Grinding ismachining process thats used to remove material from a workpiece via a grinding wheel. As the grinding wheel turns, it cuts material off the workpiece while creating a smooth surface texture in the process.
A mechanical process using arotating grinding wheel made from abrasive material containing small particles of grit ranging from fine to coarse. The wheel revolves around a central axis, making contact with the surface of the workpiece, while the particles act as cutting tools that cut chips from the material.
Agrinding machine, often shortened togrinder, is one of power tools ormachinetools used forgrinding, it is a type of machining using an abrasive wheel as the cutting tool. Each grain of abrasive on the wheels surface cuts a small chip from the workpiece via shear deformation.
Types of Grinding Machine: Parts, Working Principle & Grinding Wheel :- A grinding machine is an industrial power tool that is used to perform the grinding operation. Grinding is the process of removing excess material from a workpiece by the application of the abrasion technique. Generally grinding is a finishing operation that is carried out after other machining operations. In the grinding process, abrasion takes place between abrasive material and workpiece by relative motion. In industrial uses, this relative motion is employed with the help of an electrical motor. This is generally electrically operated but, in some cases, other modes of operation can be used.
The grinding machine works on the principle of the grinding process. This is a machining process in which finishing work is carried out on the workpiece. In this process, a solid object composed of abrasive particles is given a relative motion with the workpiece. Due to this relative motion when these abrasive particles come in contact with the workpiece abrasion takes place and excess material is removed from the workpiece.
Generally, in this process, a wheel which is made up of abrasive particles is used which is known as a grinding wheel. This grinding wheel is rotated by an electrical motor. The rpm ranges between 150-15000 RPM depending on the type of machine and operation which is to be performed and finishing quality.
Grinding machine varies with the type of uses. A lot of variety of machines are available. So according to our requirement, the selection of grinding machine is necessary for the best output. Following are the few factors/parameters which plays a very important role in the selection of grinding machine
This depends on the region where the machine is to be used. For example, if a machine is used in India, then frequency and volt-rating should be 50Hz and 230V but for another region like the USA, the frequency and volt-rating should be 60Hz and 110V.
This is also the main parameter that affects the economy of the machine. For small process low power grinding machine are suitable and for large process the power rating should be increased as per requirement.
The movement of grinding head is fixed in different machine. In some machines head is not adjustable and in others head can be moved in one direction or in two directions. As per our requirement the machine is to be selected.
It is the most essential steps for the selection of grinding machine. It totally affects the cost and time in process. Mostly internal, external, and external centres type grinding machines are used. The requirement of these machines has increased in the market. For internal finishing of cylindrical objects internal grinder are used. External grinding machine are used to mainly finishing operations. External types machines are also available in centre less type in which two grinding wheels are provided for the centre of the work piece.
The volume of grinding operation is also important parameter. As a grinding machine has a capability of removing a certain amount volume that is to be removed. For small scale operation where the volume is low hence low volume machines are sufficient. On other hand for machining operation or large-scale operation high volume machine is good. Hence there is a requirement of a large-scale machine with a high investment for massive material grinding.
Latest grinding machines like SMSB SGC 3000 build use of diamond dressing wheels. These machines have the capability of grinding at least forty times more metals than normal machines. The oversized wheels of such grinding machines can grind larger objects at a faster rate. These kinds of machines are faster as compared to smaller manual course grinding.
Several kinds of activities involve manual efforts. Today, machines have several automated features that need fewer manual efforts. It may base the choice to buy the perfect grinding machines on experienced workers and wages. You should not get confused regarding this machine since certain machines become completely turned the way of working.
When labour costs are too high and there is a lack of labour, the semi-automated machine is best. The manual grinding process can trigger health risks. Thus, it is beneficial to use the semi-automation grinding machines. Businesses should follow safety standards. They should offer their labours bulletproof glasses and partial automation.
