The laterite nickel ore is complex in composition and can be roughly divided into two types: limonite type and silicon magnesium-nickel type. The main elements are nickel, cobalt and manganese. The laterite mining method generally uses open-pit mining. The ore body generally does not require rock drilling or blasting. Nickel ore processing plant can directly use the excavator to shovel the ore. The thinner ore layers are first collected by the bulldozer and then shovel. nickel mining is divide into copper-nickel mining and extraction of nickel from sulphide ore. Below the cover of the Ramu laterite nickel deposit in Papua New Guinea, there are yellow limonite deposits, residual layers, gravel-bearing residual rocks and pure peridotite bedrock; under the Philippines mining Nonoc laterite ore cover are limonite Layer, transition layer, residual ore layer and bedrock; Cameroon red earth cobalt-nickel ore is red soil layer, breccia, iron-aluminum and serpentine bedrock. In general, the laterite ore mainly contains a gravel layer, and is often accompanied by columnar rock phenomenon with incomplete weathering. Because columnar rocks often have high-grade ore and the blockiness and hardness are relatively large, from the perspective of mineral processing. It is said that it is necessary to use crushing equipment to extract nickel from its ore.
The extraction of nickel process generally consists of crushing, sieving, washing, re-selection, grinding, and slurry concentration, or the nickel leaching method. The target element nickel distribution varies with the nature of the ore, mostly contained in fine-grained grades. For example, the nickel minerals of the Ramu laterite mine in Papua New Guinea are mainly enriched in fine mud of -53 m. There are uncommon, such as Cameroon cobalt nickel manganese laterite ore, the nickel are mainly concentrated in +0. In the grain size above 3mm, the Philippine BNML nickel ore limonite + ore nickel grade above 50mm 2. 89%, the coarser the grade of ore, the higher the grade of nickel.
Laterite nickel ore is often accompanied by a columnar rock with incomplete weathering. The block size may exceed 1m. If you dont crush them, only use the original ore bin to control the ore size. The rock is easily stuck in the sieve hole, affects the normal supply during the nickel extraction process. Therefore, it is recommended that the laterite mine should be crushed better before washing. Conventional stone crushers such as rotary crusher, jaw crusher, impact crusher, hammer crusher, cone crusher and roller crushers, all have a common disadvantage that they cannot effectively handle materials with high mud content, high water content and high viscosity. The double roller crusher can effectively overcome the shortcomings of conventional crusher. the working principle of double roller crusher is that the shearing force acts directly on the ore material through the high-torque, low-speed transmission system, so that the force is along the weak and fragile parts of the material. Produces a huge crushing force to break it, forming a unique crushing particle size control technology. When the crusher is working, the material can be discharged into the upper part of the whole machine. The size of the feed port is larger than that of any crusher, and it is not easy to cause the blockage. The discharge port is also very large, and almost the entire lower part of the equipment can be discharged. product. The movement of the double-toothed tooth causes the material to be broken and can be forcibly discharged, so it is especially suitable for viscous materials and materials with high water content, and the discharge opening is not blocked. The double-roller screening crusher production plant mainly in British MMD company and Sandvik company.
