and makes my hand very tired. I signed up for open woodworking evening class at my local community college so that I would have access to air sanders, multi-routers, lathes and a thickness sander. This way I get the Cadillac tools without finding space in my shop or wallet. Also, I love the variable speed capabilities on the pneumatic sanders!

I used electric random orbit sands for a few years making airplane propellers. Electrics are heavy and not maneuverable. I ended up with carpel tunnel. I used a pneumatic at a factory woodworker once and right then decided the 60 gallon 2 stage compressor was worth getting.

The killer reason to get a pneumatic sanding set up is that you can wet sand lacquer finishes. I spray pre-cat lacquer and finish it with 1000G Abralon sanding pads which must be used with a lubricant. I use water. This gets the little nibs that always wind up in the dried finish. It also makes a consistent satin sheen a snap. Before, I struggled with Scotch-Brite pads, steel wool, fiber wool, Abranet in an attempt to finish the finish. This has been a huge advance for my finishing.

Personally, I go with electric, partly because I am cheap. It takes considerably more electricity to run pneumatic tools than electric tools. Yes, the pneumatic tools are cheaper, but the infrastructure is pretty expensive even without the electric to air power penalty.

I already have a large air compressor and have been contemplating getting a pneumatic sander. I am not familiar with the different brands of pneumatic tools and was wondering if there were any suggestions for a random orbit sander as well as a belt sander. I would much rather move my sanding to the garage to cut down on dust inside the house and the the compressor is already out there.

Tim Ive been looking at the BelAire 318VN. Its 5-HP 80-Gallon Two-Stage Air Compressor (208-230V 1-Phase) Copy and paste success. Its about $1600 from aircompressorsdirect.com. My random orbit sander says it wants 13 scfm. This compressor can do that and then some, giving you headroom as guitarists would say. Im having a hard time justifying the expense. After you buy it and the inevitable lift-gate service ($75) you still need to wire the thing. I guess not everybody has a 100 foot run of 8/3 bx cable to consider. Thats $200! Anyway the costs keep adding up, air lines, dryers, oilers, filters, sound proofing maybe I have been spoiled by working in large shops all my life and now setting up my own its hard to break away from being able to do nearly anything. I still think about that giant martin sliding table saw. drool

One huge advantage to pneumatic sanders is the lower centre of Gravity, and the way your hand is closer to the workpiece. The difference between a pneumatic and an electric, eggagerated, is like trying to sand with a sander on a 3 pole. The farther your control surface is from the sanding surface the more difficult it is to get fine control.

I am considering going for some pneumatic tools if I can find a sturdy old compressor. They tend to come and go for good prices so its likely I will do so once I find the right one. I missed a good one going for 200 euros.

Quick question: I notice everyone mention in the comments to be sure that your compressor can handle the air sander. I have a 35gal Craftsman vertical in the garage shop. Is this large enough for an air sander? If not what would you recommend? Which air sanders are the best investments?

My understanding is that its best to have an oil-lubricated, double stage compression tank with a minimum of 9CFM. Is all of that required to run a good quality air sander or is that only if you want the best-of-the-best?

I love pneumatic sanders, theyre up to speed nearly instantly whereas my old electric random orbital seems to take a while to spin up. Theyre signicantly lighter and more agile so if youre sanding fiddle items theyre amazing and give you way more feel. Ive used both a lot and yes, I burnt out a small air compressor lately however had no hesitation in dropping a small fortune on a new industrial air compressor as the benefits of the sanders outweighs the cost significantly to me. Oh and mine has a good dust collector also.

I bought a $33 Harbor Freight pneumatic sander with a vacuuming/dust collection system built in. It uses the exhaust air to suck the dust through a hose into a bag. I attached the hose up to my shop vac and it works even better that way. Im using the Makita MAC5200 air compressor which does drop in pressure if Im sanding continuously but it can still keep up enough to make it effective. Pneumatic tools cost more to run than electric since compressed air is inherently inefficient but I like the fact that a $33 sander does a decent job and I can easily control the speed, and quickly swap it out for a blow gun or other tool if needed. The downside is that all the air accessories like filters, driers, hoses, in-line lubricator, valves, etc. add up in expense. The MAC5200 is probably the most powerful truly portable compressor and its my first real compressor coming from a hotdog/pancake style one. Since getting this, I have to say having compressed air available is awesome. Im not a woodworker and am currently repainting metal electric heater covers but on this job Ive used air for sanding them and cleaning them using this $20 engine cleaning gun that sprays liquid/solvents at high pressure. I also used a pneumatic caulking gun to seal the gutters at this house. I have to say its incredibly convenient other than the high start up cost for all the equipment to produce clean, dry air. Bottom line it depends how much work youre going to be doing and also if you have other pneumatic tools (or have been wanting to buy them + have a need for them). You can also usually find decent used compressors and sometimes tools and air accessories on Craigslist and Facebook marketplace. The most important specification for an air compressor is the CFM cubic feet per minute, which is rated usually at 90 and 40psi. The tank size in gallons usually correlates to CFM (or air delivery) but you can also find models like mine with a small tank but powerful motor.

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the 6 most common compressed air drying methods | vmac

Water is a challenge in every air compressor system. As air is compressed, water is brought into the air stream. During cooling, that water condenses and is mixed with the compressed air thats delivered to your tool or application. Some water is okay for most applications but too much water can be a problem. Thats where air drying comes in.

A heat transfer will occur between two bodies of different temperature until temperature equilibrium is reached. This transfer of heat can take place in three different ways and, generally, these take place simultaneously:

An aftercooler is a heat exchanger used to cool compressed air and minimize moisture within the system. Reduced compressed air temperatures cause water and oil droplets to precipitate out of the air, and these liquid contaminants are typically collected and drained off with a moisture separation device and drain trap (either mechanical or timed).

The air-cooled aftercooler looks very much like a car radiator, and acts like one as well. However, rather than coolant filling the interior tubes, the hot compressed air enters the bottom of the air-cooled aftercooler and tube system, discharging through the upper discharge port into a moisture separator. Some aftercoolers use electrical powered 12V or 24V fans to push air through the system. The tubes have fins, or metal plates, between them to increase their surface area and dissipate the heat more effectively.

Water-cooled after-coolers do the exact same thing as air-cooled aftercoolers, only with much more control of the discharge air temperatures. The primary difference between air-cooled and water-cooled after-coolers is that there is a flow of liquid coolant flowing in a shell and tube or a plate-fin design heat exchanger absorbing the heat of compression from the compressed air volume.

The storage tank cooling method of drying air uses an air receiver tank to turn some of the moisture that may be present in the air into water droplets as the air comes from the compressor or that may be carried over from the aftercooler.

As soon as air leaving the aftercooler enters the receiver tank, it comes into contact with the cooler steel wall of the tank, which is usually at ambient temperature. At this point, moisture starts to condense out of the compressed air as the air chills.

If the air is stored in the tank for enough time, the temperature of the air in the tank will be the same as the ambient temperature, and no more moisture will condense out. At this point, the air in the receiver tank is 100% saturated at a dewpoint equal to atmospheric temperature, which results in water formation.

Its important that this water is drained out of the air receiver tank after each use. The storage of condensation and moisture in air receiver tanks leads to the formation of rust and scale on the inside of the tank, which can become loose and get carried down-stream in the outgoing air. The water can also freeze in colder temperatures. This rust, scale, and ice can cause problems of blockage in air-using components and premature blockage of filters.

There are two types of refrigerated air dryers: Cycling and Noncycling. Both types use a refrigeration system to cool the compressed air to a temperature as close to freezing as possible in order to condense out as much water as possible.

In a refrigeration system, hot compressed air enters the air-to-air heat exchanger and flows down the inner tube of a tube-in-tube bundle. The incoming hot air is re-chilled by the air travelling in the outer tube, which has been cooled by the refrigeration section.

As the air cools, water vapor condenses into liquid droplets. The condensed liquid droplets are then removed from the air stream in a separator and automatically discharged to drain by an automatic condensate drain trap. This pre-chilling is done to allow for the use of a smaller refrigeration unit, and increase the efficiency of the dryer package.

As the air continues to cool, water vapor again condenses into liquid droplets. The condensed liquid droplets are then removed from the air stream in another separator and automatically discharged to drain by an automatic condensate drain trap.

Finally, the air passes through the secondary side of the air-to-air heat exchanger, where it is re-heated by the incoming hot air. The re-heating of the outgoing air is to prevent downstream pipe sweating, and increasing the effective volume of the air, enabling it to do more work. It also will take longer for a pipe exposed to cool atmospheric temperatures to drop from the re-heated temperature to a point less than +38F.

Another common way to dry air is through absorption. With absorption drying, incoming air enters the vessel near the base and passes through a mechanical separation section. Due to expansion, the free liquids and solids drop to the bottom of the vessel. To some degree, this constitutes a pre-drying of the air.

The air then enters the desiccant bed of deliquescent materials, such as water-soluble salts or shotted urea. These hygroscopic chemicals condense water vapor as they deliquesce or dissolve the liquid.

The process of adsorption begins as the water vapor, which is more highly concentrated in the compressed air stream, moves into an area of lower water vapor concentration in the pores of the desiccant.

Once inside the pores, a natural attraction of the vapor molecules to the solid surface of the desiccant causes water vapor molecules to build up on the surface of the desiccant. As enough molecules gather, vapor changes phase and becomes a liquid. The process continues as long as the concentration of water vapor in the air is greater than the concentration in the desiccant pores.

The water remains on the surface of the desiccant until it is stripped off. This stripping is called reactivating or regenerating the desiccant. By doing this, the desiccant may be used again and again.

Dual tower desiccant air dryers go by many names, including pressure swing, regenerative, and instrument air dryers. Both heated and heatless models are available. Despite the varied terminology, all desiccant dryers offer a continuous supply of dry compressed air by using two identical towers that each contain a bed of desiccant beads.

While one tower is on stream drying the compressed air, the other tower is off stream so the desiccant in that tower can be regenerated. The regeneration of the desiccant bed is accomplished by expanding some of the dried air to near atmospheric pressure and directing it across the wet desiccant bed. This swing in pressure produces expanded air, called purge air, with a very low water vapor concentration.

Imagine that the air being used for the purge flow is 80 F and has a dewpoint of -40F at 100 psig. This purge air is then expanded from 100 psig to a couple of pounds pressure, heated to a temperature of between 350-600 F, and passed counter currently through the wet desiccant bed. The moisture holding capability of this superheated, dry expanded air is extremely high.

The vapor pressure of the hot air is so low in comparison to that of the desiccant that the moisture moves from the area of higher vapor pressure (the desiccant) to that of the lower vapor pressure (the hot purge air).The purge air stream then carries the water vapor out of the dryer.

Dual tower desiccant air dryers are typically used to dry instrument air and process air, as well as air in applications where airlines are exposed to low ambient temperatures, below 32F, and in other critical applications. Typical dewpoints produced by these types of dryers are -40F to -100F, although lower dewpoints are possible.

As the compressed air passes through a bundle of tiny hollow (polysulfone) membrane fibers, water vapor and a portion of the compressed air flow diffuses through the semi permeable membrane walls while the dried air continues downstream.

The water vapor which has been separated from the compressed air by the differential gas pressure on the inside and outside of the hollow fibers, is purged out of the housing by the sweep air (purge air).

The membrane dryer must be used only with clean, oil free air. It must have a coalescing prefilter installed ahead of the dryer to remove any liquid water, oil and aerosol contaminants from the compressed air stream, as these would block the permeation of the fibers, reducing the performance of the dryer.