Grinding wheel is the most important part of the grinding machine. Grinding wheel performs the actual grinding operation. It consists mainly two components one is grinding cutting compound and other is bonding material between abrasives. It is mounted over the electrical motor shaft which rotates at very high speed.
It is very heavy and high strength part of the grinding machine. It rests on the ground and isolates the vibration to machine from the ground. It is made up of cast-iron casting. Other parts of the machine are mounted over it.
Table is mounted over the guide ways on which it can slide. Generally, two tables are provided, one is lower and other is upper. One of them is used for transverse motion and other is used for cross feed. These tables can be feed by hand or power.
It is mounted on the left side of the table. It is a casing in wheel driving mechanism, motor and gearbox is fitted. Control buttons are provided outside of it to control the speed of the motor. At the exit of head stock spindle with Chuck is provided to hold the work piece.
It consists of Grinding Wheel and driving motor and mounted on the middle of the table by some offset to the centre line of Tailstock and headstock. This is placed on the cross feed which moves perpendicular to the workpiece. Feed for the grinding wheel can be provided by hand or power.
As name suggests, these are small and light weight grinders. These are used where carrying the work piece to the grinder is not possible. In that case portable grinders are go to solution. These are very small and compact that it can be carried in one hand. These are low power consuming. For example, these are used in cutting of tiles and pipes.
This is similar to the above type of grinders, but the main difference is that it is used in cutting and machining operation. In this grinder belts having abrasive grains are used for operation and transmission of power as well. These have high grain size. These are more costly than floor and portable grinder.
Swing frame grinders are different from other grinders. As name says that the frame of grinding machine is moveable which makes easy to use in complicated space. In this grinder frame can independently move without moving the grinding wheel. This is used for heavy size work pieces.
Surface grinder is mostly like small table structure. The main component of this is abrasive wheel, a Chuck and a table which can swivel on the horizontal plane. The Chuck is used to hold the work piece and the with the help of table work piece is fed towards the grinding wheel.
Cylindrical grinders are big size grinders which are used to grind heavy parts. The main components of this type of grinder are base, bed, headstock, tailstock, work table and grinding wheel. The work piece is mounted on the Chuck of the headstock. When Chuck rotates the work, piece is also rotating. The grinding wheel mounted beside the headstock is fed towards the work piece by means of hand or power. Grinding wheel is driven by its own motor.
When grinding wheel comes in contact with work piece, due to relative velocity grinding operation takes place. The grinding wheel is mounted on cross feed which can move it in direction perpendicular to the work piece. This is more or like centre lathe machine type structure.
Tool and cutter grinders are used in CNC machines because it has multiple grinding wheels axes so that there is no need of changing the grinding wheel for the different operation. These grinders are mainly used in sharpening and making of cutting tools like milling cutters, drills, endmills, and step tools. It is widely used in metal cutting and wood working industries.
These grinders are used mainly for finishing process. In these grinders the abrasive particles are mounted on the internal side of the grinding wheel. These are used for grinding of cylindrical profiles from inside. These ranges from small to big size depending on the size of work piece.
Tags: Abrasive Belt Grinding MachineBench Grinding MachineCylindrical Grinding MachineGrinding WheelInternal Grinding MachineParts of Grinding MachinePortable Grinding MachineSurface Grinding MachineSwing Frame Grinding MachineTool & Cutter Grinding MachineTypes of Grinding MachinesWhat is a Grinding MachineWorking Principle of Grinding Machine
The Grinding Machine is another most important machine in the manufacturing Industry. Today we will study the Definition, Parts, Working Principle, Operation, Advantages, Application of the Grinding machine in detail.
A grinding machine is a production machine tool used in the manufacturing industry in which the grinding wheel is attached in the tool post and the workpiece is fixed to the work table and when the operation starts it removes the unwanted material to get the desired surface finish, correct size, and accurate shape of the workpiece.
It is also known as the Abrasive Grinding Machining Process. Why Abrasive Grinding Machining Process? Because the abrasives are placed on the surface to do the finishing process with much more accuracy.
