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saudi arabia mining industry: gold ore and copper ore mining

Saudi Arabia is abundant with oil and the output is 526 million tons. Besides oil, natural gas is also very rich and it is in the fourth in the world. There are other ore mineral resources in this country, such as gold ore, copper ore, iron ore, tin ore, aluminum ore and zinc ore etc. Learn the ore mineral materials and how to mine them will bring high profits for the whole country.

Gold ore is one of the most common ore mineral resources in Saudi Arabia. It has enough gold content and this gold ore can be used for industrial mineral processing. The gold ore in Saudi Arabia can be mined to get pure gold materials. Gold deposit is formed by mineralization and it can be of a certain scale industrial gold ore accumulation. Gold in the earth's crust and mantle is low abundance and scattered.

As the above mentioned, gold ore is rich in Saudi Arabia and the copper ore is also abundant in this country. Copper ore is mined from copper rock mountains. After processing, it can be the high grade copper or copper ore sands. The copper ore can be divided into pyrite, chalcopyrite, barite, chalcocite, blue copper, copper blue and malachite etc. It is mainly used in metallurgical industry as the raw material.

Ore mining processing line refers to the stone mineral materials processed by the mining equipment. The main stages include crushing stage, grinding stage and beneficiation process. Ore mining production line starts with the feeding stage. Feeding equipment will be used to send materials into crushing machine. For the crushing stage, it can be divided into primary crushing process, secondary crushing stage and tertiary crushing process. These crushing stages cooperate with each other to get the large scale ore materials be small ones.

The most used crushing machine has jaw crusher, cone crusher, impact crusher, hammer crusher, gyratory crusher and so on. Jaw crusher belongs to the primary crushing machine and is used in the first crushing stage. Cone crusher, impact crusher can be used as the secondary crushing equipment. Gyratory crusher is the high efficient and large scale crusher machine.

Grinding equipment is after the crushing machine working process. In this stage, ore mineral materials will be grinded into smaller size related with the crushed materials. Beneficiation process will help get the clean and high grade ore materials. It mainly refers to the screening, washing and so on.

Ore crusher machine and grinding mill are the necessary machines used in mineral production line. SBM is a professional mining and construction machine manufacturer from China and we can provide high quality and high efficiency equipment for the Saudi Arabia clients. Here will introduce the gold ore cone crusher and copper ore ball mill for you all.

In gold ore mining process, cone crusher plays the important role in the line. SBM gold ore cone crusher features a unique combination of crusher speed, cavity and throw. The combination can provide customers the superior product quality and higher capacity. This crushing machine has been proved that it has wide application ranges, such as limestone, basalt, iron ore sand etc. In some working situation, it provides unbeatable performance in secondary, tertiary and quaternary applications.

Besides the above gold ore cone crusher, the ball mill is also necessary in the production line. Copper ore ball mill produced by SBM can be widely used for the mineral materials. This ball mill can be used for dry and wet grinding of different materials such as the limestone, copper ore, cement materials etc. Besides, horizontal ball mill has become a reliable part of grinding plants.

SBM copper ore ball mill has low operation and low maintenance. With high capacity and operating reliability, this milling machine is welcomed by clients. If you want to know more information of Saudi Arabia ore mining processing machine, you can contact us for more detailed, such as the price, working principle or others.