The washing equipment used in the nickel mining process mainly includes a gold trommel scrubber, a spiral washing machine and a stirring scrubbing tank. The Nonoc laterite nickel mine washing system is composed of a cylindrical gold trommel washing machine and two spiral washing machines. The Australian laterite nickel ore is washed by a trommel scrubber. The specifications of the trommel scrubber are: 5m 11. 9m for limonite, 4m 7. 4m is used for residual ore. The grit of the first-stage hydrocyclone of laterite mine is fed into the mixing scrubbing tank and then graded into the second-stage hydrocyclone. The Papua New Guinea laterite nickel mine adopts a combined washing method of a cylinder washing machine and a spiral washer machine. The gold trommel washing machine has a specification of 3m 10m, and the tank type washing machine has a specification of LW36 35. Generally speaking, after a section of crushing, the cylinder size of the cylinder is used to feed the ore 300mm; the size of the log washing machine is 50mm. For most of the laterite nickel ore, the nickel-cobalt is mainly rich in In the 3mm grain class, the grain size above +3mm is discarded as waste rock. For example, 3mm ~ 50mm of laterite mine is recycled by sanding of the log washing machine, and the material of +50mm is thrown through the cylinder of the cylinder washing machine. Waste. But there are also uncommon such as Cameroon cobalt nickel manganese laterite ore, its useful mineral cobalt nickel is mainly rich in + 0. 3mm or more, 0. In the 3mm range, the slime is mainly thrown away as tailings. For this ore type laterite nickel ore, the use of cylindrical washing machine and trough washing machine cannot effectively remove 0. 3mm fine-grain grade slime, this red earth mine washing operation itself does not produce tailings, its purpose is mainly to scrub the ore and the slime, fully stir and de-sludge through a cyclone or hydraulic classification equipment. However, the washing and washing equipment may consider the use of the stirring scrubbing tank, but the washing condition of the stirring scrubbing tank and the energy consumption of the stirring should be fully considered according to the stirring scrubbing test. Extraction of nickel research has a very positive effect on the nickel mining process, extraction of manganese, extraction tin and other mining minerals. Nickel laterite processing is always upgrading. JXSC provides a full of nickel ore mining equipment for nickel mining companies around the world, contact us to know the mining use stone crusher machine price, washing plant price and so on.
Mining Equipment Manufacturers, Our Main Products: Gold Trommel, Gold Wash Plant, Dense Media Separation System, CIP, CIL, Ball Mill, Trommel Scrubber, Shaker Table, Jig Concentrator, Spiral Separator, Slurry Pump, Trommel Screen.
Flotation studies on a nickel ore containing 45% pentlandite, 45% chalcopyrite and 3035% pyrrhotite with seven synthesized N-arylhydroxamic acids revealed that N-phynylacetyl-N-(2,6- dimethylphenyl) hydroxylamine (PANXHA) was observed to have the highest first order rate constant and highest selectivity index for pentlandite. The first order rate constant with PANXHA was also higher than that with potassium amyl xanthate.
A turpentine based product (TBP) increased the copper recovery by 1.52% in the bulk concentrate as compared to the results obtained with potassium butyl xanthate on a rebellious copper-nickel ore containing 2.152.3% Cu and 1.041.1% Ni. However, the poor nickel floatability into the bulk concentrate indicated that TBP can be an effective flotation reagent for differential flotation of Cu-Ni bearing concentrates to preferentially depress pentlandite. TBP is likely to play duel role in augmenting the copper recovery while depressing the nickel sulphide minerals.
After roasting of copper and nickel ores in roasters, a significant amount of sulphur dioxide is released along with the particulate matter. This paper deals with the gas cleaning process and preparation of the released sulphur dioxide rich gas stream that comes out of roasters. The cleaning section consists of the following sequentially connected components: hot gas fans, venturies, washing tower, cooling tower, wet electrostatic precipitators, drying tower, and blower. The system is modeled from first principles, setting up the conservation laws for mass, momentum and energy. To complete the model, parameter estimation based on the least squares estimates is performed. Important variables of the process such as pressure and temperature are extracted from the model and compared with the real measurements in the gas cleaning section of Xstrata Nikkelverk Kristiansand. The model is intended for use in an operator training simulator and for control purpose.
The flotation of CuNi and Ni ores is discussed in Chapter 16 (Volume 1). In most operating plants, the emphasis is usually placed on CuNi and Ni recovery and concentrate grade, and most of the research on these ores was directed towards improvement in CuNi recovery and pentlanditepyrrhotite separation, whereas little or no attention was paid to improvement in recovery of PGM. In operations from the Sudbury Region (Canada), PGM are recovered as by-products of CuNi concentrates. The idealized flowsheet of the Inco Metal PGM recovery flowsheet is shown in Figure 18.4.