These dryers are point-of-use dryers and are sized for low capacities compared to other dryer types. The membrane dryer can be connected in parallel to increase the capacity beyond that of the single dryer.

how anaesthesia vaporisers work explained simply

A much more acceptable way is to convert the liquid inhalational agent into a form that can be delivered by the inhalational route to the patient. The most convenient way is to deliver the vapour form of the liquid inhalational agent. A device which converts liquid to vapour is called a vaporiser.

If you take a gas, and compress it really hard, the particles that compose it are brought ever so close to each other. As you keep compressing , the particles will at some point coalesce and convert the gas into liquid. However, if the gas is above a certain temperature, called a critical temperature, whatever amount of pressure you apply, that gas will not become a liquid. This temperature is called critical temperature and every gas has its particular critical temperature.

Let us take isoflurane as a example. The critical temperature of isoflurane is about 200 degrees centigrade. Therefore, at room temperature (e.g. 21 degrees centigrade), the gaseous phase of isoflurane would be called isoflurane vapour .

Fresh gas enters the inlet of the vaporiser and is divided into two flow pathways. The splitting valve, depending on the setting of the control dial, adjusts how much goes through each of the pathways. The fresh gas that is sent along the by pass pathway doesnt come into contact with any vapor. On the other hand, the fresh gas that is sent to the vaporising chamber becomes fully saturated with vapor. At the exit end of the vaporiser, the by pass gas (vaporless) meets the chamber gas (fully saturated with vapor) and the two mix. The resultant output depends on how much of fresh gas went though each of the pathways.

You have seen that the anaesthetic concentration that is output by the vaporiser is determined by the ratio of fresh gas flow that goes through the vaporising chamber and the fresh gas flow that goes through the bypass pathway. This ratio is called the splitting ratio.

However, in the basic design, this vaporisation is not very efficient. If one uses a high fresh gas flow, the vaporisation process cant keep up with so much gas arriving into the vaporisation chamber. The result is that, relative to the high flow of fresh gas flow, the amount of anaesthetic vaporised is inadequate. So this means that at high flows, the basic vaporiser delivers less anaesthetic concentration than is set on the dial.

The solution employed by modern vaporisers to solve this problem is to make the vaporisation much more efficient by increasing the surface area of contact between the fresh gas and anesthetic agent. So even when there are high flows, the efficient vaporisation means that all gas going through the vaporisation chamber is fully saturated. Because of this ability to saturate fresh gas at all flow rates, the output concentration remains accurate to the setting on the dial over a wide range of flows. I.e. The output concentration is independent of flow.

One method that vaporisers use to increase the efficiency of vaporisation is to dip wicks into the anaesthetic agent. Due to capillary action, the anaesthetic agent rises into the wicks. This dramatically increases the surface area of anaesthetic agent exposed to the fresh gas entering the vaporisation chamber and thereby improves the efficiency of vaporisation.

Certain vaporisers (e.g. Copper Kettle) use bubbles to increase the surface area for vaporisation. In these, some of the fresh gas flow is bubbled through a disk made out of a special material (sintered disk) that is very porous. The disk is submerged into the anaesthetic agent and when fresh gas is sent through it, a large number of tiny bubbles form. The tiny bubbles of fresh gas have a very large total surface and thus become fully saturated with vapor efficiently.

As more and more molecules escape, more and more energy is lost from the liquid. The temperature of a liquid is a measurement of how much heat energy the liquid has. Therefore, as the escaping molecules reduce the energy left in the liquid, the temperature of the liquid falls.

In most vaporisers, we dont actually give heat actively. That is, we dont electrically heat it (complicated and needs a power supply) and nor do we light a fire under it (absolutely dangerous). Instead, we make it easy for the vaporiser to use heat from the surrounding air.

The metal helps to minimise the temperature drop by two ways. Firstly metal is a very good conductor of heat and therefore is able to efficiently transfer heat from the surrounding air into the anesthetic agent.

In between your anaesthetic, when you turn the vaporiser off and have coffee before your next case, the metal will continue to absorb heat from the surroundings and its temperature will rise, ready to donate heat when you turn the vaporiser on again.

So in summary, the metal provides heat to minimise the temperature drop by two ways. One way is by donating heat to the fluid (yellow arrows) and the other way is by conducting heat (red arrows) from the surrounding air.

When the temperature of the liquid agent drops, we have seen that the output concentration of the vaporiser drops. A way of compensating for that problem is to increase the flow of gas via the vaporising chamber (altering the splitting ratio). One could manually do this by measuring the temperature of the liquid with a thermometer and increasing the dial setting according to some kind of reference chart. This would be quite tedious as you would have to do it all the time. Modern vaporisers have removed the hard work. When the liquid drops its temperature, the flow of gas through the vaporising chamber is automatically increased without you having to turn the dial.

The automatic temperature compensating valve uses the physical property that substances (e.g. metals and liquids ) become smaller when the temperature lowers. A metal rod (shown in black below) shortens as the temperature drops. Similarly, a liquid filled in collapsing bellows (shown in green below) becomes smaller in volume when cooled to a lower temperature.

This property is used in the design of automatic temperature compensating valves in vaporisers. In the design that uses a metal rod, the rod offers some resistance to flow into the vaporising chamber. As the vaporiser cools, the rod becomes shorter, making the valve move away from the opening. This reduces the resistance to flow and thus more flow occurs into the vaporising chamber.

Some vaporisers use the expansion or contraction property of a special liquid inside bellows (shown in green) to control the valve. As the temperature falls, the liquid in the bellows contracts into a smaller volume. This makes the bellows shrink, pulling the valve away and thereby increase flow.

Another method uses a bi metallic strip. Different metals expand and contract to differing extents when exposed to temperature changes. In the example below, the green metal expands and contracts less than the red metal.

In a bimetallic strip, two metals with very different degrees of thermal expansion ( different coefficients of thermal expansion ) are fixed together. In the example below, when the temperature drops, the green metal contracts much more than the red metal. Because they are fixed together, they cannot contract independently, like in the diagram above. Instead, the green metal tries to drag the red metal and causes the bimetallic strip to bend.

In the vaporiser, the bimetallic strip is fixed in such a way that it offers a resistance to flow entering the vaporising chamber. When the temperature of the vaporising chamber drops, the bimetallic bends and moves away. This reduces the resistance to flow and thus more flow occurs into the vaporising chamber.

Positive pressure ventilation result in intermittent pressure changes. During the positive pressure, there is a pressure rise and during expiration, there is a sharp drop in pressure. These pressure changes can be transmitted back into the vaporiser and can affect the concentration of anaesthetic agent delivered. The effect of changing pressure affecting the output of the vaporiser is called the pumping effect. In this section, this effect and the methods used by vaporiser designers to prevent it from happening are explained. Below is shown a basic vaporiser and beyond it a bag to represent positive pressure ventilation.

When the bag is squeezed (positive pressure ventilation), pressure is transmitted back into the vaporiser as shown below. This back pressure is transmitted to both, the by pass channel and also to the vaporising chamber. This back pressure opposes the flow of the fresh gas in both the by pass channel and the vaporising chamber. The fresh gas entering the vaporiser tries to move forward and gets compressed both in the by pass channel and the vaporising chamber. However, the vaporising chamber volume is much larger than the by pass channel volume, and thus, more fresh gas gets compressed into it than into the by pass channel.

Normally, a vaporiser by pass channel does not have vapor. So this vapor due the pumping effect is additional. When this by pass vapor flows across to the exit of the vaporiser, it meets the vapor from the vaporising chamber. The addition of the by pass vapor to the vapor from the vaporising chamber raises the final concentration of anaesthetic delivered. i.e. The pumping effect increases the delivered concentration of anaesthetic agent.

The vaporiser inlet tube can be made longer. When the back pressure is suddenly released during expiration, as discussed before, the extra gas in the vaporising chamber will suddenly expand. However, thanks to the long inlet tubing, the extra gas containing vapor expands into the long inlet tube and doesnt reach the by pass channel.

A one way valve (also called unidirectional valve) can be put between the vaporiser outlet and the ventilator / breathing system. On way valves allow flow in one direction, but not in the other. In the diagram below, the one way valve is allowing gases to flow forwards.

The process of evaporation in a closed container will proceed until there are as many molecules returning to the liquid as there are escaping (equilibrium). At this point the vapor is said to be saturated, and the pressure exerted by the vapor (usually expressed in mmHg) is called the saturated vapor pressure.

Since the molecules move faster (more kinetic energy) at higher temperature, more molecules can escape the surface and the saturated vapor pressure is correspondingly higher. i.e. higher the temperature, higher is the saturated vapor pressure.

An operating room temperature is not perfectly constant. It keeps changing slightly depending on various factors including the number of medical students (young body heat) watching the surgery. These changes in operating room temperature then change the temperature of vaporisers present in that room. As discussed elsewhere, the standard vaporisers try to resist changes in temperature (e.g. by having thick metal construction). However, these mechanisms are not perfect and in practice small changes in vaporiser temperature still occur. This is not a big problem with anaesthetic agents such as Isoflurane or Sevoflurane which have a relatively less steep Vapor Pressure versus Temperature curves. In them, small temperature changes will lead to only small changes in vapor pressure and this can be compensated by mechanisms such a the bimetallic strip. With Desflurane, with its steep Vapor Pressure versus Temperature curve, even these small temperature changes can cause large changes in vapor pressure which cannot be compensated for with simple devices such a bimetallic strip. So a whole new vaporiser design had to be made.

The solution chosen for the problem is to have a vaporiser that heats the Desflurane to a very precisely controlled temperature that is not affected by changes in room temperature. The heated vapor is then injected into the fresh gas flow.

You will recall that standard vaporisers work by splitting the fresh gas flow into two pathways, one going through the vaporising chamber and picking up anaesthetic agent and the other by passes the chamber and thus has no anaesthetic. The two streams then mix at the end of the vaporiser to give the final concentration of anaesthetic.

The desflurane vaporiser works differently. It injects the anesthetic agent directly into the fresh gas flow. In this method, the fresh gas flow coming from the flow meters does not split into two streams. There is only one stream for the fresh gas flow, and into this stream, the anaesthetic agent is directly injected.

There is a tank (sump) which contains desflurane which is electrically heated to a highly controlled constant temperature (approximately 40 degrees C). Because of the heat, the liquid Desflurane becomes gaseous Desflurane at a pressure of about two atmospheres (about 1500 mmHg or 200 kPa). This Desflurane gas is injected into the fresh gas flow.

The amount of Desflurane concentration in the fresh gas is controlled by the dial setting set by you. The dial moves a valve which varies the resistance to Desflurane flow from the tank to the fresh gas.

Similarly, if you decreased the fresh gas flow, but didnt decrease the injection rate, the emerging mixture again will be inaccurate. This time, there will be relatively more anaesthetic agent , making the mixture higher than intended.

One solution would be for you to manually adjust the dial setting to match the fresh gas flow. For low flows, you will have to reduce the dial setting to reduce the rate of Desflurane injection, and for high fresh gas flows, you will need to do the opposite. This would be really tedious in our modern times. Fortunately, the Desflurane vaporiser automatically adjusts the rate of injection of desflurane to match the flow rate, and thus keeps the delivered concentration constant.

The vaporising chamber is electrically heated (3). Using sensors for feedback, the temperature is kept very constant. The heating causes the Desflurane to become a gas under pressure (4) and this travels down pipe (5).

The flow of Desflurane is resisted by two valves (6,13). Valve (6) is the valve that you control when you set the dial to a particular concentration. When you increase the concentration setting, the valve (6) opens a bit and lowers the resistance, allowing more Desflurane to flow through. Valve (13) is an electronically controlled valve. Computer (12), the vaporisers brain, is able to also alter the flow of Desflurane by controlling the valve (13). i.e. both you and the computer can adjust the desflurane injection rate. The Desflurane then goes via pipe (7) and meets the fresh gas at (8). The Desflurane mixes with the fresh gas (8) and a final concentration emerges from the exit of the vaporiser (9).