The grinding machine is widely used to finish the workpiece. Do you know why? Because the work removal rate is low between 0.25 to 0.5 mm. (This can be advantages or disadvantages also for various types of works).
The base or Bed is made up of cast iron. It is situated horizontally and it is the bottom part of the grinding machine, provides support to all the grinding parts. When machine operation starts some vibration occurs therefore base acts as an absorber of vibrations.
In this section, the abrasive wheels which are our tool for operation are placed and this is moved vertically up and down. With the use of a Feed hand, we can adjust the wheel head. Moving this wheel head down so that the grinding wheel can touch the workpiece. The wheel head consists of a grinding wheel and driving motor.
Grinding or Abrasive wheel is our main tool used here to remove the unwanted material from the workpiece to get desired smoothness and surface finish. The wheels are coated with an abrasive particle. The abrasive wheel comes with various types and properties which I have discussed here : Grinding or Abrasive Wheel.
The main work of the coolant supply nozzle is to cool or reduce the temperature generated while performing the operation. If this part is not there then there are many chances of wear and tear happen because of the high temperature between the wheel and the workpiece. The coolant may be water or any other oil.
In brief, we can say the working of the Grinding Machine is the Workpiece is fed against the rotating abrasive wheel. The action of rubbing or friction generates between wok price and tool therefore the material removes.
Surface grinding involves grinding flat surfaces and is one of the most common grinding operations. Typically the workpiece is secured on a magnetic Chuck attached to the worktable of the grinder. Nonmagnetic materials generally are needed by vises special fixtures, vacuum Chucks.
A straight wheel is mounted on the horizontal spindle of the grinder. Transverse grinding occurs as the table reciprocating. Longitudinally and feels latterly after each stroke. In plunge grinding the wheel is moved radially into the workpiece as it is when grinding a groove.
The rotating cylindrical workpiece reciprocates laterally along its axis in a grinder used for the large and long workpieces. The grinding wheel reciprocate called a roll grinder cylindrical grinders are identified by the maximum diameter and length of the workpiece that can be ground similar to engine lathes.
In universal grinders, both the workpiece and the wheel axes can be moved and swiveled around a horizontal plane permitting the grinding of tapers and other shapes. This typical applications include crankshaft bearing spindles pins , bearing rings and rolls for rolling mills.
It is done on cylindrical grinders with specially dressed wheels matching the shape of the thread as well as using a centerless grinder. Although costly thread produced by grinding is the most accurate of any manufacturing process and has a very fine surface finish.
In an internal grinding, a small wheel is used to grind the inside diameter of the part, such as bushings and bearing races. The workpiece is held in a Rotating Chuck. The headstock of internal grinders can be swiveled on a horizontal plane to grind tapered holes. Whereas
Here we have discussed the Definition, Parts, Working Principle, Operation, Advantages, Application of the Grinding Machine in detail. I have also written many articles on Manufacturing Technology you can check that too.
The bed is made of cast iron which rests on the floor and carries all the machine part. The bed houses the table drive mechanism and, on the top, some accurately machined guideways are provided at the right angle so that table can slide on it.
There are two tables in some types of grinders; the lower and the upper table. The lower table is designed to produce a transverse movement to the work by sliding one the guideways on the bed, which is achieved by power or by hand. Whilst the upper table is located at the centre over the sliding table and containing a headstock and tailstock, which move at any direction along the table to hold the workpiece. The upper table can be swivelled and clamped for grinding straight or tapered surface.
This grinding machine part consists of a grinding wheel and a driving motor. The wheel head is mounted on a slide at the rear end of the base and moves perpendicularly to the table ways. This is done by power or hand when feeding the grinding wheel to the work.
Hand Grinding Machine Part and Functions Hand grinding machine is a machine used for leveling and cutting workpieces. It has important parts in the form of a series of electrical components interconnected with each other.