Laboratory studies conducted on Falconbridge ores, also from the Sudbury Region, during 1980  showed that PGM recovery can be improved with the use of a secondary collector. Figure 18.5shows the effect of level of secondary collector on PGM recovery in a CuNi bulk concentrate. The highest PGM recoveries were achieved using isobutyl dithiophosphate (Minerec 2087) as the secondary collector.
Plant data from the Copper Cliff Mine showed that about 85% of the platinum was recovered in a CuNi concentrate, most of which was from the nickel concentrate. The plant metallurgical results are shown in Table 18.6. Similar plant results were obtained at other Inco operations.
Improvement in overall PGM recoveries was obtained using xanthate as the primary collector and dithiophosphate as the secondary collector. A slight improvement in metallurgical results was achieved when using mercaptan as the secondary collector.
Sulfuric acid plants are located throughout the industrialized world, Fig. 2.2. Most are located near their product acid's point of use, i.e. near phosphate fertilizer plants, nickel ore leach plants and petroleum refineries. This is because elemental sulfur is cheaper to transport than sulfuric acid. Examples of long distance sulfur shipment are from natural gas purification plants in Alberta, Canada to acid plants near phosphate rock based fertilizer plants in Florida and Australia. A new sulfur-burning sulfuric acid plant (4400 tonnes of acid per day) is costing 75 million U.S. dollars (Sulfuric 2005).
Smelter acid, on the other hand, must be made from byproduct SO2(g) at the smelter and transported to its point of use. An example of this is production of acid at the Cu-Ni smelters in Sudbury, Canada and rail transport of the product acid to fertilizer plants in Florida. A new metallurgical sulfuric acid plant (3760 tonnes of acid per day) is costing 59 million U.S. dollars (Sulfuric 2005).
The segregation roasting reactions may also be classified as solid-solid reactions proceeding through gaseous intermediates. In segregation roasting the objective is to convert nonferrous metals, for example, lateritic nickel ores, to volatile metal chlorides, which are then reduced on the surface of solid reductants (such as coke) that are added to the material charged to the roaster (Rosenqvist, 1974; Habashi, 1970). The overall reaction is represented by
The chlorine necessary for the formation of the hydrogen chloride intermediate may be obtained in a number of ways, for example, by the addition of a few weight percent of calcium chloride to the charge
This article highlights the usefulness of nickel as a metal. Discussion is made about the global sources of this metal in context of its abundance and suitability of extraction. The processes of extraction from nickel ores are mentioned. Narrating its major physical properties, enumeration is made of different nickel alloys and their uses. Moreover, the novelty of nickel alloys as immune to chemically and mechanically aggressive service condition is discussed in consideration of global scenario. Special attention is paid to elaborate upon the time dependent properties of nickel alloys which are required for health monitoring of nickel-based superalloy components employed for strategic applications. Structural evolution in nickel alloys during its processing is enumerated on the basis of information available from current literature. Nickel alloys subjected to different means of surface protection for improvement in corrosion and wear properties are described. Along with this, the chemical degradation of nickel alloys while in use in power plant is also narrated.
Moreover, the module covers the narration on the emerging nickel-based shape memory alloys; attention of readers are drawn further, to those nickel alloys which have emerged as the functional materials of current interest. The use of modeling and simulation to understand structural evolution in some important nickel alloy is highlighted.
The standard ferronickel for steelmaking has a wide range of compositions, from 5% to 25% Ni, Table 10.1. Solar etal. (2008) noted two trends in nickel laterites processing, one favoring high-grade ferronickel (35% to 40% Ni) and the other favoring lower grades (20% to 25% Ni). Because the ores processed vary widely in terms of nickel content and other components, it is natural that both lower and higher reduction degrees are used. Low reductions imply higher slag losses and lower nickel recoveries but also lower power and reductant requirements, whereas higher reductions imply the reverse (Solar etal., 2008). In some cases, nickel scrap and remelts are added to low-grade FeNi to increase nickel content.