Now we can discuss how the vaporiser, to keep the output concentration accurate, adjusts the Desflurane flow when the fresh gas flow changes. As explained before, the fresh gas flows in pipe (2). This pipe has a fixed resistance (10) in its path. For the fresh gas flow to overcome this resistance (10), the pressure in pipe (2) rises. Higher the fresh gas flow in pipe (2), higher will be the pressure rise in pipe (2) since more flow has to occur through the same fixed resistance (10).

Similarly, when the fresh gas flow is decreased, the lesser flow will find it easier to go through the fixed resistance and the pressure in pipe (2) drops. It is important to remember that the pressure in pipe (2) is proportional to the fresh gas flow going through it. Higher the flow, higher is the pressure in pipe (2). Lower the flow, lower is the pressure.

Device (11) is called a differential pressure transducer. It has a diaphragm that on one side is exposed to the pressure in pipe (2) carrying fresh gas and the other side of the diaphragm is exposed to the pressure in pipe (5) carrying Desflurane. When the pressure is equal on both sides of the diaphragm, it lies in a neutral position. i.e. pressure P 1 equals pressure P 2.

If one side of the diaphragm is at a higher pressure than the other side, the pressure difference makes the diaphragm move. In this way, the differential pressure transducer (11) is able to measure the pressure difference between the fresh gas flow pipe (2) and the Desflurane flow pipe (5). It continuously keeps the computer (12) informed about pressure difference information.

Now let us see how the vaporiser copes when the fresh gas flow is increased. The fresh gas flow has been increased by you (1). Increased fresh gas flow flows through pipe (2) and meets fixed resistance (10). The increased flow through the fixed resistance (10) makes the pressure in the pipe (2) to rise and this pressure is experienced by the differential pressure transducer (11). Since the desflurane pressure in pipe (5) is now lower than the fresh gas pressure in pipe (2), the diaphragm in the differential pressure transducer (11) moves and a signal about the pressure difference is sent to the computer (12).

The computer (12), acts on the information provided by the differential pressure transducer. It proceeds to increase the flow of desflurane to inject into the increased fresh gas flow. It commands the electronically controlled valve (13) to reduce the resistance to flow. As the valve (13) opens up and lowers the resistance, the Desflurane flow increases.

The increased flow of Desflurane causes the pressure in pipe (5) to rise. This pressure rise pushes the diaphragm of the differential transducer back to its neutral position (11). The differential transducer (11) informs the computer (12) that the diaphragm is in the neutral position. The computer (12) is now happy that it has increased the flow of desflurane sufficiently to match the increased fresh gas flow rate and it therefore stops further opening of valve (13). Since the two flows are matched, the output concentration (9) does not change despite the increased fresh gas flow. If you again change the fresh gas flow rate, the system will again adjust the desflurane injection rate.

Many anesthetic machines have more than one vaporiser attached so that one has a choice of inhalational agents to use. However, it is important that only one vaporiser be used at a given time to avoid overdose with different vapors going into the patient simultaneously. There are many different safety mechanisms available which prevents more than one vaporiser to be used simultaneously. I describe one such system below. Please note that your anesthesia machine may use a different system.

On the other hand, if any of the pins are pushed in (i.e. by another vaporiser) this locks the vaporiser dial in the OFF position. When the pin is no longer pushed in, the dial once again becomes unlocked and can be turned.

When one vaporiser is turned on, it protrudes its pins which then pushes in the pins of adjacent vaporisers and locks them. When this vaporiser is turned off, its pins retract and releases the pins on the adjacent vaporisers and thereby unlocks them. In this way, only one dial can be turned on at a given time.

It is important to fill the correct agent into the correct vaporiser. If a wrong agent is filled into a vaporiser, you will be giving the wrong drug, and worse, since vaporiser designs for different agents vary, you may seriously overdose your patient.

Modern vaporisers have special filling systems specific for each anaesthetic agent to prevent inadvertent filling with an wrong agent. Think of it as a lock and key system, i.e. a particular key will fit only a specific lock.

There are various systems in use. In the system below, the Isoflurane filler (key) has a notch in a corner. This fits perfectly with the filling hole in the Isoflurane vaporiser. The filling hole has pin at the corner over which the notch of the Isoflurane filler key can pass over.

A different anaesthetic agent such as Halothane (not commonly used anymore) has a different filling key. In this case, the key has a notch at the side instead of at the corner. So the Halothane filler key will not fit into the Isoflurane vaporiser filling hole.

The Isoflurane bottle has notches in them arranged in a way that is specific for Isoflurane. The Isoflurane key filler has specific corresponding cuts where the notches of the bottle will fit. This makes sure that you cannot fix the wrong filler key into the wrong bottle.

We have now reached the end of our discussion on anaesthesia vaporisers. I hope it has given you a good introduction to the subject and will help you when you read further on this topic. Bye and see you soon at another topic !

how home ventilation works | hometips

A little humidity is important to comfort in a home, particularly in winter. But too much vapor, combined with fumes from synthetic materials, pesticides, cleansers, and household chemicals can make a houses air not only uncomfortable but downright toxic. The answer? Ventilation. Houses need to breathe. They should draw in fresh air and exhaust stale air. In fact, some experts recommend that one half of a homes air volume should be exchanged every hour.Many appliances and vents combine to properly ventilate a home. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsYou can encourage ventilation, of course, by opening the doors and windows. But the trick is to provide needed ventilation without sending expensive home-heating and cooling energy dollars out the window.A house accomplishes this feat by having the proper type and combination of vents and fans in unoccupied portions of the housesuch as attic and crawlspaceand by venting specific areas of the interior with kitchen range hoods, bathroom fans, whole-house fans, and similar appliances. Following is a closer look at some of the vents that are helpful.Home Exhaust VentsExhaust vents help warm air flow out from the roof. Types of exhaust vents include:Ridge vent.A ridge vent is typically a louvered section of metal extruding from and covering a gap at the top of the roof. These run the entire roof length. The louvers release air from the attic and prevent rain and other inclement weather from entering the house. These are the most effective way to exhaust hot air from your home.Ridge vent runs along the roofs peak to exhaust hot air. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsRoof vent. The basic roof vent is diminutive, square, and metal. Some have a fan, controlled by a thermostat, that assists in quickly exhausting hot air.Turbine vent.A turbine vent is another type of roof vent. It features contoured vanes that pull heat from the attic, turning with assistance from the faintest breeze. Their raised profile can be more noticeable than that of the standard roof vent, so if aesthetics are an issue, you may want to have them installed on the back, rather than the front of your house.Turbine vent spins with air movement to extract heat from the attic.Gable vent. Gable vents are louvered triangles or square vents that fit at the ends of the attic, near the roofs peak. They are the least-effective exhaust vent option, but they are commonly found on older homes and are considerably easier to install.Home Intake VentsIntake vents draw in cooler air through the eaves or soffits. Types of intake vents include:Soffit vent. If you are undertaking new construction or replacing your eaves or soffits, you may consider installing soffit vents, which are metal louvered frames that traverse the entirety of the soffit area.Soffit vents encourage air circulation through the attic. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsEave vent. Eave ventsare typically circular-shaped vents are commonly added to a house to improve attic ventilation. They sit under the eaves, between the rafters, and run along two sides of the house.Rafter vent.A rafter vent works in coordination with intake and exhaust vents. These keep attic insulation from blocking airflow from soffit and eave vents to the upper exhaust vents.Foundation vent. Foundation ventsare as their name implies, installed along the foundation of your home. These louvered metal vents allow air to circulate throughout a basement or crawl space and prevent dangerous moisture from building up beneath the house.Foundation vents allow air circulation beneath a house. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsHeat recovery ventilator.A heat-recovery ventilation system (HRV) lets you ventilate your home without expelling expensively heated or cooled air. For more, see Heat Recovery Ventilation Systems.Heat recovery ventilation system (HRV) Don Vandervort, HomeTipsFeatured Resource: Find a Pre-Screened Local Whole-House Fan Installation ContractorAbout Don VandervortDon Vandervort has developed his expertise for more than 30 years, as Building Editor for Sunset Books, Senior Editor at Home Magazine, author of more than 30 home improvement books, and writer of countless magazine articles. He appeared for 3 seasons on HGTVs The Fix, and served as MSNs home expert for several years. Don founded HomeTips in 1996. Read more about Don VandervortNext See:What Is Relative Humidity and Why Is It Important toEvaporative Air Coolers (Swamp Coolers) Buying GuideHow Your Home's Heating & Cooling System WorksBest Home Security MeasuresBy The Numbers

You can encourage ventilation, of course, by opening the doors and windows. But the trick is to provide needed ventilation without sending expensive home-heating and cooling energy dollars out the window.A house accomplishes this feat by having the proper type and combination of vents and fans in unoccupied portions of the housesuch as attic and crawlspaceand by venting specific areas of the interior with kitchen range hoods, bathroom fans, whole-house fans, and similar appliances. Following is a closer look at some of the vents that are helpful.Home Exhaust VentsExhaust vents help warm air flow out from the roof. Types of exhaust vents include:Ridge vent.A ridge vent is typically a louvered section of metal extruding from and covering a gap at the top of the roof. These run the entire roof length. The louvers release air from the attic and prevent rain and other inclement weather from entering the house. These are the most effective way to exhaust hot air from your home.Ridge vent runs along the roofs peak to exhaust hot air. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsRoof vent. The basic roof vent is diminutive, square, and metal. Some have a fan, controlled by a thermostat, that assists in quickly exhausting hot air.Turbine vent.A turbine vent is another type of roof vent. It features contoured vanes that pull heat from the attic, turning with assistance from the faintest breeze. Their raised profile can be more noticeable than that of the standard roof vent, so if aesthetics are an issue, you may want to have them installed on the back, rather than the front of your house.Turbine vent spins with air movement to extract heat from the attic.Gable vent. Gable vents are louvered triangles or square vents that fit at the ends of the attic, near the roofs peak. They are the least-effective exhaust vent option, but they are commonly found on older homes and are considerably easier to install.Home Intake VentsIntake vents draw in cooler air through the eaves or soffits. Types of intake vents include:Soffit vent. If you are undertaking new construction or replacing your eaves or soffits, you may consider installing soffit vents, which are metal louvered frames that traverse the entirety of the soffit area.Soffit vents encourage air circulation through the attic. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsEave vent. Eave ventsare typically circular-shaped vents are commonly added to a house to improve attic ventilation. They sit under the eaves, between the rafters, and run along two sides of the house.Rafter vent.A rafter vent works in coordination with intake and exhaust vents. These keep attic insulation from blocking airflow from soffit and eave vents to the upper exhaust vents.Foundation vent. Foundation ventsare as their name implies, installed along the foundation of your home. These louvered metal vents allow air to circulate throughout a basement or crawl space and prevent dangerous moisture from building up beneath the house.Foundation vents allow air circulation beneath a house. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsHeat recovery ventilator.A heat-recovery ventilation system (HRV) lets you ventilate your home without expelling expensively heated or cooled air. For more, see Heat Recovery Ventilation Systems.Heat recovery ventilation system (HRV) Don Vandervort, HomeTipsFeatured Resource: Find a Pre-Screened Local Whole-House Fan Installation ContractorAbout Don VandervortDon Vandervort has developed his expertise for more than 30 years, as Building Editor for Sunset Books, Senior Editor at Home Magazine, author of more than 30 home improvement books, and writer of countless magazine articles. He appeared for 3 seasons on HGTVs The Fix, and served as MSNs home expert for several years. Don founded HomeTips in 1996. Read more about Don VandervortNext See:What Is Relative Humidity and Why Is It Important toEvaporative Air Coolers (Swamp Coolers) Buying GuideHow Your Home's Heating & Cooling System WorksBest Home Security MeasuresBy The Numbers