From these parts of the grinding machine, produce a rotation of the motion energy. And that round that moves the grinding disk. The round of the grinding disk will rub with the workpiece and produce a cutting or leveling step depending on the disk direction of the grinding.
The components of hand grinding machines generally use electrical energy resources. However, there are also use wind energy sources, namely by utilizing the wind pressure generated by the compressor engine. The following is the name of parts the hand grinding machine and its function. And every component of the hand grinding machine has its own function. For more details, see the following descriptions.
Armature is the main shaft on the hand grinding machine. This part is made of copper rolls. At one end there was a fan that functioned as a cooling and a round balancer. And at one end there is a collector that serves as a place of friction between the rotor with carbon brash. In this armature part is attached to two bearing fruit that functions as the place of a mount armature itself.
It is part of a silent hand grinding machine. Serves to move the armature. The shape is elongated circles made of regularly arranged copper reels. At either end of the roll, there are two cable lines that have different functions. The one cable serves as a liaison with the home carbon brush. While the other cable is a connection to the power source.
Among the general public, this item is often referred to as charcoal/spool grinders. It is a solid carbon engine grinding machine that serves as an electrical conducer. At the end there is a pear that serves to ensure the carbon brush is always attached to the collector. This type of carbon brush is very diverse, ranging from small to large size.
The connecting gears are part of the hand grinding machine of a pair of interlocking gears. The shape of both of the gears is tyre, so when combined will result in a round motion that is straight-shaped. The tooth shape of the connecting gears is straight and there are also slanted. Usually every brand and type of hand grinding machine is always different.
The switch is part of the hand grinding machine that serves as a connector and electrical power breaker. The location is usually located on the cover of the hand grinding machine or there is also located on the back of the hand grinding machine. The switches on the hand grinding machine are usually also equipped with speed control. This speed organizer serves to quickly regulate the rotation of the hand grinding machine.
That is the part that serves as the seat of the mounting shaft of the hand grinding machine (armature). In the hand grinding machine, there are usually three bearings. The two bearings are attached to both the armature end, and the other is at the end of the hand grinding machine. These bearings have a very varied number and size. So if we are going to buy hand grinding machine bearings, do not forget to preview the number listed on the bear cap.
The Flange or grinding disk clamp is a pair of iron plates that serve as the place of grinding disk. This section is at the end of the hand grinding machine. In this flange, there is a hole that serves to enter the key of the grinding disk when it will remove or install the grinding disk.
The next part is the grinding disk. The shape of the grinding disk is like a flat disc and various types and functions. Before using the grinding disk, we must understand first of the types and functions of each of the grinding disk. Because each grinding disk has different functions.
On the hand grinding machine there is a protector that is on the Machine Head. The protector serves to direct the friction between the grinding and workpiece eyes, so that the direction will be determined by the protective position that can be set in position.
Grinding machines, like broaching machines, operate over a range of speeds depending on the type of machine being used. These range from approximately 1250 to 2000m min1, although in high-speed grinding speeds of up to 5400m/min are achievable (Schey, 1987). The two most common grinding applications are cylindrical grinding and surface grinding. The wheel speed can be determined as follows:
Peel grinding machines offer a modern approach that achieves flexible grinding operations of a variety of diameters, grooves, thrust faces and forms using one set-up. Peel grinding is often compared with hard turning where a tool is traversed along a hardened workpiece following an appropriate form. Peel grinding operates in a similar mode removing a narrow strip of material as the grinding wheel is traversed along the programmed path. A typical operation is shown schematically in Figure 6.9. Grinding forces are minimized by using a very high-speed narrow superabrasive grinding wheel. Low grinding forces limit workpiece deflections and allow good accuracies to be achieved. Low forces also mean that components can be clamped using low clamping forces. This often allows components to be rotated by a driven centre. The use of superabrasive CBN wheels allows a number of diameters or faces to be ground with less frequent dressing in the case of vitrified CBN wheels or without dressing in the case of plated CBN wheels. Some peel grinding machines but not all have a swivel head for angle grinding. Angle grinding has an advantage for face grinding as explained in Chapter 5.