saudi aramco world : saudi cement

In the spring of 1962 the temper of economic development in Saudi Arabia was decidedly optimistic. Day after day explosives boomed in the stone-ribbed mountains not far from the Holy City of Mecca. Almost as soon as the air cleared, big grading machines moved through the debris followed by asphalt spreaders laying down a black ribbon of new highway in the nation's growing transport network. About 50 miles to the west, in the heart of Jiddah, the ancient Red Sea trading center, bulldozers drove two broad swathes through the labyrinthine "old city" to make way for new intersecting thoroughfares. In a quiet office, out of hearing of the crunching demolition, a banker stirred his tea and told a visitor: "One of the outstanding new industrial projects now being planned here is a detergents manufacturing plant. It is being financed in part by a group of Saudi Arab merchants. It seems to me that this project demonstrates a growing trend in which successful merchants are reinvesting their profits in new Saudi Arab enterprises." Driving through the streets of Jiddah, the visitor was impressedas he had already been in al-Khobar on the Persian Gulf and in Riyadh, the national capitalby the great number of buildings under construction. Tons of concrete flowed daily into sturdy construction forms made of weathered planking. Eight hundred miles across the country in the Eastern Province, Arabia's "oil country," Saudi importers were encouraged to build up warehouse inventories and to expand into new fields of goods and materials by the continued growth of the Arabian American Oil Company's local purchases. In 1961 Aramco spent $11,277,000 for supplies through Saudi Arabian sources, twice the amount spent during the previous year. In the mountains of 'Asir preliminary survey work was being carried forward for an unusual system of dams. United Nations experts in co-operation with the Saudi Arabian Government have drawn up a scheme for capturing the sizeable volume of runoff water that cascades away after a rainfall in the high coastal range. Planning was in the air, not only for the 'Asir dam project but also for broad-gauge industrial expansion. In a report touching on the country's economic potentialities, The New York Times stated that the Saudi Arabian Government had retained Oliver H. Folk, formerly loan officer of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, as a special adviser to its Supreme Planning Board. "On the industrial side," the Times added, "Robert L. Gamer, former head of the International Finance Corporation, an affiliate of the World Bank, has been invited to see what he can do to bring enterprises with established markets and technical 'know-how' to Saudi Arabia." The general air of optimism, however, was not confined only to those men with their eyes on the future. Early in the spring the board of directors of the Saudi Cement Company took a hard look at the country's booming construction program and voted to double the capacity of the company's brand-new plant. What gave the decision a slightly unusual twist was the fact that the plant was so new it hadn't even completed its break-in phase of operations. This ultramodern facility was designed by British civil engineers so that an increase from 300 to 600-tons-per-day production could be accomplished with minimum new construction to accommodate added German processing units. The Saudi directors found straws aplenty in the wind to guide this proposed expansion. For instance, national imports of cement were averaging 1,200 tons per day at the beginning of the second quarter of 1962. In April alone, a record month, 80,000 tons of cement were unloaded at Dammam, Saudi Arabia's second largest port. An already substantial market for "Saudi Cement" (the company's brand name) was expanding rapidly. The quick success of the Saudi Cement Company is the result of careful planning and sound economic strategy. The company appears to be a model of economic fitness. Everything about the operation seems "right." It would be hard to find a better example of the right raw material (native limestone that tests 98 per cent calcium carbonate), at the right place (close to an abundant supply of energy and to growing cities and industries), in the right quantity (a minimum 500-year supply), and one that is being developed at the right time (coincident with the Saudi building boom). Limestone, iron ore and clay are used in manufacturing cement. Gypsum is added as a control agent. The company quarries its limestone on its own property about 500 meters from the plant fence. The clay is quarried 14 kilometers from the plant on a rail spur. The iron ore comes 400 kilometers by truck, the gypsum 200 kilometers. Thus the raw materials are fairly close at handthe principal raw material, limestone (about 84 per cent of the cement), is practically in the plant yard. There is still another aspect of the plant's self-sufficiency that has caused the Saudi Cement Company to be of considerable interest to the country's economic strategists. The fuel for its huge kiln is piped in from a mere 11 kilometers away. The fuel is clean, requires no investment