You can encourage ventilation, of course, by opening the doors and windows. But the trick is to provide needed ventilation without sending expensive home-heating and cooling energy dollars out the window.A house accomplishes this feat by having the proper type and combination of vents and fans in unoccupied portions of the housesuch as attic and crawlspaceand by venting specific areas of the interior with kitchen range hoods, bathroom fans, whole-house fans, and similar appliances. Following is a closer look at some of the vents that are helpful.Home Exhaust VentsExhaust vents help warm air flow out from the roof. Types of exhaust vents include:Ridge vent.A ridge vent is typically a louvered section of metal extruding from and covering a gap at the top of the roof. These run the entire roof length. The louvers release air from the attic and prevent rain and other inclement weather from entering the house. These are the most effective way to exhaust hot air from your home.Ridge vent runs along the roofs peak to exhaust hot air. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsRoof vent. The basic roof vent is diminutive, square, and metal. Some have a fan, controlled by a thermostat, that assists in quickly exhausting hot air.Turbine vent.A turbine vent is another type of roof vent. It features contoured vanes that pull heat from the attic, turning with assistance from the faintest breeze. Their raised profile can be more noticeable than that of the standard roof vent, so if aesthetics are an issue, you may want to have them installed on the back, rather than the front of your house.Turbine vent spins with air movement to extract heat from the attic.Gable vent. Gable vents are louvered triangles or square vents that fit at the ends of the attic, near the roofs peak. They are the least-effective exhaust vent option, but they are commonly found on older homes and are considerably easier to install.Home Intake VentsIntake vents draw in cooler air through the eaves or soffits. Types of intake vents include:Soffit vent. If you are undertaking new construction or replacing your eaves or soffits, you may consider installing soffit vents, which are metal louvered frames that traverse the entirety of the soffit area.Soffit vents encourage air circulation through the attic. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsEave vent. Eave ventsare typically circular-shaped vents are commonly added to a house to improve attic ventilation. They sit under the eaves, between the rafters, and run along two sides of the house.Rafter vent.A rafter vent works in coordination with intake and exhaust vents. These keep attic insulation from blocking airflow from soffit and eave vents to the upper exhaust vents.Foundation vent. Foundation ventsare as their name implies, installed along the foundation of your home. These louvered metal vents allow air to circulate throughout a basement or crawl space and prevent dangerous moisture from building up beneath the house.Foundation vents allow air circulation beneath a house. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsHeat recovery ventilator.A heat-recovery ventilation system (HRV) lets you ventilate your home without expelling expensively heated or cooled air. For more, see Heat Recovery Ventilation Systems.Heat recovery ventilation system (HRV) Don Vandervort, HomeTipsFeatured Resource: Find a Pre-Screened Local Whole-House Fan Installation ContractorAbout Don VandervortDon Vandervort has developed his expertise for more than 30 years, as Building Editor for Sunset Books, Senior Editor at Home Magazine, author of more than 30 home improvement books, and writer of countless magazine articles. He appeared for 3 seasons on HGTVs The Fix, and served as MSNs home expert for several years. Don founded HomeTips in 1996. Read more about Don VandervortNext See:What Is Relative Humidity and Why Is It Important toEvaporative Air Coolers (Swamp Coolers) Buying GuideHow Your Home's Heating & Cooling System WorksBest Home Security MeasuresBy The Numbers

A house accomplishes this feat by having the proper type and combination of vents and fans in unoccupied portions of the housesuch as attic and crawlspaceand by venting specific areas of the interior with kitchen range hoods, bathroom fans, whole-house fans, and similar appliances. Following is a closer look at some of the vents that are helpful.Home Exhaust VentsExhaust vents help warm air flow out from the roof. Types of exhaust vents include:Ridge vent.A ridge vent is typically a louvered section of metal extruding from and covering a gap at the top of the roof. These run the entire roof length. The louvers release air from the attic and prevent rain and other inclement weather from entering the house. These are the most effective way to exhaust hot air from your home.Ridge vent runs along the roofs peak to exhaust hot air. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsRoof vent. The basic roof vent is diminutive, square, and metal. Some have a fan, controlled by a thermostat, that assists in quickly exhausting hot air.Turbine vent.A turbine vent is another type of roof vent. It features contoured vanes that pull heat from the attic, turning with assistance from the faintest breeze. Their raised profile can be more noticeable than that of the standard roof vent, so if aesthetics are an issue, you may want to have them installed on the back, rather than the front of your house.Turbine vent spins with air movement to extract heat from the attic.Gable vent. Gable vents are louvered triangles or square vents that fit at the ends of the attic, near the roofs peak. They are the least-effective exhaust vent option, but they are commonly found on older homes and are considerably easier to install.Home Intake VentsIntake vents draw in cooler air through the eaves or soffits. Types of intake vents include:Soffit vent. If you are undertaking new construction or replacing your eaves or soffits, you may consider installing soffit vents, which are metal louvered frames that traverse the entirety of the soffit area.Soffit vents encourage air circulation through the attic. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsEave vent. Eave ventsare typically circular-shaped vents are commonly added to a house to improve attic ventilation. They sit under the eaves, between the rafters, and run along two sides of the house.Rafter vent.A rafter vent works in coordination with intake and exhaust vents. These keep attic insulation from blocking airflow from soffit and eave vents to the upper exhaust vents.Foundation vent. Foundation ventsare as their name implies, installed along the foundation of your home. These louvered metal vents allow air to circulate throughout a basement or crawl space and prevent dangerous moisture from building up beneath the house.Foundation vents allow air circulation beneath a house. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsHeat recovery ventilator.A heat-recovery ventilation system (HRV) lets you ventilate your home without expelling expensively heated or cooled air. For more, see Heat Recovery Ventilation Systems.Heat recovery ventilation system (HRV) Don Vandervort, HomeTipsFeatured Resource: Find a Pre-Screened Local Whole-House Fan Installation ContractorAbout Don VandervortDon Vandervort has developed his expertise for more than 30 years, as Building Editor for Sunset Books, Senior Editor at Home Magazine, author of more than 30 home improvement books, and writer of countless magazine articles. He appeared for 3 seasons on HGTVs The Fix, and served as MSNs home expert for several years. Don founded HomeTips in 1996. Read more about Don VandervortNext See:What Is Relative Humidity and Why Is It Important toEvaporative Air Coolers (Swamp Coolers) Buying GuideHow Your Home's Heating & Cooling System WorksBest Home Security MeasuresBy The Numbers

Exhaust vents help warm air flow out from the roof. Types of exhaust vents include:Ridge vent.A ridge vent is typically a louvered section of metal extruding from and covering a gap at the top of the roof. These run the entire roof length. The louvers release air from the attic and prevent rain and other inclement weather from entering the house. These are the most effective way to exhaust hot air from your home.Ridge vent runs along the roofs peak to exhaust hot air. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsRoof vent. The basic roof vent is diminutive, square, and metal. Some have a fan, controlled by a thermostat, that assists in quickly exhausting hot air.Turbine vent.A turbine vent is another type of roof vent. It features contoured vanes that pull heat from the attic, turning with assistance from the faintest breeze. Their raised profile can be more noticeable than that of the standard roof vent, so if aesthetics are an issue, you may want to have them installed on the back, rather than the front of your house.Turbine vent spins with air movement to extract heat from the attic.Gable vent. Gable vents are louvered triangles or square vents that fit at the ends of the attic, near the roofs peak. They are the least-effective exhaust vent option, but they are commonly found on older homes and are considerably easier to install.Home Intake VentsIntake vents draw in cooler air through the eaves or soffits. Types of intake vents include:Soffit vent. If you are undertaking new construction or replacing your eaves or soffits, you may consider installing soffit vents, which are metal louvered frames that traverse the entirety of the soffit area.Soffit vents encourage air circulation through the attic. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsEave vent. Eave ventsare typically circular-shaped vents are commonly added to a house to improve attic ventilation. They sit under the eaves, between the rafters, and run along two sides of the house.Rafter vent.A rafter vent works in coordination with intake and exhaust vents. These keep attic insulation from blocking airflow from soffit and eave vents to the upper exhaust vents.Foundation vent. Foundation ventsare as their name implies, installed along the foundation of your home. These louvered metal vents allow air to circulate throughout a basement or crawl space and prevent dangerous moisture from building up beneath the house.Foundation vents allow air circulation beneath a house. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsHeat recovery ventilator.A heat-recovery ventilation system (HRV) lets you ventilate your home without expelling expensively heated or cooled air. For more, see Heat Recovery Ventilation Systems.Heat recovery ventilation system (HRV) Don Vandervort, HomeTipsFeatured Resource: Find a Pre-Screened Local Whole-House Fan Installation ContractorAbout Don VandervortDon Vandervort has developed his expertise for more than 30 years, as Building Editor for Sunset Books, Senior Editor at Home Magazine, author of more than 30 home improvement books, and writer of countless magazine articles. He appeared for 3 seasons on HGTVs The Fix, and served as MSNs home expert for several years. Don founded HomeTips in 1996. Read more about Don VandervortNext See:What Is Relative Humidity and Why Is It Important toEvaporative Air Coolers (Swamp Coolers) Buying GuideHow Your Home's Heating & Cooling System WorksBest Home Security MeasuresBy The Numbers

Ridge vent.A ridge vent is typically a louvered section of metal extruding from and covering a gap at the top of the roof. These run the entire roof length. The louvers release air from the attic and prevent rain and other inclement weather from entering the house. These are the most effective way to exhaust hot air from your home.Ridge vent runs along the roofs peak to exhaust hot air. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsRoof vent. The basic roof vent is diminutive, square, and metal. Some have a fan, controlled by a thermostat, that assists in quickly exhausting hot air.Turbine vent.A turbine vent is another type of roof vent. It features contoured vanes that pull heat from the attic, turning with assistance from the faintest breeze. Their raised profile can be more noticeable than that of the standard roof vent, so if aesthetics are an issue, you may want to have them installed on the back, rather than the front of your house.Turbine vent spins with air movement to extract heat from the attic.Gable vent. Gable vents are louvered triangles or square vents that fit at the ends of the attic, near the roofs peak. They are the least-effective exhaust vent option, but they are commonly found on older homes and are considerably easier to install.Home Intake VentsIntake vents draw in cooler air through the eaves or soffits. Types of intake vents include:Soffit vent. If you are undertaking new construction or replacing your eaves or soffits, you may consider installing soffit vents, which are metal louvered frames that traverse the entirety of the soffit area.Soffit vents encourage air circulation through the attic. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsEave vent. Eave ventsare typically circular-shaped vents are commonly added to a house to improve attic ventilation. They sit under the eaves, between the rafters, and run along two sides of the house.Rafter vent.A rafter vent works in coordination with intake and exhaust vents. These keep attic insulation from blocking airflow from soffit and eave vents to the upper exhaust vents.Foundation vent. Foundation ventsare as their name implies, installed along the foundation of your home. These louvered metal vents allow air to circulate throughout a basement or crawl space and prevent dangerous moisture from building up beneath the house.Foundation vents allow air circulation beneath a house. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsHeat recovery ventilator.A heat-recovery ventilation system (HRV) lets you ventilate your home without expelling expensively heated or cooled air. For more, see Heat Recovery Ventilation Systems.Heat recovery ventilation system (HRV) Don Vandervort, HomeTipsFeatured Resource: Find a Pre-Screened Local Whole-House Fan Installation ContractorAbout Don VandervortDon Vandervort has developed his expertise for more than 30 years, as Building Editor for Sunset Books, Senior Editor at Home Magazine, author of more than 30 home improvement books, and writer of countless magazine articles. He appeared for 3 seasons on HGTVs The Fix, and served as MSNs home expert for several years. Don founded HomeTips in 1996. Read more about Don VandervortNext See:What Is Relative Humidity and Why Is It Important toEvaporative Air Coolers (Swamp Coolers) Buying GuideHow Your Home's Heating & Cooling System WorksBest Home Security MeasuresBy The Numbers