The technological scheme for ferronickel smelting in electric includes the following steps (Fig.10.6): preparation and averaging of nickel ore; preparation, dispensing charge materials, and calcining the charge (ore, limestone, coal, and recirculated dust) in the rotating drum furnaces; FeNi smelting with a hot charge supply from rotary kilns, FeNi refining (sulfur removal) in the ladle, followed by purging with oxygen (first in a converter with an acid lining, then with the basic lining); and finally casting of refined ferronickel.
FIGURE 10.6. Flow sheet of ferronickel production: 1, submerged electric arc furnace; 2, slag ladle; 3, ladle for crude FeNi; 4, converter with acid lining (removal of excess Si and Cr); 5, converter with basic (MgO) lining for phosphorus removal; 6, ladle for refined ferronickel; 7, filling/casting machine; 8, storage.
An example of the modern large-scale FeNi smelter was given by Rodd etal. (2010). The sources of sulfur in the charge are carbon reductant and heavy fuel oil (1.8% S) and phosphorus, mainly carbon reductant and nickel ore. The smelting of ferronickel using lean nickel ores usually starts with roasting (calcining) of the ore mixture with limestone (~one third of the ore), anthracite (~1/10 of the ore amount), and recycled dust. Roasting is carried out in rotary kilns (~3 m in diameter, ~75 m in length, with a hot zone length of 9 to 12 m in the case of lean ore processing). The treatment temperature should not exceed 850C to avoid stacking of the charge in the kiln. The hot roasted charge is fed into the submerged arc furnace of 50 MVA with six 1200 mm electrodes (Fig.10.7) operating at a 30 to 40 kA current.
FIGURE 10.7. Ferronickel smelting furnace: 1, shell; 2, lining; 3, cover; 4, gaskets; 5, current bus bars; 6, electrode moving mechanism; 7, electrode shifting mechanism. Numbers indicate the height levels in meters.
This furnace hearth has dimensions ~25 10 5 m, and it is lined with carbon blocks (see Fig.10.7). The furnace has three tap holes for slag and three tap holes for FeNi. Other furnace types (e.g., the round type of 24 to 94 MVA) and novel developed DC furnaces (Jones etal., 1996) are also used for FeNi smelting (Walker etal., 2010). From 1 ton of roasted charge the yield of crude ferronickel is 120 to 140 kg and for slag it is 650 to 700 kg. The slag has <0.02% to 0.06% Ni, <0.02% Co and low basicity (50% to 52% SiO2 versus 25% to 30% [CaO+MgO]), and its main utilization is as a construction material. Slag behavior and reactions during laterite smelting have been analyzed (e.g., by Utigard, 1994).
The costs for constructing an underground mine are considerably higher than those for constructing an open-pit mine, expressed per annual tonne of mined nickel. This and the high cost of working underground explain why underground orebodies must contain higher grades of nickel ore than open-pit orebodies.
Ore grade has a direct effect on mine investment costs expressed in US$ per annual tonne of nickel. Consider two identical ore bodies, one containing 1.25% Ni ore and the other containing 2.5% Ni ore. Achievement of an identical annual production of nickel in ferronickel requires that the 1.25% Ni ore be mined at twice the rate of the 2.5% Ni ore. This, in turn, requires about twice as much plant and equipment (such as trucks) and, consequently, about double the investment.
The same is true for a minerals processing plant it will have to treat 1.25% Ni ore twice as fast as 2.5% Ni ore to achieve the same annual production of nickel-in-concentrate. This will require about twice the amount of concentrator equipment and about double the investment.
Smelter investment costs, per annual tonne of nickel in ferronickel production, are influenced by smelter feed grade rather than by ore grade. The higher the grade of nickel in the smelter feed, the smaller the smelter (and smelter investment) for a given annual tonne of nickel in ferronickel production. This explains why operating laterite mines strive to maximize grade of the smelter feed.