in storage facilities and is readily available. Further, it costs little and there is no danger of a shortage. This ideal energy source is natural gas. With every barrel of crude oil produced in the country, some associated natural gas is produced. Once it has come to the surface, the gas has to be separated from the oil. Thus there is a substantial supply of oil-associated natural gas available for industrial energy or for use in making vital petrochemicals. If one stands at the top of the Saudi Cement Company's "raw materials storage hall," one can see a slender pipeline stretch away from the plant across the desert and disappear in a rise of limestone hills. This eight-inch-diameter line is assured a permanent place in the economic history of Saudi Arabia, for it carries the first natural gas purchased by a major Saudi Arabian industrial enterprise. The slender pipe marks a threshold beyond which lies great potential use of this copious, low-cost energy source. The line extends from Aramco's Shedgum Gas-Oil Separator Plant Number 1 to the cement plant, where the gas is used principally in the kiln. At present the Saudi Cement Company consumes about 1.5 million cubic feet of gas a day, a figure that will be doubled when a second kiln is added next year as part of the expansion program. The kiln is the heart of the cement-making process. It is 90 meters long and 3.2 meters in diameter. Looking like a great toppled smokestack, it rotates on its side on a 13-degree incline. Its steel shell is lined with firebrick which refracts the heat generated by the burning gas. In the "sintering zone," where the finely milled mixture of limestone, iron ore and clay is subject to chemical reactions, the temperature reaches 2,700 degrees F. The aim of the sintering procedure is to create a "clinker"tricalcium silicate. This is cement. The clinkers are cooled and milled, and gypsum is added to control the rate at which the cement will set when it is used. The company imports the bags in which the finished cement is packed, a practice it plans to continue until such time as the local manufacture of bags becomes economical. That time will come when the Saudi Cement Company and another cement company in Riyadh can, between them, use the minimum economic production of a Saudi Arabian bag factory. In the spring of 1962 the Saudi Cement Company became, along with the Saudi Arab Government Railroad, several independent contractors and, of course, the Arabian American Oil Company, one of the largest employers in Arabian industry. It had 320 people on its payroll, 85 per cent of whom were Saudi Arabs. The shops, quarries and work shifts are supervised by Germans. Across the highway from the plant there is a company compound where employee housing is provided: ten houses for the married senior staff, 30 rooms for bachelor intermediate staff and quarters for 80 general staff laborers. Most of the shift employees live 35 kilometers away in Hofuf. Expansion plans call for more housing to be built to bring a greater number of shift workers close to the plant and cut down the time they now spend in transit. A canteen-dining hall is provided for the senior and intermediate staff residents, and a separate menu is available for curry-loving Pakistani employees. Shaikh Ahmad Juffali, one of the country's best-known businessmen, is the managing director of the company. The first discussions toward forming the company were held by the investor group about nine years ago. In 1954 German consultants were brought to Saudi Arabia to determine an ideal location for a cement plant. Their nine-month study led them to the site near Hofuf. During the next several years the plant was engineered and the processing units were fabricated in Germany. In July 1958 the civil construction started, and on the first day of 1960 initial equipment was moved into place. Test production began in October 1961. In the spring of 1962 it would have been difficult to find a Saudi Arabian industrial enterprise more in keeping with the temper of the times than the Saudi Cement Company. The break-in phase of production was nearing its close, and the German engineering representatives of the equipment manufacturer were nearly ready to turn the plant over to its owners. Every day there was a slight haze of fine white dust in the air behind the three kilometers of fencing that encloses the plant yard. The haze saluted the fact that the railway dump cars and trucks were arriving on schedule with clay, gypsum and iron ore deliveries; the compressed air drills were getting the explosive shot holes ready at the nearby limestone quarry; the big Mercedes dump trucks were moving almost six hundred tons of blasted limestone into the plant daily; the conveyor system was running at capacity; the huge milling drums, loosening a steady thunder of tumbling steel balls, were pulverizing, drying and mixing the kiln feed at full production levels; and the bag-filling equipment was delivering a growing curve of shipments to trucks and railway freight cars. The haze in the air could be seenand just as easily apparent was an aura of optimism, the invisible imperative of economic development.