Roof vent. The basic roof vent is diminutive, square, and metal. Some have a fan, controlled by a thermostat, that assists in quickly exhausting hot air.Turbine vent.A turbine vent is another type of roof vent. It features contoured vanes that pull heat from the attic, turning with assistance from the faintest breeze. Their raised profile can be more noticeable than that of the standard roof vent, so if aesthetics are an issue, you may want to have them installed on the back, rather than the front of your house.Turbine vent spins with air movement to extract heat from the attic.Gable vent. Gable vents are louvered triangles or square vents that fit at the ends of the attic, near the roofs peak. They are the least-effective exhaust vent option, but they are commonly found on older homes and are considerably easier to install.Home Intake VentsIntake vents draw in cooler air through the eaves or soffits. Types of intake vents include:Soffit vent. If you are undertaking new construction or replacing your eaves or soffits, you may consider installing soffit vents, which are metal louvered frames that traverse the entirety of the soffit area.Soffit vents encourage air circulation through the attic. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsEave vent. Eave ventsare typically circular-shaped vents are commonly added to a house to improve attic ventilation. They sit under the eaves, between the rafters, and run along two sides of the house.Rafter vent.A rafter vent works in coordination with intake and exhaust vents. These keep attic insulation from blocking airflow from soffit and eave vents to the upper exhaust vents.Foundation vent. Foundation ventsare as their name implies, installed along the foundation of your home. These louvered metal vents allow air to circulate throughout a basement or crawl space and prevent dangerous moisture from building up beneath the house.Foundation vents allow air circulation beneath a house. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsHeat recovery ventilator.A heat-recovery ventilation system (HRV) lets you ventilate your home without expelling expensively heated or cooled air. For more, see Heat Recovery Ventilation Systems.Heat recovery ventilation system (HRV) Don Vandervort, HomeTipsFeatured Resource: Find a Pre-Screened Local Whole-House Fan Installation ContractorAbout Don VandervortDon Vandervort has developed his expertise for more than 30 years, as Building Editor for Sunset Books, Senior Editor at Home Magazine, author of more than 30 home improvement books, and writer of countless magazine articles. He appeared for 3 seasons on HGTVs The Fix, and served as MSNs home expert for several years. Don founded HomeTips in 1996. Read more about Don VandervortNext See:What Is Relative Humidity and Why Is It Important toEvaporative Air Coolers (Swamp Coolers) Buying GuideHow Your Home's Heating & Cooling System WorksBest Home Security MeasuresBy The Numbers

Roof vent. The basic roof vent is diminutive, square, and metal. Some have a fan, controlled by a thermostat, that assists in quickly exhausting hot air.Turbine vent.A turbine vent is another type of roof vent. It features contoured vanes that pull heat from the attic, turning with assistance from the faintest breeze. Their raised profile can be more noticeable than that of the standard roof vent, so if aesthetics are an issue, you may want to have them installed on the back, rather than the front of your house.Turbine vent spins with air movement to extract heat from the attic.Gable vent. Gable vents are louvered triangles or square vents that fit at the ends of the attic, near the roofs peak. They are the least-effective exhaust vent option, but they are commonly found on older homes and are considerably easier to install.Home Intake VentsIntake vents draw in cooler air through the eaves or soffits. Types of intake vents include:Soffit vent. If you are undertaking new construction or replacing your eaves or soffits, you may consider installing soffit vents, which are metal louvered frames that traverse the entirety of the soffit area.Soffit vents encourage air circulation through the attic. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsEave vent. Eave ventsare typically circular-shaped vents are commonly added to a house to improve attic ventilation. They sit under the eaves, between the rafters, and run along two sides of the house.Rafter vent.A rafter vent works in coordination with intake and exhaust vents. These keep attic insulation from blocking airflow from soffit and eave vents to the upper exhaust vents.Foundation vent. Foundation ventsare as their name implies, installed along the foundation of your home. These louvered metal vents allow air to circulate throughout a basement or crawl space and prevent dangerous moisture from building up beneath the house.Foundation vents allow air circulation beneath a house. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsHeat recovery ventilator.A heat-recovery ventilation system (HRV) lets you ventilate your home without expelling expensively heated or cooled air. For more, see Heat Recovery Ventilation Systems.Heat recovery ventilation system (HRV) Don Vandervort, HomeTipsFeatured Resource: Find a Pre-Screened Local Whole-House Fan Installation ContractorAbout Don VandervortDon Vandervort has developed his expertise for more than 30 years, as Building Editor for Sunset Books, Senior Editor at Home Magazine, author of more than 30 home improvement books, and writer of countless magazine articles. He appeared for 3 seasons on HGTVs The Fix, and served as MSNs home expert for several years. Don founded HomeTips in 1996. Read more about Don VandervortNext See:What Is Relative Humidity and Why Is It Important toEvaporative Air Coolers (Swamp Coolers) Buying GuideHow Your Home's Heating & Cooling System WorksBest Home Security MeasuresBy The Numbers

Turbine vent.A turbine vent is another type of roof vent. It features contoured vanes that pull heat from the attic, turning with assistance from the faintest breeze. Their raised profile can be more noticeable than that of the standard roof vent, so if aesthetics are an issue, you may want to have them installed on the back, rather than the front of your house.Turbine vent spins with air movement to extract heat from the attic.Gable vent. Gable vents are louvered triangles or square vents that fit at the ends of the attic, near the roofs peak. They are the least-effective exhaust vent option, but they are commonly found on older homes and are considerably easier to install.Home Intake VentsIntake vents draw in cooler air through the eaves or soffits. Types of intake vents include:Soffit vent. If you are undertaking new construction or replacing your eaves or soffits, you may consider installing soffit vents, which are metal louvered frames that traverse the entirety of the soffit area.Soffit vents encourage air circulation through the attic. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsEave vent. Eave ventsare typically circular-shaped vents are commonly added to a house to improve attic ventilation. They sit under the eaves, between the rafters, and run along two sides of the house.Rafter vent.A rafter vent works in coordination with intake and exhaust vents. These keep attic insulation from blocking airflow from soffit and eave vents to the upper exhaust vents.Foundation vent. Foundation ventsare as their name implies, installed along the foundation of your home. These louvered metal vents allow air to circulate throughout a basement or crawl space and prevent dangerous moisture from building up beneath the house.Foundation vents allow air circulation beneath a house. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsHeat recovery ventilator.A heat-recovery ventilation system (HRV) lets you ventilate your home without expelling expensively heated or cooled air. For more, see Heat Recovery Ventilation Systems.Heat recovery ventilation system (HRV) Don Vandervort, HomeTipsFeatured Resource: Find a Pre-Screened Local Whole-House Fan Installation ContractorAbout Don VandervortDon Vandervort has developed his expertise for more than 30 years, as Building Editor for Sunset Books, Senior Editor at Home Magazine, author of more than 30 home improvement books, and writer of countless magazine articles. He appeared for 3 seasons on HGTVs The Fix, and served as MSNs home expert for several years. Don founded HomeTips in 1996. Read more about Don VandervortNext See:What Is Relative Humidity and Why Is It Important toEvaporative Air Coolers (Swamp Coolers) Buying GuideHow Your Home's Heating & Cooling System WorksBest Home Security MeasuresBy The Numbers

Gable vent. Gable vents are louvered triangles or square vents that fit at the ends of the attic, near the roofs peak. They are the least-effective exhaust vent option, but they are commonly found on older homes and are considerably easier to install.Home Intake VentsIntake vents draw in cooler air through the eaves or soffits. Types of intake vents include:Soffit vent. If you are undertaking new construction or replacing your eaves or soffits, you may consider installing soffit vents, which are metal louvered frames that traverse the entirety of the soffit area.Soffit vents encourage air circulation through the attic. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsEave vent. Eave ventsare typically circular-shaped vents are commonly added to a house to improve attic ventilation. They sit under the eaves, between the rafters, and run along two sides of the house.Rafter vent.A rafter vent works in coordination with intake and exhaust vents. These keep attic insulation from blocking airflow from soffit and eave vents to the upper exhaust vents.Foundation vent. Foundation ventsare as their name implies, installed along the foundation of your home. These louvered metal vents allow air to circulate throughout a basement or crawl space and prevent dangerous moisture from building up beneath the house.Foundation vents allow air circulation beneath a house. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsHeat recovery ventilator.A heat-recovery ventilation system (HRV) lets you ventilate your home without expelling expensively heated or cooled air. For more, see Heat Recovery Ventilation Systems.Heat recovery ventilation system (HRV) Don Vandervort, HomeTipsFeatured Resource: Find a Pre-Screened Local Whole-House Fan Installation ContractorAbout Don VandervortDon Vandervort has developed his expertise for more than 30 years, as Building Editor for Sunset Books, Senior Editor at Home Magazine, author of more than 30 home improvement books, and writer of countless magazine articles. He appeared for 3 seasons on HGTVs The Fix, and served as MSNs home expert for several years. Don founded HomeTips in 1996. Read more about Don VandervortNext See:What Is Relative Humidity and Why Is It Important toEvaporative Air Coolers (Swamp Coolers) Buying GuideHow Your Home's Heating & Cooling System WorksBest Home Security MeasuresBy The Numbers

Intake vents draw in cooler air through the eaves or soffits. Types of intake vents include:Soffit vent. If you are undertaking new construction or replacing your eaves or soffits, you may consider installing soffit vents, which are metal louvered frames that traverse the entirety of the soffit area.Soffit vents encourage air circulation through the attic. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsEave vent. Eave ventsare typically circular-shaped vents are commonly added to a house to improve attic ventilation. They sit under the eaves, between the rafters, and run along two sides of the house.Rafter vent.A rafter vent works in coordination with intake and exhaust vents. These keep attic insulation from blocking airflow from soffit and eave vents to the upper exhaust vents.Foundation vent. Foundation ventsare as their name implies, installed along the foundation of your home. These louvered metal vents allow air to circulate throughout a basement or crawl space and prevent dangerous moisture from building up beneath the house.Foundation vents allow air circulation beneath a house. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsHeat recovery ventilator.A heat-recovery ventilation system (HRV) lets you ventilate your home without expelling expensively heated or cooled air. For more, see Heat Recovery Ventilation Systems.Heat recovery ventilation system (HRV) Don Vandervort, HomeTipsFeatured Resource: Find a Pre-Screened Local Whole-House Fan Installation ContractorAbout Don VandervortDon Vandervort has developed his expertise for more than 30 years, as Building Editor for Sunset Books, Senior Editor at Home Magazine, author of more than 30 home improvement books, and writer of countless magazine articles. He appeared for 3 seasons on HGTVs The Fix, and served as MSNs home expert for several years. Don founded HomeTips in 1996. Read more about Don VandervortNext See:What Is Relative Humidity and Why Is It Important toEvaporative Air Coolers (Swamp Coolers) Buying GuideHow Your Home's Heating & Cooling System WorksBest Home Security MeasuresBy The Numbers