Scandium is a typical trace element of rocks. Its content in the earth's crust is about 6 103 wt%. Scandium does not form its own deposits. Scandium minerals, thortveitite (Sc2[Si2O7]) and sterrettite (ScPO4 2H2O), are very uncommon and have no commercial significance. Minerals, in which scandium is present in the form of isomorphous admixtures with concentration of Sc2O3 ranging from 0.005 to 0.3%, are more extensive.
Scandium mineral raw materials are concentrated in Australia, China, Kazakhstan, Norway, Russia, Ukraine, the USA and Madagascar. In Australia, scandium mineral reserves are contained in nickel and cobalt ore deposits, in Kazakhstan in uranous deposits, in Madagascar and Norway in pegmatite rocks. In Ukraine, scandium is contained in iron ores. In China, scandium mineral reserves are contained in tin, tungsten and iron ore deposits.
Because scandium is a trace element, currently it is usually obtained by means of extraction from waste and middling of metallurgical production, uranium-containing phosphorites, hydrolytic sulfuric acid, scandiumvanadium ores, mine waters and aluminumscandium alloys.
Scandium content in processing products of raw material amounts to 110 ppm. Therefore, starting with the material, initial concentrates are obtained, which are further processed into scandium compounds.
At present, the largest quantity of scandium is mined together with bauxites. Methods of its extraction from the red slime of alumina production are based on direct opening by mineral acids. The distribution of scandium in various minerals is shown in Table 22.23 .
Cobalt production is increasing, mainly from the Democratic Republic of Congo.Change in mine product from metal to relatively impure hydroxide.Extractive metallurgical techniques for cobalt product are reviewed.
The development of renewable energy sources, electric vehicles and lithium-ion batteries has increased the demand for cobalt from the African Copperbelt that traverses the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Zambia. This increased demand has enabled the modernization of the process technology used across the region, resulting in the move from direct electrowinning of copper to solvent extraction-electrowinning. With this change has come a variety of technical challenges in the recovery of cobalt from these sources. The expansion markets for cobalt has resulted in a switch in the form of cobalt produced at the mine site, from metal cathode to cobalt hydroxide. In this paper, we provide an overview the processes currently used to produce cobalt from these copper-cobalt ores. The challenges for the technology in the context of the evolving markets for cobalt are highlighted.
Cobalt and nickel are found together in nature in a large number of deposits. Mining of these metals, together with others technologically associated with electronic advances, is being reactivated to guarantee growing supplies; especially for the fields of batteries, energy accumulation and the decrease in the volume of these essential components for our mobiles, computers, hybrid and electric vehicles. The international price of cobalt shot up 127% in 2017, that of copper increased by 30%, tungsten was up 27%, while the price of lithium has almost doubled since 2015; in conjunction with these figures, certain countries are positioning themselves in certain deposits, such as China in Katanga. These extraction processes have to evolve from optimised technologies to deal with deposits with a lower metal content. Cobalt and nickel are two elements that are well positioned in new technologies, especially those with an energy link.
Cobalt is part of the steel superalloys that work at high temperature with a high yield strength: e.g. magnets (e.g. Alnico, Fernico and Cunico), enamels, coatings, electrodes, batteries and structured cabling for tyres. The most important cobalt minerals are smaltite CoAs2 and cobaltite CoAsS; however, from a technical point of view, the main sources of cobalt are speiss. These materials are a mixture of arsenides that contain appreciable amounts of nickel, cobalt, iron and silver. The main cobalt reserves are found in the Congo, Russia, Peru, Canada, Finland, Chile, Burma, Morocco and Zimbabwe. Normally, arsenic is also a constituent of these minerals. The initial treatment of these arsenides is crushing and concentration by flotation or gravity. The parts enriched with nickel, cobalt, and often also iron, are mixed with metallurgical coke. This coke is obtained from bituminous coal in ovens with an oxygen-free atmosphere, removing the volatile content and obtaining a porous coal suitable for these metallurgical treatments. The ore is mixed with calcium oxide and silica, producing a slag. This makes it possible to separate silver, a mixture of materials rich in copper, nickel and cobalt and a scorifiable residue. This mixture rich in copper, nickel and cobalt is what is technically called speiss. Getting from this mixture to the pure metal is a complex process.