In the spring of 1962 the temper of economic development in Saudi Arabia was decidedly optimistic. Day after day explosives boomed in the stone-ribbed mountains not far from the Holy City of Mecca. Almost as soon as the air cleared, big grading machines moved through the debris followed by asphalt spreaders laying down a black ribbon of new highway in the nation's growing transport network.

About 50 miles to the west, in the heart of Jiddah, the ancient Red Sea trading center, bulldozers drove two broad swathes through the labyrinthine "old city" to make way for new intersecting thoroughfares.

In a quiet office, out of hearing of the crunching demolition, a banker stirred his tea and told a visitor: "One of the outstanding new industrial projects now being planned here is a detergents manufacturing plant. It is being financed in part by a group of Saudi Arab merchants. It seems to me that this project demonstrates a growing trend in which successful merchants are reinvesting their profits in new Saudi Arab enterprises."

Driving through the streets of Jiddah, the visitor was impressedas he had already been in al-Khobar on the Persian Gulf and in Riyadh, the national capitalby the great number of buildings under construction. Tons of concrete flowed daily into sturdy construction forms made of weathered planking.

Eight hundred miles across the country in the Eastern Province, Arabia's "oil country," Saudi importers were encouraged to build up warehouse inventories and to expand into new fields of goods and materials by the continued growth of the Arabian American Oil Company's local purchases. In 1961 Aramco spent $11,277,000 for supplies through Saudi Arabian sources, twice the amount spent during the previous year.

In the mountains of 'Asir preliminary survey work was being carried forward for an unusual system of dams. United Nations experts in co-operation with the Saudi Arabian Government have drawn up a scheme for capturing the sizeable volume of runoff water that cascades away after a rainfall in the high coastal range.

Planning was in the air, not only for the 'Asir dam project but also for broad-gauge industrial expansion. In a report touching on the country's economic potentialities, The New York Times stated that the Saudi Arabian Government had retained Oliver H. Folk, formerly loan officer of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, as a special adviser to its Supreme Planning Board.

"On the industrial side," the Times added, "Robert L. Gamer, former head of the International Finance Corporation, an affiliate of the World Bank, has been invited to see what he can do to bring enterprises with established markets and technical 'know-how' to Saudi Arabia."

The general air of optimism, however, was not confined only to those men with their eyes on the future. Early in the spring the board of directors of the Saudi Cement Company took a hard look at the country's booming construction program and voted to double the capacity of the company's brand-new plant. What gave the decision a slightly unusual twist was the fact that the plant was so new it hadn't even completed its break-in phase of operations.

This ultramodern facility was designed by British civil engineers so that an increase from 300 to 600-tons-per-day production could be accomplished with minimum new construction to accommodate added German processing units. The Saudi directors found straws aplenty in the wind to guide this proposed expansion. For instance, national imports of cement were averaging 1,200 tons per day at the beginning of the second quarter of 1962. In April alone, a record month, 80,000 tons of cement were unloaded at Dammam, Saudi Arabia's second largest port. An already substantial market for "Saudi Cement" (the company's brand name) was expanding rapidly.

The quick success of the Saudi Cement Company is the result of careful planning and sound economic strategy. The company appears to be a model of economic fitness. Everything about the operation seems "right." It would be hard to find a better example of the right raw material (native limestone that tests 98 per cent calcium carbonate), at the right place (close to an abundant supply of energy and to growing cities and industries), in the right quantity (a minimum 500-year supply), and one that is being developed at the right time (coincident with the Saudi building boom). Limestone, iron ore and clay are used in manufacturing cement. Gypsum is added as a control agent. The company quarries its limestone on its own property about 500 meters from the plant fence. The clay is quarried 14 kilometers from the plant on a rail spur. The iron ore comes 400 kilometers by truck, the gypsum 200 kilometers. Thus the raw materials are fairly close at handthe principal raw material, limestone (about 84 per cent of the cement), is practically in the plant yard.

There is still another aspect of the plant's self-sufficiency that has caused the Saudi Cement Company to be of considerable interest to the country's economic strategists. The fuel for its huge kiln is piped in from a mere 11 kilometers away. The fuel is clean, requires no investment in storage facilities and is readily available. Further, it costs little and there is no danger of a shortage. This ideal energy source is natural gas.