Soffit vent. If you are undertaking new construction or replacing your eaves or soffits, you may consider installing soffit vents, which are metal louvered frames that traverse the entirety of the soffit area.Soffit vents encourage air circulation through the attic. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsEave vent. Eave ventsare typically circular-shaped vents are commonly added to a house to improve attic ventilation. They sit under the eaves, between the rafters, and run along two sides of the house.Rafter vent.A rafter vent works in coordination with intake and exhaust vents. These keep attic insulation from blocking airflow from soffit and eave vents to the upper exhaust vents.Foundation vent. Foundation ventsare as their name implies, installed along the foundation of your home. These louvered metal vents allow air to circulate throughout a basement or crawl space and prevent dangerous moisture from building up beneath the house.Foundation vents allow air circulation beneath a house. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsHeat recovery ventilator.A heat-recovery ventilation system (HRV) lets you ventilate your home without expelling expensively heated or cooled air. For more, see Heat Recovery Ventilation Systems.Heat recovery ventilation system (HRV) Don Vandervort, HomeTipsFeatured Resource: Find a Pre-Screened Local Whole-House Fan Installation ContractorAbout Don VandervortDon Vandervort has developed his expertise for more than 30 years, as Building Editor for Sunset Books, Senior Editor at Home Magazine, author of more than 30 home improvement books, and writer of countless magazine articles. He appeared for 3 seasons on HGTVs The Fix, and served as MSNs home expert for several years. Don founded HomeTips in 1996. Read more about Don VandervortNext See:What Is Relative Humidity and Why Is It Important toEvaporative Air Coolers (Swamp Coolers) Buying GuideHow Your Home's Heating & Cooling System WorksBest Home Security MeasuresBy The Numbers

Eave vent. Eave ventsare typically circular-shaped vents are commonly added to a house to improve attic ventilation. They sit under the eaves, between the rafters, and run along two sides of the house.Rafter vent.A rafter vent works in coordination with intake and exhaust vents. These keep attic insulation from blocking airflow from soffit and eave vents to the upper exhaust vents.Foundation vent. Foundation ventsare as their name implies, installed along the foundation of your home. These louvered metal vents allow air to circulate throughout a basement or crawl space and prevent dangerous moisture from building up beneath the house.Foundation vents allow air circulation beneath a house. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsHeat recovery ventilator.A heat-recovery ventilation system (HRV) lets you ventilate your home without expelling expensively heated or cooled air. For more, see Heat Recovery Ventilation Systems.Heat recovery ventilation system (HRV) Don Vandervort, HomeTipsFeatured Resource: Find a Pre-Screened Local Whole-House Fan Installation ContractorAbout Don VandervortDon Vandervort has developed his expertise for more than 30 years, as Building Editor for Sunset Books, Senior Editor at Home Magazine, author of more than 30 home improvement books, and writer of countless magazine articles. He appeared for 3 seasons on HGTVs The Fix, and served as MSNs home expert for several years. Don founded HomeTips in 1996. Read more about Don VandervortNext See:What Is Relative Humidity and Why Is It Important toEvaporative Air Coolers (Swamp Coolers) Buying GuideHow Your Home's Heating & Cooling System WorksBest Home Security MeasuresBy The Numbers

Rafter vent.A rafter vent works in coordination with intake and exhaust vents. These keep attic insulation from blocking airflow from soffit and eave vents to the upper exhaust vents.Foundation vent. Foundation ventsare as their name implies, installed along the foundation of your home. These louvered metal vents allow air to circulate throughout a basement or crawl space and prevent dangerous moisture from building up beneath the house.Foundation vents allow air circulation beneath a house. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsHeat recovery ventilator.A heat-recovery ventilation system (HRV) lets you ventilate your home without expelling expensively heated or cooled air. For more, see Heat Recovery Ventilation Systems.Heat recovery ventilation system (HRV) Don Vandervort, HomeTipsFeatured Resource: Find a Pre-Screened Local Whole-House Fan Installation ContractorAbout Don VandervortDon Vandervort has developed his expertise for more than 30 years, as Building Editor for Sunset Books, Senior Editor at Home Magazine, author of more than 30 home improvement books, and writer of countless magazine articles. He appeared for 3 seasons on HGTVs The Fix, and served as MSNs home expert for several years. Don founded HomeTips in 1996. Read more about Don VandervortNext See:What Is Relative Humidity and Why Is It Important toEvaporative Air Coolers (Swamp Coolers) Buying GuideHow Your Home's Heating & Cooling System WorksBest Home Security MeasuresBy The Numbers

Foundation vent. Foundation ventsare as their name implies, installed along the foundation of your home. These louvered metal vents allow air to circulate throughout a basement or crawl space and prevent dangerous moisture from building up beneath the house.Foundation vents allow air circulation beneath a house. Don Vandervort, HomeTipsHeat recovery ventilator.A heat-recovery ventilation system (HRV) lets you ventilate your home without expelling expensively heated or cooled air. For more, see Heat Recovery Ventilation Systems.Heat recovery ventilation system (HRV) Don Vandervort, HomeTipsFeatured Resource: Find a Pre-Screened Local Whole-House Fan Installation ContractorAbout Don VandervortDon Vandervort has developed his expertise for more than 30 years, as Building Editor for Sunset Books, Senior Editor at Home Magazine, author of more than 30 home improvement books, and writer of countless magazine articles. He appeared for 3 seasons on HGTVs The Fix, and served as MSNs home expert for several years. Don founded HomeTips in 1996. Read more about Don VandervortNext See:What Is Relative Humidity and Why Is It Important toEvaporative Air Coolers (Swamp Coolers) Buying GuideHow Your Home's Heating & Cooling System WorksBest Home Security MeasuresBy The Numbers

Heat recovery ventilator.A heat-recovery ventilation system (HRV) lets you ventilate your home without expelling expensively heated or cooled air. For more, see Heat Recovery Ventilation Systems.Heat recovery ventilation system (HRV) Don Vandervort, HomeTipsFeatured Resource: Find a Pre-Screened Local Whole-House Fan Installation ContractorAbout Don VandervortDon Vandervort has developed his expertise for more than 30 years, as Building Editor for Sunset Books, Senior Editor at Home Magazine, author of more than 30 home improvement books, and writer of countless magazine articles. He appeared for 3 seasons on HGTVs The Fix, and served as MSNs home expert for several years. Don founded HomeTips in 1996. Read more about Don VandervortNext See:What Is Relative Humidity and Why Is It Important toEvaporative Air Coolers (Swamp Coolers) Buying GuideHow Your Home's Heating & Cooling System WorksBest Home Security MeasuresBy The Numbers

Featured Resource: Find a Pre-Screened Local Whole-House Fan Installation ContractorAbout Don VandervortDon Vandervort has developed his expertise for more than 30 years, as Building Editor for Sunset Books, Senior Editor at Home Magazine, author of more than 30 home improvement books, and writer of countless magazine articles. He appeared for 3 seasons on HGTVs The Fix, and served as MSNs home expert for several years. Don founded HomeTips in 1996. Read more about Don VandervortNext See:What Is Relative Humidity and Why Is It Important toEvaporative Air Coolers (Swamp Coolers) Buying GuideHow Your Home's Heating & Cooling System WorksBest Home Security MeasuresBy The Numbers

About Don VandervortDon Vandervort has developed his expertise for more than 30 years, as Building Editor for Sunset Books, Senior Editor at Home Magazine, author of more than 30 home improvement books, and writer of countless magazine articles. He appeared for 3 seasons on HGTVs The Fix, and served as MSNs home expert for several years. Don founded HomeTips in 1996. Read more about Don VandervortNext See:What Is Relative Humidity and Why Is It Important toEvaporative Air Coolers (Swamp Coolers) Buying GuideHow Your Home's Heating & Cooling System WorksBest Home Security MeasuresBy The Numbers

Don Vandervort writes or edits every article at HomeTips. Don has: Over 30 years experience as a remodeler and builder. Written more than 30 home improvement books. Served as Senior Editor at Home Magazine. Appeared as a segment host on HGTVs The Fixfor 3 seasons. Been a featured expert on MSN.com, US News, and many others. Learn more about the trusted HomeTips brand!

Affiliate DisclosureHomeTips articles may contain links to Amazon.com and other partner programs that provide helpful products and services. As an Amazon Associate, HomeTips earns from qualifying purchases which allows us to continue creating helpful DIY content.

HomeTips articles may contain links to Amazon.com and other partner programs that provide helpful products and services. As an Amazon Associate, HomeTips earns from qualifying purchases which allows us to continue creating helpful DIY content.

fluidized bed dryer : parts, working principle and applications | senieer

In short: In a fluid bed dryer, the inlet air stream is blown past solid powder molecules at rest. The particles are taken up in the dry & hot air stream and dehydrated through evaporation. Read on for the full explanation of the fluidized bed drying process.

Youll find the fluid bed dryer in pharmaceutical industries and application of fluidized bed dryer are humongous. Its main role includes drying granules produced by the wet granulation process. If youre not familiar with this process, it simply involves agglomerating small powder particles together by using a granulating liquid solution.

Batch drying implies that a fixed amount of material is fed into the dryer in one go. Drying is then carried out and when the endpoint is reached, the materials are discharged. You can also say that drying is done in sets or groups.

The AHU resembles a rectangular container. One end serves as the fresh air inlet. The other extends in a vent that links the AHU to the fluid bed dryer. Some components of the fluid bed dryers AHU include:

The next process after filtering and dehumidifying is heating. Cool incoming air absorbs heat from the surface of heated pipes. Now you may heat the pipes via steam or electricity. Our AHU comes with electric heating coils, but we also offer steam heating as an optional feature.

Just a mesh/metal screen with perforated holes. Its function is to resist airflow coming from the bottom chamber. Doing so, it evenly distributes air around the product container. The mesh also holds the product.

The expansion chamber forms the middle part of the tower. Its integrated with the filter housing chamber that holds the double structure filter bag. Filter bags resemble sacks suspended over the process chamber.

Two cylindrical pipes emerge from the expansion of the fluidized bed dryer from each side of the filter bags. They subsequently form into one vent thats connected to the blower. They are fitted with dampers with actuators. The actuator is a device that moves the damper allowing the closure and opening of the vents; first, it must receive an electrical signal from the control system.

When used, it provides a higher filtering degree. Hence, more protection of the environment by reducing particulates in the exhaust gas. Its also good when dealing with harmful substances needing the highest degree of containment.

On the outlet side, the air gains positive pressure and kinetic energy as its expelled. Inside the blower, the displacement of air creates negative pressure. So more airflows into the blower. Centrifugal pumps are thus ideal for drawing air through resistance such as dampers, filter bags, etc.

Our blower comes with a dynamically balanced impeller. The blades are curved backward meaning they face away from the direction of the airflow. The fluidized bed dryer industrial blower also has an all-steel construction with anti-vibration mounting to make it quieter.

From the control panel, the operator can control the inlet temperature, set the filter bag shaking time, start & stop the blower motor, lift & lower the product chamber, read the exhaust temperature, and more.

Opting for a PLC automated control system makes controlling the drying process more efficient. Senieers fluid bed dryers also adopt Siemens intelligent touch input panel for better human-machine interfacing.

Loading of materials involves adding a fresh batch of wet granules into the product chamber. Through negative pressure feeding, materials can be sucked from the high shear mixer chamber through a feeding tube.

Inlet air is blown up through the static powder bed. As the velocity of the air increases so does the space between powder particles until the particles become suspended in a bed. The fluidization process is thought to occur in five stages including smooth fluidization, bubbling fluidization, turbulent fluidization, and fast fluidization.