Nickel is normally found in nature combined with arsenic, antimony and sulfur in the form of sulfides. Approximately 65% of nickel is used in the manufacture of austenitic stainless steel and another 21% in the manufacture of superalloys. The rest is used for the manufacture of other alloys (Alnico, mu-metals, monel, nitinol) and catalysts. Canada, Cuba and Russia produce 70% of the nickel in the world. Bolivia, Colombia and New Caledonia also have significant deposits. The mineral sources of nickel are millerite, NiS, as well as deposits of NiSb, NiAs2, NiAsS, NiSbS and garnierite Si4O13[Ni, Mg]22H2O. The most important deposits from a commercial point of view are those of garnierite, which is a magnesium and nickel silicate of variable composition and combined with pyrrotin (FenSn+1) that contains 3-5% nickel. Nickel alloyed with iron is also found in meteorites.
In general, nickel is obtained by roasting nickel sulphides in air to obtain NiO. This is then reduced with carbon to obtain nickel metal. The nickel is purified by combining carbon monoxide with impure nickel at 50C and atmospheric pressure, or from the mixture of nickel and copper, under more complex conditions, obtaining Ni(CO)4, which is volatile. By thermal decomposition at 200C, pure nickel is recovered at high purity.
When talking about nickel and cobalt metallurgy, different types of deposits must be distinguished. Firstly, there are the limonite laterite deposits. They are soils located in warm regions noted for their low silica concentration and high oxide content. These materials are usually treated with hydrometallurgical methods: the CARON process (leaching generated by ammonium carbonate) and the PAL process (high pressure acid leaching). The PAL metallurgical process involves preheating the ore and leaching with concentrated sulfuric acid at high temperatures and pressures. The chemical species of nickel and cobalt by hydrometallurgical chemical process are soluble sulfate salts, which are recovered from dissolution in a countercurrent decanting circuit (CCD). CCD involves washing the residue and recovering soluble nickel and cobalt. The remaining acid is neutralised using a calcium carbonate suspension, which produces a calcium sulfate precipitate. Hydrogen sulfide can be injected to precipitate nickel and other sulfides. After this, there is another leaching stage to remove iron and copper, and finally nickel is precipitated by the addition of ammonia, ammonium sulfate and hydrogen. One of the most used processes to treat nickel and cobalt speiss is that used by the company, Sherritt Gordon Mines Ltd, from Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, Canada.
The nickel and cobalt metallurgy processes begin with an initial treatment of the mineral, re-concentrating it through crushing and flotation/gravity and obtaining a speiss, rich in cobalt and nickel. The process begins by adding the sulfide-associated mineral to a reactor with sulfuric acid and pressurised air. This procedure removes the sulphides to obtain nickel (II) sulfate and cobalt (II) sulfate in solution. In this first dissolution stage, the sulfide is removed.
Precipitation of Fe3+ occurs in the form of Fe2O3 and SiO2. Iron is usually associated with cobalt and nickel sulphides and must be separated. By regulating the pH to values close to 7, it precipitates. Subsequently, under the same conditions of pressurised air and ammonia, oxidation of Co2+ to Co3+ occurs.
Cobalt (II) in aqueous solution in the presence of ammonia easily oxidises to Co (III) with the formation of a complex. The majority of complexing agents are ligands from weak acids, i.e. Brnsted bases and therefore the pH value is a critical factor for the formation and stabilisation of the complex. The effective concentration of the ligand in the solution, determined by the pH, affects the dissolution of the complex. In general, the complex dissociates less at high pH values, as the free ligand predominates at those pH values.