Peel grinding may be considered as one end of the HEDG spectrum of processes. Because a narrow wheel contact width is employed and rather more moderate depths of cut, power consumption is much lower than in HEDG. Grinding wheel wear is minimized and improved grinding ratios are achieved by using high-speed superabrasive wheels.
Surface grinding machines for ceramics can be divided into (1) creep-feed grinding type and (2) reciprocating (speed-stroke) grinding type. Reciprocating grinding works with relatively small depth of cut and high speeds (up to 40,000 mm/min) and requires particular specifications of the driving system such as high damping and acceleration. On the other hand, creep-feed grinding works with large depth of cut (e.g., more than 1 mm). For this purpose, it is necessary to work with a low and smooth feed velocity of less than 60 mm/min. Because of the large depth of cut, the contact length is high, the number of cutting edges is large, and thus the normal force acting between wheel and workpiece is relatively high. As a result, surface grinders for creep-feed machining must have a high static stiffness against these normal forces.
Grinding spindle drives of surface grinding machines require steplessly adjustable numbers of rotation speed up to about 10,000 min1. In dependence on the grinding wheel diameter, cutting speeds of about 400 m/s are achieved so that high speed machining conditions are reached. The spindle power of surface grinders depends on the field of application and may amount up to 80 kW.
Coolant supply of a surface grinding machine must provide high coolant flux (400 l/min) and high coolant pressure (300 kPa) to guarantee effective cooling of the workpiece and cleaning of the wheel. In combination with the small particle size of ceramic chips, high requirements also have to be met by the coolant purification system. Because oil is the common cooling liquid in ceramic machining, a completely sealed working area combined with an efficient suction of oil mist is required, in order to avoid danger of fire or explosion.
Furthermore, surface grinding machines can be sub-divided into three main types of construction: (1) the column, (2) moving column, and (3) transverse construction. An example of the column type grinder is shown in Figure 4.73. The design depicts a few characteristics for ceramic machining and provides a high-quality machined surface. By compact construction of the machine components as well as by using cast iron material for the machine bed, a high-static, dynamic, and good thermal symmetrical behavior is attained. A special device for trueing and dressing of diamond grinding wheels allows the application of the rotary trueing stones.
A surface grinder in moving column construction is shown in Figure 4.74, which is also appropriate for ceramic machining. In addition, the machine is provided with an external cylindrical grinding device. The concept is based on the specifications required for utilizing CBN and diamond grinding wheels. The moving column travels on a central bed and carries the grinding spindle and the spindle motor. These machine components made of polymeric concrete assure high rigidity and good damping.
The external feed drive device controlled by a CNC axis is developed for creep-feed grinding operations. The rotational speed is adjustable up to 25 l/min. A specific trueing device mounted on the top of the grinding wheel allows continuous dressing (CD) during grinding. Intermediate dressing with a table trueing device is also possible. Furthermore, the machine is fitted with complete measuring devices to record information on the workpiece, tool, and machine system .
Precision grinding machines, as with all production machines, are subject to wear. This means there must be a programme of planned maintenance or checking for sustained quality and output. Some machine designs are less prone to the effects of wear than others and this can be an important consideration in machine selection. In-process gauging can overcome the effects of wear to some extent but some types of wear are more serious than others. For example, wear of rolling contact bearings causes irregularity of motion and can seriously detract from the ultimate surface quality. Accuracy of spindle bearings and spindle-bearing condition are critical as little can be done to correct for poor spindle performance.
Precision grinding machines as with all production machines are subject to wear. This means there must be a program of planned maintenance or checking for sustained quality and output. Some designs of machine are less prone to the effects of wear than others, and this can be an important consideration in machine selection. In-process gauging can overcome the effects of wear to some extent, but some types of wear are more serious than others. For example, wear of rolling contact bearings causes irregularity of motion and can seriously detract from the ultimate surface quality. Accuracy of spindle bearings and spindle bearing condition are critical since little can be done to correct for poor spindle performance. Hydrostatic and aerostatic bearings are sometimes employed to avoid wear and to achieve the highest accuracy and longest service life (Rowe, 2012).