Wet particles are suspended in the hot and dry air stream. Moisture on the particles surface evaporates as heat flows through the body (conventional heating). The rate of drying slowly increases as the particles absorb more heat.

The rate of drying remains constant as a function of time. In studies, plotting the amount of moisture lost against time gives a linear graph. In the preheating stage, the beds temperature was rising. But in this stage, the particles remain at the same temperature.

If they make it past the filter bags, they will be expelled into the surroundings. The filter bags capture the fines in their pores. But this causes the formation of a dust layer that clogs the filter bags causing a pressure drop.

Increasing the inlet air temperature also increases the rate of heat and mass transfer. Both of which increase the rate of drying. But its not always possible to use high operating temperatures, especially for heat-sensitive materials. For instance, when drying Ibuprofen the temperature must not exceed 60oC. In a study, where the researchers increased the operating temperature from 60 to 80oC, there was a small increase in the drying rate. Though this was offset by the reduction in the energy efficiency of the fluidized bed dryer. So its always better to use the optimum operating temperature even if the drying time may be slightly prolonged.

The right rate of airflow should be neither too fast nor slow. It should be at an optimum rate. Still increasing the air velocity may promote more mass and heat transfer. It may also improve the energy-efficient ratio, and reduce the drying time leading to less energy consumption.

Porosity defines the quality of a particle being porous or having small holes. With high porosity, liquids such as water have an easy time going through the tablet matrix. Once the liquid penetrates, it dissolves and disintegrates the tablet.

Senieer offers state of the art fluid bed drying units for a wide range of applications. Youll find every feature in our models as in similar international brand items. On-going research and development ensure we improve the fluid bed drying machines.

We have different sizes and models for your production needs. The company can also offer turnkey solutions (custom fluidized bed dryers) since we have the factory and technical team to handle your order.

The cost of the equipment depends on the models production capacity along with the options you select. For instance, you can opt for the 10 Bar explosion-proof fluid bed dryer design thats more expensive than the 2 Bar fluidized bed dryer.

how does cryptocurrency mining work? (dummies guide)

One thing is for sure you wont need any dump trucks or shovels to bring any of these precious gems into your crypto wallet. You think Im joking, but Ive had a few friends ask me this a few years back when I told them what I was doing, but its not that irrational considering its still this new age thing to get in early on.

You see mining cryptocurrencies require you to learn certain aspects of computer hardware and software that can be confusing for any first-timer. Not to mention there are some basic checklist requirements that you should go over before every attempting to run multiple miners.

Our main goal with this guide is to go further in-depth on what crypto mining is, how it works, and where to get more info on some of the specifics Ill be mentioning later. Moreover, I want to clarify that the term Bitcoin Mining is a blanket term towards all forms of mining in which I will go into more detail as well.

You see there are no banks to trust so mining aids the network in verifying whos paid whom and how much to add or subtract from each wallet address, mining is also responsible for creating and distributing new tokens as well.

New tokens, or coins as theyre commonly called, get created when a miner or group of miners called pools use a mathematical algorithm to collectively find and agree upon a solution, referred to as blocks. The rate at which these tokens get created is regulated by dynamically changing mining difficulty to prevent inflation.

The number of tokens rewarded for each block reward can vary from token to token and consist of new coins plus a percentage of the fees accrued from any transactions processed during the blocks creation timestamped period.

Miners who help support a tokens network with transactions are also trying to solve blocks to find new tokens. Mining difficulty controls the rate of coin creation. The miner or mining pool who finds a block first gets the reward as long as their work is confirmed as valid across the rest of the network. This block of data then gets stored on the blockchain, and a new block is ready to be solved.

As far as the technical aspects go for people just getting started in mining, this is about all you need to know to understand its inner workings. There are however other aspects equally important such as mining hardware.

When it comes to mining hardware, the chipset you select to start mining with will ultimately determine which coins youre able to mine. So to avoid putting the cart before the horse, youll want to know what you want to mine first, and then you can choose the appropriate equipment youll need.

Currently, there are four classes of mining hardware chipsets in which you can mine cryptocurrencies with, and each comes with its own set of pros and cons. These are the most important component when it comes to mining as these chips are responsible for solving the blocks, also known as hashing.

However, its not efficient to mine Bitcoins with CPUs anymore. Nowadays theyre primarily utilized in mining Bitcoin alternatives called Altcoins, like Verus, BiblePay, and Koto, which you can learn more about in my CPU mining guide.

These chipsets made their debut upon the crypto scene in 2010 when they were rediscovered as useful for mining Bitcoin. However, just like its predecessor the CPU, its no longer feasible in mining Bitcoin either.

GPUs can also be configured to run together on the same motherboard which creates a more compact and efficient mining rig. The drawback to running more cards is your costs and time investment can start to go up.

Youll also have added heat to deal with, especially if youre running more than just a few GPUs. Running indoors in the winter is fine, but summertime in warmer areas may not be so pleasant. So now the added cost of running more AC or adding in ventilation becomes another consideration when trying to budget.

Lets not also forget the fact that GPUs can cost between $150 to $1400 each, depending on the model, especially at times when the hardware is scarce. This is mostly due to both gamers and miners competing for the same hardware in a market where supply is limited.

Combined with the fact that GPUs can resell quicker than any other chipset since they are also used and sought after by gamers, most of the mining community agrees that this fact alone makes GPU mining the safest way to go if youre going to invest any money into mining.

On a final note, there is much debate about ASIC chipsets invading GPU coins like Monero and Ethereum which has caused some coins to fork and adapt ASIC resistant algorithms. These protocols are said to ensure long term stability for GPU mining and ward off any future higher chipset invasions.

The other main issue, as I mentioned earlier, some versions of ASIC miners have been rejected by some crypto projects adopting ASIC resistant algorithms. This is also an issue for some of the Altcoin ASIC miners as these styles of miners are designed to only mine one algorithm. Hence the term ASIC, which stands for an application-specific integrated circuit, as its programmed to only do one thing but do it very efficiently.

So if a crypto coin hard forks their algorithms to adopt ASIC resistance, then the miner can no longer mine that coin and has to hope theres another coin within the same algorithm worth value to mine. To me, that makes the Altcoin ASIC miners future very questionable.

These cards can mine at tremendous speeds with extreme efficiency, but it comes at a higher price than all the other chipsets combined. One FPGA card alone can set you back the average price of an eight card GPU mining rig of around $4000.

What makes these machines so different from ASICs is the fact that once an ASIC chip is manufactured and sent to the field, you can no longer reprogram it for any other use as mentioned earlier. Whereas FPGA, just as the name states, is field programmable.

However, thats where another issue comes into play especially if youre not a developer. You see youre going to need an extensive level of knowledge behind the code language these chips use for mining and from what I read its not easy to learn.

I did notice some sites are starting to post guides about how to set up an FPGA miner and how a few developers have created miners that you can download to make set up easier. The catch is, it too comes at a price as the devs charge a fee to use the software, which is fair as they should get paid for their hard work.

As I briefly mentioned earlier, ASICs miner comes with integrated operating systems(OS) that only require a wallet and mining pool address to set up and start mining. GPU mining has several you can choose from but Im going to spoil the fun for you and tell you Win10 is the best one.

Linux is another excellent operating system, but you will have to know and understand Linux to use it. As for me, I have yet to learn Linux to a level I feel comfortable with so again I admit its a bit outside my comfort zone.

However SimpleMiner, Ethos, and HiveOS are all Linux based operating systems but have user interfaces and were designed specifically for mining crypto. These can be great for beginner miners as well as they typically come with clear cut step by step instructions for setup.

The last two things I would like to mention about mining OSs is the fact that windows always seems to have better drivers for GPUs overall. The other fact is that if you are speculative mining or chasing newer coins a lot of times, Windows will have working miner software available before all other OSs.

Each mineable coin will have a miner available for download either linked on the token main site or listed under BitcoinTalk ANN. These clients are the program, once configured with your wallet and pool address, that makes your chipset start mining on the given tokens network.

Please take note as this list isnt complete but is an excellent place for anyone to start. Just so youre aware, because to some newcomers this is mind-blowing, there are lots of different coins you can GPU mine.

If you notice I also listed some multi-algorithm miners as well. Hash Auger connects to multiple mining pools, and exchanges and calculates which coin your hardware is the most profitable at mining. However, instead of being paid in whatever coin it is your mining, the software pays you the equivalent in Bitcoin.

Nicehash is very similar to HashAuger as far as being paid in Bitcoin, but its platform runs a little different. Nicehash uses a marketplace to sell hash power provided by miners to buyers who bid on it to mine other coins.

Out of all the types of miner software I just mentioned Id say that Nicehash is the easiest, no-brainer set up one of them all. Once you download Nicehashes client, the only other thing you need is a Bitcoin wallet. Although this miner may be the easiest to configure its not always the most profitable route to go.

EXAMPLE: If I want to mine Ethereum then I will need to find an Ethereum mining pool and create an Ethereum wallet to get started. However, I want to further mention that the reason a pool is needed to mine ETH is that it would be unwise to try and solo mine it. Mining Pools allow for a group of miners to join forces so they can increase their chances of finding these blocks.

With NVIDIA GPUs the process is easy with software like MSI Afterburner that allows you to adjust the GPUs clock speeds with ease. AMD, on the other hand, is a bit more complex as you will need to learn how to flash and mod bios which require several tools like wattman and HWINFO to name a few.

Once you select your mining hardware from the menu and hit calculate the calculator will then provide a list of the most profitable coins to mine for the selected hardware. Please keep in mind the profits calculated are only estimates of what the current mining hardware profits are.

Even though these calculators cant technically project what a coins mining profits will be in the future, it can still give you a basis to go off of. Not to mention their resourcefulness in narrowing down what coins are most profitable for your hardware to start mining.

Once youre up and mining you can run 24-hour tests and compare your payouts that way for more accuracy, but still, use the calculators to save you some time in coin selection. If youre looking to purchase GPUs or ASIC these can also be great tools for deciding what hardware makes the most sense for your budget and location.

What Is The Future Of Mining Cryptocurrency? Its said that cryptocurrency is yet still in infancy stages and with it so are its future possibilities including mining. As more manufacturers like Samsung and Intel are now looking into making their own mining hardware, one could speculate that mining is here to stay.

Where To Buy Cryptocurrency Mining Hardware? If youre going the Bitcoin ASIC Miner route then EBANG is your best source listed here in our guide. However, if youre looking to GPU mine then I would suggest Amazon or Newegg which is linked in our recommended parts section.

Can I Mine Bitcoin Without Hardware? Cloud mining is a way for investors to invest in mining hardware that is hosted in large data centers. An investor can then buy a certain amount of shares or hash-power through a cloud mining contract which entitles investors to a percentage of mining payouts over a set period of time. To learn more about cloud mining be sure to check our guide.

Crypto Miner Tips is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. We also participate in other affiliate programs which compensate us for referring traffic.

how heat pumps work | howstuffworks

When you think about cooling a hot building, you probably don't think of heat pumps. In fact, the words "air conditioner" are likely the first things that come to your head unless you're tight with your pennies. Then you might go with "window fans." As it turns out, a heat pump can both heat and cool, and in some applications, it's preferred to separate heating and cooling systems.

Simply put, a heat pump is a device that uses a small amount of energy to move heat from one location to another. Not too difficult, right? Heat pumps are typically used to pull heat out of the air or ground to heat a home or office building, but they can be reversed to cool a building. In a way, if you know how an air conditioner works, then you already know a lot about how a heat pump works. This is because heat pumps and air conditioners operate in a very similar way.