However, the oxidation of Co (II) to Co (III) is not easy since Co (II) compounds are much more stable and the coordination compounds of Co (III) hardly exchange ligands, unlike those of Co (II). So the chemistry requires time and you cannot provide heat energy to the system, as almost always you get a mixture of the two complexes, those of Co (II) and those of Co (III). For this reason, the reactor is brought to temperatures of 80C and air pressures of 9 atmospheres. An explanation can be given by considering the data in the following table;
In the next step, sulfuric acid is added to produce nickel and ammonium sulfate (NiSO4 (NH4)2SO4.H2O). This has a green colour and is poorly soluble in water; thus, precipitation is favoured. In this step, this salt is evaporated and crystallised repeatedly to increase the purity of the crystals. These nickel and ammonium bisulfate crystals are treated with a concentrated solution of NaOH to form Ni(OH)2. Nickel hydroxide is dissolved by sulfuric acid to form nickel sulfate, which is reduced by electrolysis: Ni2+ to Ni0. The ammonium sulfate solutions allow the recovery of ammonia by stripping.
At present, the large cobalt and nickel ores are in the process of clear depletion and the main ores of these two metals are constituted by minor mineral concentrations in ores formed by different metals. This requires the mineral extraction processes to be modified in each case.
Cobalt hydroxide can be converted into cobalt oxide by calcination. This cobalt (III) oxide may have zinc oxide as an impurity, so this must be treated at a weakly acidic pH to separate it from cobalt. Finally, cobalt hydroxide can be converted by calcination of cobalt (III) oxide.
Another of the methods most used for the treatment of concentrated metal mixtures is the treatment with extracting agents. In this process, a concentrated solution is treated by leaching sulfuric acid in species such as nickel, copper and iron. First, the high concentration of sulfuric acid is treated with amine to reduce its concentration. Secondly, the pH is adjusted to between 3 and 4 which facilitates the precipitation of iron. The copper and nickel remain In solution. The copper is solvent extracted. The types of solvent used in this process are organic ones such as oximes, diethyldithiocarbamate, butyl acetates and ketoximes. These solvents form organometallic chelates with the metallic species in question, in this case copper, which are soluble in the organic phase.
The aqueous phase is enriched with NaCN to facilitate the formation of nickel complexes and accentuate the difference between the two phases, so that the two species are stabilised in their respective phases.
Crundwell, F, Moats, M, Ramachandran, V, Robinson, T, & Davenport, WG 2011, Extractive Metallurgy of Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals, Elsevier Science, Oxford. Available from: ProQuest Ebook Central. [31 July 2017].
Jeffrey M.I., Linda L.,. Breuer P.L, Chu C.K. A kinetic and electrochemical study of the ammonia cyanide process for leaching gold in solutions containing copper. Minerals Engineering 15 (2002) 11731180
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Cobalt (Co) is a transition metal featuring unique physical properties which makes its use critical for many high-tech applications such as high strength materials, magnets and most importantly, rechargeable batteries. The bulk of world cobalt output usually arises as a by-product of extracting other metals, mostly nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu), from a wide variety of deposit types mostly Cu-Co sediment-hosted deposits, but also Ni-Co laterites, Ni-Cu-Co sulphides or hydrothermal and volcanogenic deposits. Significant differences in ore properties (geochemistry, mineralogy, alteration and physical properties) exist between cobalt-containing deposits, as well as within a single deposit, which can host a range of ore types. Variability of cobalt ores makes it challenging to develop a single extraction or treatment process that will be able to accommodate all geometallurgical variation. Overall, there is a lack of fundamental knowledge on cobalt minerals and their processability. The recovery efficiency for cobalt is generally low, in particular for processes involving flotation and smelting, leading to significant cobalt losses to mine tailings or smelter slags. This paper starts by reviewing the main geometallurgical properties of cobalt ores, with a particular focus on ore mineralogy which exerts a significant control over ore processing behaviour and cobalt extraction, such as the oxidation state, i.e. oxide or sulphides which drives the selection of the processing route (leaching vs flotation), and the associated gangue mineralogy, which can affect acid consumption during leaching or flotation performance. The main processing routes and associated specific geometallurgical aspects of each deposit type are presented. The paper concludes on the future cobalt prospects, in terms of primary and secondary resources, cobalt processing and sustainable cobalt sourcing for which further research is needed.