Table 10.1 lists the elements involved in grinding size and shape accuracy. The elements include the machine, the slide positioning, fixtures/work mounting arrangements, the grinding wheel and the workpiece. In addition, other tribological factors come into play for surface integrity and surface roughness. These include machine vibrations, grinding wheel grain size and structure and material characteristics such as hardness and toughness.
Currently electrochemical grinding (ECG) machines, developed by Everite Ltd are the only commercial combined hybrid machine tools that combine both grinding and ECM processes. UG 824  is an ECG surface grinder machine tool. It is able to process any conductive material that is electrochemically reactive. It can produce burr-free and stress-free parts without heat or other metallurgical damage caused by mechanical grinding, eliminating the need for secondary machining operations. Like ECM, ECG generates little or no heat that can distort delicate components.
The traveling distances of the X, Y, and Z axes of the machine are 600, 300, and 200mm, respectively. The maximum rotating speed of the work spindle is up to 4000rpm. ECG Technology can easily machine most metals with hardness >Rc 65 such as titanium, tool steel, and CoCr and also some brittle materials such as zirconium. The advantages of ECG process are burr-free production, low cutting force, free of heat stress, no heat affected zone, no work hardening, no recast layer, no metallurgical damage, and faster than EDM.
The above reviews show that vibration-assisted hybrid machines are the most established hybrid machines and have already gained wide industrial applications. Other hybrid machines such as hybrid laser and mechanical machining machines and hybrid additive and subtractive machines are in the initial stages of industrial validation.
The stiffness characteristics of a grinding machine vary with frequency. This can be shown by exciting a machine structure using well-known methods. Typical methods include the use of electromagnetic or hydraulic vibrators to excite the machine over a range of frequencies. Vibration measurement transducers are used to check amplitudes at different locations on the machine. Another technique is to use a force-instrumented hammer to excite the machine impulsively. The impulsive technique is usually less accurate and more difficult to apply than harmonic excitation.
The vibration shape at resonance can be found by positioning a vibration measurement transducer at various points on the machine and noting the amplitude at each point. Plotting the amplitudes on a diagram of the machine shape builds up a picture of the machine vibration. It is also helpful to measure the phase between the excitation force and the response. From the various amplitudes, the shape of each vibration mode can be plotted.
A machine has many resonances although some are more important than others. It is important to be aware that the excitation position and the response measurement position have a substantial effect on the resonant frequencies measured. In Figure 12.7, the excitation was applied horizontally to the grinding wheel-head, and the responses were measured at a nearby wheel-head position. In this case, the machine was free-standing on four levelling pads. A dominant sideways rocking mode resonance at 36Hz was found. There is a lesser resonance for sideways excitation caused by forward and backward rocking at 32Hz. Rocking modes such as these are found for most machines.
The rocking modes in this example had a relatively small influence on the accuracy of the process compared to the dominance of the vibration amplitudes. This is because at the frequency of vibration, the whole machine rocked almost as a solid body with only small relative vibration between the two wheel-heads. It is the relative vibration between the two heads that is critical for workpiece shape (Rowe, 1964).
The rocking modes can be eliminated by fixing the machine rigidly to the foundations as in Figure 12.8. In this figure, it becomes apparent that there are three relative vibration resonances. The most important resonance is the tuning fork vibration mode where the two wheel-heads vibrate in anti-phase. It is this tuning fork vibration mode shown at 82Hz that is most susceptible to relative excitation by the grinding force and is most strongly associated with work-regenerative chatter.