With every barrel of crude oil produced in the country, some associated natural gas is produced. Once it has come to the surface, the gas has to be separated from the oil. Thus there is a substantial supply of oil-associated natural gas available for industrial energy or for use in making vital petrochemicals.

If one stands at the top of the Saudi Cement Company's "raw materials storage hall," one can see a slender pipeline stretch away from the plant across the desert and disappear in a rise of limestone hills. This eight-inch-diameter line is assured a permanent place in the economic history of Saudi Arabia, for it carries the first natural gas purchased by a major Saudi Arabian industrial enterprise. The slender pipe marks a threshold beyond which lies great potential use of this copious, low-cost energy source.

The line extends from Aramco's Shedgum Gas-Oil Separator Plant Number 1 to the cement plant, where the gas is used principally in the kiln. At present the Saudi Cement Company consumes about 1.5 million cubic feet of gas a day, a figure that will be doubled when a second kiln is added next year as part of the expansion program.

The kiln is the heart of the cement-making process. It is 90 meters long and 3.2 meters in diameter. Looking like a great toppled smokestack, it rotates on its side on a 13-degree incline. Its steel shell is lined with firebrick which refracts the heat generated by the burning gas. In the "sintering zone," where the finely milled mixture of limestone, iron ore and clay is subject to chemical reactions, the temperature reaches 2,700 degrees F. The aim of the sintering procedure is to create a "clinker"tricalcium silicate. This is cement. The clinkers are cooled and milled, and gypsum is added to control the rate at which the cement will set when it is used.

The company imports the bags in which the finished cement is packed, a practice it plans to continue until such time as the local manufacture of bags becomes economical. That time will come when the Saudi Cement Company and another cement company in Riyadh can, between them, use the minimum economic production of a Saudi Arabian bag factory.

In the spring of 1962 the Saudi Cement Company became, along with the Saudi Arab Government Railroad, several independent contractors and, of course, the Arabian American Oil Company, one of the largest employers in Arabian industry. It had 320 people on its payroll, 85 per cent of whom were Saudi Arabs. The shops, quarries and work shifts are supervised by Germans.

Across the highway from the plant there is a company compound where employee housing is provided: ten houses for the married senior staff, 30 rooms for bachelor intermediate staff and quarters for 80 general staff laborers. Most of the shift employees live 35 kilometers away in Hofuf. Expansion plans call for more housing to be built to bring a greater number of shift workers close to the plant and cut down the time they now spend in transit. A canteen-dining hall is provided for the senior and intermediate staff residents, and a separate menu is available for curry-loving Pakistani employees.

Shaikh Ahmad Juffali, one of the country's best-known businessmen, is the managing director of the company. The first discussions toward forming the company were held by the investor group about nine years ago. In 1954 German consultants were brought to Saudi Arabia to determine an ideal location for a cement plant. Their nine-month study led them to the site near Hofuf.

During the next several years the plant was engineered and the processing units were fabricated in Germany. In July 1958 the civil construction started, and on the first day of 1960 initial equipment was moved into place. Test production began in October 1961.

In the spring of 1962 it would have been difficult to find a Saudi Arabian industrial enterprise more in keeping with the temper of the times than the Saudi Cement Company. The break-in phase of production was nearing its close, and the German engineering representatives of the equipment manufacturer were nearly ready to turn the plant over to its owners.

Every day there was a slight haze of fine white dust in the air behind the three kilometers of fencing that encloses the plant yard. The haze saluted the fact that the railway dump cars and trucks were arriving on schedule with clay, gypsum and iron ore deliveries; the compressed air drills were getting the explosive shot holes ready at the nearby limestone quarry; the big Mercedes dump trucks were moving almost six hundred tons of blasted limestone into the plant daily; the conveyor system was running at capacity; the huge milling drums, loosening a steady thunder of tumbling steel balls, were pulverizing, drying and mixing the kiln feed at full production levels; and the bag-filling equipment was delivering a growing curve of shipments to trucks and railway freight cars.