One of the biggest advantages of a heat pump over a standard heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) unit is that there's no need to install separate systems to heat and cool your home. Heat pumps also work extremely efficiently, because they simply transfer heat, rather than burn fuel to create it. This makes them a little more green than a gas-burning furnace. And they don't just heat and cool buildings. If you've ever enjoyed a hot tub or heated swimming pool, then you probably have a heat pump to thank. They work best in moderate climates, so if you don't experience extreme heat and cold in your neck of the woods, then using a heat pump instead of a furnace and air conditioner could help you save a little money each month.

There are many different kinds of heat pumps, but they all operate on the same basic principle -- heat transfer. This means that rather than burning fuel to create heat, the device moves heat from one place to another. There's a key to making this all happen -- heat naturally flows downhill. This means that it tends to move from a location with a high temperature to a location with a lower temperature. Pretty simple. What a heat pump does is use a small amount of energy to switch that process into reverse, pulling heat out of a relatively low-temperature area, and pumping it into a higher temperature area. So heat is transferred from a "heat source," like the ground or air, into a "heat sink," like your home.

One of the most common types of heat pumps is the air-source heat pump. This marvel of modern technology takes heat from the air outside your home and pumps it inside through refrigerant-filled coils, not too different from what's on the back of your fridge. The air source variety is pretty basic, and you'll find two fans, the refrigerator coils, a reversing valve and a compressor inside to make it work.

This system is more commonly known as an air-air heat pump, because it takes heat from outdoor air and transfers it to indoor air ducts. With the right kind of modifications, air-source systems can also work with other types of indoor heating systems.

The key to allowing the air-air heat pump to also cool is the reversing valve. This versatile part reverses the flow of the refrigerant, so that the system begins to operate in the opposite direction. So instead of pumping heat inside your home, the heat pump releases it, just like your air conditioner does. When the refrigerant is reversed it absorbs heat on the indoor side of the unit and flows to the outside. It's here that the heat is released, allowing the refrigerant to cool down again and flow back inside to pick up more heat. This process repeats itself until you're nice and cool.

By now, you've learned that air-source heat pumps use an outdoor fan to bring air over refrigerant-filled coils. Two sets of these coils transfer this heat indoors, where it's then blown away from the coils by a second fan, and distributed through your home as cool goodness. Some air-source heat pump systems consist of a single packaged unit containing both sets of coils in one box. This box is then installed on the roof of a building with the ductwork extending through the wall. You'll see a lot of larger systems for commercial buildings installed in this way. Home heat pumps are usually split systems with an outdoor and an indoor component installed through the wall. Depending on the type of system, there may be one or more indoor components to distribute heat.

Ground-source heat pumps are a little different. They absorb heat from the ground or an underground body of water and transfer it indoors, or vice versa. The most common type of ground-source heat pump transfers heat directly from the ground by absorbing it through buried pipes filled with water or a refrigerant. These liquid-pumping pipes can be either closed-loop or open-loop systems, and they operate pretty much exactly how they sound. In a closed-loop system, the same refrigerant or water circulates through the pipes repeatedly. In an open-loop system, water is pumped out of the underground water source, like a well or a man-made lake. From there, the heat is extracted from the water, and that water returns to the well or surface lake. More water is then pumped from the well to extract more heat in a continuous open loop.

If that's not enough to blow your mind, consider theabsorptionheat pump -- air-source pumps that are powered by natural gas, solar power, propane or geothermal-heated water, rather than by electricity. Absorption pumps can be used for large-scale applications, but are now available for homes on the larger side. The main difference between a standard air-source heat pump and an absorption pump is that instead of compressing a refrigerant, an absorption pump absorbs ammonia into water, and then a low-power pump pressurizes it. The heat source then boils the ammonia out of the water, and the process starts all over again.

When you go to check out an absorption heat pump, it helps to know how they're rated. Manufacturers rate them using a measurement called a coefficient of performance (COP), which sounds pretty complicated. All you need to know is to look for a COP above 1.2 for heating and above 0.7 for cooling. And don't worry, we'll discuss ratings for standard heat pumps a little later.

If your home doesn't have air ducts to distribute heat, don't fear. You could potentially use a special kind of heat pump called a mini-split heat pump. The cutest of all heat pumps, it connects an outdoor air-source unit to multiple indoor units. These indoor units connect to water heat or space heaters. These ductless mini-split systems are useful for retrofitting a home with a heat pump system because their locations outside and inside the home are flexible. Another plus is that the installation only requires a 3-inch (7.6 centimeter) conduit to come through the wall, which is pretty unobtrusive. They're also versatile. The indoor air handlers can be installed in walls, ceilings or on the floor, and they're small to boot.

And who can forget the reverse cycle chiller (RCC) heat pump? Instead of heating and cooling air, this bad boy heats and cools water, and can operate efficiently in below freezing temperatures. In an RCC system, the heat pump connects to an insulated water tank that it either heats or cools. Then, a fan and coil system pump heated or cooled air away from the tank and through the ductwork to one or more heating zones. An RCC system can also pump hot water through a radiant floor heating system, so when those bare feet are comfy on a toasty tile floor this winter, you can thank your RCC.

In a typical air-source heat pump, there's the need for a backup burner to supply temporary heat when the system switches into reverse to defrost the coils. This backup burner prevents the system from blowing cold air through the registers while the coils defrost, which is key if your goal is to stay warm. Some might say that the RCC system is superior in that it uses the hot water from the tank to defrost the coils, so no backup burner is needed. This also means the system never blows cold air when it shouldn't, and the result is that you stay nice and warm.

A new type of heat pump showing promise for extreme climates is the Cold Climate heat pump, which operates efficiently at extremely low temperatures -- even below 0 degrees Fahrenheit (-18 degrees Celsius). The Cold Climate heat pump detects the minimum amount of energy needed to provide the desired level of heating or cooling and adjusts its output up or down, so it never wastes energy. It's an extremely green alternative, but is still in its early stages of implementation because of delays in funding, which slowed research. In 2011, Canada invested $4 million in Cold Climate heat system development.

The All-Climate heat pump is yet another new kind of pump, which can operate in temperatures as cold as -30 degrees Fahrenheit (-34 degrees Celsius) and can increase efficiency by up to 60 percent over a standard heat pump [source: EERE]. The All-Climate heat pump is designed primarily for heating, though, and won't work efficiently in climates where the heat pump would be in cooling mode most of the time.

Heat pumps can help consumers save on utilities, but they have limitations. First, they tend to be somewhat ineffective in any climate where the outdoor air temperature falls near or below freezing on a regular basis, although innovators are working to improve upon this. This is because moving heat from a very cold area to a hotter one takes more energy than moving heat between two areas with a more moderate temperature difference. There's also more heat available outside in a moderate climate than in a cold climate. It's important to note that even in a cold climate, there's still heat in the outside air to be pumped indoors, but the unit needs to work harder to extract the heat that's available. Supplemental energy may be required to make the heat pump produce enough warmth to comfortably heat your home when the temperature falls below freezing, and that's no good.

The heat produced by heat pumps isn't as intense as the heat produced by a gas or oil-burning furnace. People who are used to traditional furnaces can be uncomfortable with the milder heat produced by these systems. Other people prefer the warmth produced by heat pumps, because heat pumps distribute heat evenly throughout the house, meaning there are no cold spots. A heat pump will also turn on and off less often than a gas furnace, and most systems have eliminated the blowing of cold air through the vents that used to occur when the system temporarily switched into reverse to defrost the coils.

Before you install a heat pump, you'll need to consider what kind of supplemental or backup heating you may need to use when the heat pump can't work efficiently. Many heat pumps use supplemental electrical heating, but you might also use some kind of oil burner or an adapted gas furnace. Whatever type of heating system is common in your area is likely the most efficient and cost-effective backup method. You can always call your local utility company for information.

Ground-source heat pumps are better dehumidifiers than normal air conditioners, because these systems typically have a larger, flat return coils that conditions and dehumidifies more air than the corresponding coil in an air-conditioning system. Air-source heat pumps have about the same dehumidifying capabilities as air conditioning systems. If you have any humidifying or dehumidifying needs, take this into consideration.

When you start shopping for a heat pump, there are a few things you need to look for. First, manufacturers rate the efficiency of most heat pumps in two ways: SEER and HSFP ratings. Higher SEER and HSFP ratings indicate a more efficient unit.

Though many of these features can only be found on more expensive heat pumps, they make up for the initial expense by helping heat pumps work more efficiently and save more energy throughout the pump's life.

The cost to install and run different kinds of heat pumps varies quite a bit. Geothermal heat pumps are more expensive to install than air-source heat pumps, as much as three times as much, because ground-source pumps require you to dig down to a heat source and involve more complex heat transfer systems. That can get a little pricey depending on the terrain on your property. Expect to pay as much as $5,000 to $7,500 for a ground-source heat pump system. Air-source heat pumps can be found for much cheaper, averaging around $1,500 to $4,000, because the units tend to be simpler, and installation is easier.

The cost required to run and repair a heat pump varies with the type of system. It's less expensive to run a ground-source heat pump because the ground and water have a relatively constant temperature that allows the heat pump to operate efficiently. Ground-source systems also have the advantage of not being exposed to the outdoor weather, which prevents a lot of wear and tear. On the downside, they can be costly to repair if you need to access an underground portion of the system. Air-source systems are easy to access and service, but they may need more regular maintenance because they're exposed to the elements. Also, air-source heat pumps may use more supplemental energy to run, especially in colder climates, and this will cost you more on your utility bill.

Heat pumps may save you anywhere between 30 and 40 percent or more on your utility bill, but neglect will reduce a heat pump's efficiency over time [source: EERE]. It's important to factor in the climate where you'll be using the heat pump to make sure you select a system that can run efficiently in your area. In the end, heat pumps can save you a lot of money on utilities if you're a good candidate and you install the right kind of pump for your area.

If you use your heat pump on a regular basis, you should change the filter about once a month. You could probably get away with only changing the filter once every three months if you only run the unit periodically. Keep fans and coils clean and free from debris, and have your heat pump inspected by a professional once every year or two.

Common problems with heat pumps include low airflow, leaky or noisy ducts, temperature problems, using the wrong refrigerant charge, rattles, squeaks and grinding noises. If you can, try to isolate the location of the problem. Is the airflow only low coming out of one register, or do all registers have low airflow? Is the offending noise coming from the air ducts or within the heat pump unit itself?

There are a few things you can do to identify and possibly fix a heat pump problem before calling for professional help. First, if the unit isn't working, try resetting its motor. Check the pump ignition system for problems, and make sure you don't have a tripped circuit breaker or blown fuse. Check the thermostat to make sure it's working properly. Change the filter if it's dirty, and make sure there are no airflow blockages. If the air ducts are making noise when they expand and contract, you could try putting a dent in the side of the duct to make the surface more rigid. Rattles may be fixed by fastening loose parts, and if you're hearing squeaks inside the unit, you may need to replace or adjust the fan belt connecting the motor and the fan. A grinding noise may indicate that the bearings on the motor are worn out, which will require the help of a professional to fix.

Keep in mind that if you aren't mechanically inclined then you probably shouldn't attempt to do this kind of repair work. And because heat pumps can contain hazardous materials, that's another good reason to get some professional assistance. A chemical leak is bad news and you can easily injure yourself handling a broken device.

A heat pump should last between 10 and 30 years, with geothermal units leading the way in longevity. In fact, some components of ground-source heat pumps can last even longer. Keep in mind that technology may change before your heat pump has worn out, so you may find your heat pump outlasts a technician's ability to service it. New technologies may make heat pumps safer or more efficient, so you may wish to keep an eye out for new kinds of heat pumps.