A more informative way of viewing frequency responses is by means of a polar plot of amplitude and phase as in Figure 12.9. At low frequency, the deflection is in phase with the applied excitation force. At resonance, the deflection lags the applied force. Figure 12.9 shows relative vibration responses between the control wheel and the work-plate position when the aforementioned centreless machine was vibrated at the control wheel. The first resonance was at 82Hz but was found to be reduced to 78Hz when excitation was applied between the two grinding wheels.
Additional vibration responses are found at higher frequency modes. These become important when grinding large workpieces at low work speeds. For example, the first grinding wheel spindle mode was found at 240Hz.
Light-running tests show the effect of the various motors, pumps, belts, pulleys, dressing wheels and grinding wheels. The machine should be mounted on foundations in such a way as to minimize vibrations and the rotating parts carefully balanced. The light-running amplitudes can be measured by positioning transducers at various positions as in excitation tests. Typical light-running vibrations for relative vibrations between the two wheel-heads of the same centreless grinding machine as above are shown in Figure 12.10. The grinding wheel motor running at 24.2Hz has a strong effect on the light-running vibrations. The effect is demonstrated not only at the corresponding frequency but also at approximate harmonics of this frequency at 48, 63 and 97Hz. The spindle speed was 30Hz, but since the spindle was carefully balanced there is no direct evidence of this frequency. Impulsive vibrations due to belts cause vibration over a range of frequencies but particularly at resonant frequencies identified from excitation tests.
The wheel head of some cylindrical grinding machines may be swivelled so that the spindle axis is inclined to the work axis as shown in Figure 12.23. A section in plane AB shows that the contact between the shoulder of the workpiece and the wheel is similar to that of a surface grinding operation where the wheel periphery is used. Ideally the same force/grit is desired when grinding the shoulder as when grinding the diameter, so that self-sharpening conditions occur at each grinding position. It is obvious that for most practical conditions of operating
Excessive glazing at the shoulder is less likely to occur for these conditions than when full contact at the shoulder is made by using the wheel with its axis parallel to the work axis. A very important saving is made in wheel dressing, because both surfaces can be redressed continually without loss of the face width of the wheel as indicated in Figure 12.23.
The ball-milling process is common in grinding machines as well as in reactors where various functional materials can be created by mechanochemical synthesis. A simple milling process reduces both CO2 generation and energy consumption during materials production. Herein a novel mechanochemical approach 1-3) to produce sophisticated carbon nanomaterials is reported. It is demonstrated that unique carbon nanostructures including carbon nanotubes and carbon onions are synthesized by high-speed ball-milling of steel balls. It is considered that the gas-phase reaction takes place around the surface of steel balls under local high temperatures induced by the collision-friction energy in ball-milling process, which results in phase separated unique carbon nanomaterials.
A grinding machine is a machine for material removal with geometrically non-defined, bonded cutting edges, where the relative movement between tool and workpiece is rotational or linear. The machine further must provide relative feed and positioning movements between tool and workpiece. The movements between tool support (spindle) and workpiece follow a defined geometrical path it is path defined.
Material removal with geometrical non-defined cutting edges is considered as material removal that is made by a large number of cutting edges normally on abrasive grains, which are undefined, with respect to number, shape, and/or position, where the envelope over all stochastically distributed cutting edges defines the tool geometry.
Grinding with linear relative movement is called pitch grinding. If the reciprocating linear movement is coupled with a continuous rotational movement, the process is called honing. Belt grinders, where a belt to which the abrasive...
In the last session, we had discussed the Milling machine and Drilling Machine whereas in Todays session, we will discuss on Surface Grinding Machine along with its Definition, Parts, Working, Advantages, Disadvantages, and Applications in a detailed way.
Surface Grinding Machine is a machine in which a grinding wheel is used as a cutting tool for removing the material from the surface of the workpiece. It is also called an abrasive machining process where abrasives are placed on the surface and corners of the grinding wheel so as to do the finishing process with much more accuracy.
When thepower supply is givenand suitable speed is provided to the grinding wheel, the grinding wheel rotates on the surface of the workpiece to remove the material from the surface of the workpiece till high accuracy is obtained.
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