ppt cement manufacturing process

ppc cement manufacturing process - portland pozzolana cement plant | agico

What is Portland pozzolana cement? The hydraulic cementitious materials made of Portland cement clinker, pozzolanic material, and a proper amount of gypsum are all called Portland pozzolana cement (PPC cement). It is a kind of blended cement which is manufactured by mixing and fine-grinding silicate cement clinker, pozzolanic material, and gypsum.

Pozzolanic materials contain active silica and aluminum and usually do not have any cementitious properties. But when they are mixed with water and lime at ambient temperatures, they will react with calcium hydroxide to form compounds possessing cementitious properties. The commonly used pozzolanic materials can be classified as natural or artificial:

Portland pozzolana cement shall be manufactured by mixing and inter-grinding Portland cement clinker, pozzolanic materials, and gypsum. The manufacturing process is approximately the same as ordinary Portland cement, which can be divided into four processes: raw material crushing, raw material grinding, clinker calcination, and cement grinding.

Limestone and clay are the main material for Portland cement production. After mining, these raw material stones are unloaded by trucks and sent into crushers for reducing particle size. Then they are piled in a pre-homogenization yard waiting for processing.

Fine particle size raw materials are fed into the raw mill in a desired proportion for further particle size reduction, then they are stored in silos, meanwhile completing the material blending and homogenization process.

Cement raw meals are sent into a cement rotary kiln to be calcined under a high temperature. After several chemical reactions are produced, some spherical gray particles, what we called clinker, are formed. In cement cooler, these hot clinkers will be cooled to a normal temperature.

After cooling, the clinker is mixed with pozzolanic materials and gypsum in a required proportion and then sent to the cement mill for final grinding. The cement powder is usually stored in cement silos, then bagged and stored in the warehouse.

In the Portland pozzolana cement manufacturing process, we need a variety of cement equipment. AGICO, as a cement plant supplier in China, offers different cement solutions and cement manufacturing equipment.

Portland pozzolana cement, portland slag cement, and portland fly ash cement are all made by adding active admixture and an appropriate amount of gypsum based on Portland cement clinker. They are similar in nature and scope of application, so they can be used interchangeably in most cases. However, the physical properties and characteristics of the active admixture are different, which makes the three types of cement have their unique characteristics.

Slow setting and hardening, low early strength, and high late strength. The clinker content of the three kinds of cement is small, and the secondary hydration reaction is slow, while their later strength exceeds the ordinary Portland cement of the same grade.

Sensitive to temperature and humidity, suitable for high-temperature curing. When the three types of cement are cured at high temperatures, the hydration of the active mixture and clinker will be accelerated, and the early strength is improved without affecting the development of the later strength. Ordinary Portland cement, although the use of high-temperature curing can improve the early strength, the development of later strength will be affected.

Good corrosion resistance. They have good corrosion resistance and are suitable for the environment containing sulfate, magnesium salt, soft water, etc. However, when the corrosion resistance requirements are high, it is not suitable for the application.

Poor frost resistance. Slag and fly ash are easy to bleed to form connected pores. As to pozzolana, it has a large water storage capacity, which will increase the internal pore number. Therefore, the frost resistance of the three types of cement is poor.

Composite Portland cement: the early strength of composite Portland cement is higher than slag (or pozzolana, fly ash) cement, closes to ordinary Portland cement. It has low hydration heat, good corrosion resistance, impermeability, and frost resistance.

AGICO Group is an integrative enterprise group. It is a Chinese company that specialized in manufacturing and exporting cement plants and cement equipment, providing the turnkey project from project design, equipment installation and equipment commissioning to equipment maintenance.

cement manufacturing process - civil engineering

The raw cement ingredients needed for cement production are limestone (calcium), sand and clay (silicon, aluminum, iron), shale, fly ash, mill scale and bauxite. The ore rocks are quarried and crushed to smaller pieces of about 6 inches. Secondary crushers or hammer mills then reduce them to even smaller size of 3 inches. After that, the ingredients are prepared for pyroprocessing.

The crushed raw ingredients are made ready for the cement making process in the kiln by combining them with additives and grinding them to ensure a fine homogenous mixture. The composition of cement is proportioned here depending on the desired properties of the cement. Generally, limestone is 80% and remaining 20% is the clay. In the cement plant, the raw mix is dried (moisture content reduced to less than 1%); heavy wheel type rollers and rotating tables blend the raw mix and then the roller crushes it to a fine powder to be stored in silos and fed to the kiln.

A pre-heating chamber consists of a series of cyclones that utilizes the hot gases produced from the kiln in order to reduce energy consumption and make the cement making process more environment-friendly. The raw materials are passed through here and turned into oxides to be burned in the kiln.

The kiln phase is the principal stage of the cement production process. Here, clinker is produced from the raw mix through a series of chemical reactions between calcium and silicon dioxide compounds. Though the process is complex, the events of the clinker production can be written in the following sequence:

The kiln is angled by 3 degrees to the horizontal to allow the material to pass through it, over a period of 20 to 30 minutes. By the time the raw-mix reaches the lower part of the kiln, clinker forms and comes out of the kiln in marble-sized nodules.

After exiting the kiln, the clinker is rapidly cooled down from 2000C to 100C-200C by passing air over it. At this stage, different additives are combined with the clinker to be ground in order to produce the final product, cement. Gypsum, added to and ground with clinker, regulates the setting time and gives the most important property of cement, compressive strength. It also prevents agglomeration and coating of the powder at the surface of balls and mill wall. Some organic substances, such as Triethanolamine (used at 0.1 wt.%), are added as grinding aids to avoid powder agglomeration. Other additives sometimes used are ethylene glycol, oleic acid and dodecyl-benzene sulphonate.

The heat produced by the clinker is circulated back to the kiln to save energy. The last stage of making cement is the final grinding process. In the cement plant, there are rotating drums fitted with steel balls. Clinker, after being cooled, is transferred to these rotating drums and ground into such a fine powder that each pound of it contains 150 billion grains. This powder is the final product, cement.

Cement is conveyed from grinding mills to silos (large storage tanks) where it is packed in 20-40 kg bags. Most of the product is shipped in bulk quantities by trucks, trains or ships, and only a small amount is packed for customers who need small quantities.

Please note that the information in Civiltoday.com is designed to provide general information on the topics presented. The information provided should not be used as a substitute for professional services.

cement manufacturing process: what is cement made of

These are sedimentary, calcium carbonate rocks (CaC03). Most commonly they contain a small amount of magnesium carbonate also.Besides, usual impurities in limestones are those of iron oxides, silica, and alkalies.

The raw materials (limestone and clay) are subjected to such processes as, crushing, drying, grinding, proportioning, and blending or mixing before they are fed to the kilns for calcination or burning process.

The drying stage is typical of the Dry Process. Drying of crushed materials is essential and is achieved by heating these materials (separately) at temperatures sufficiently high to drive out uncombined water.

Each raw material is thus reduced to a required degree of fineness and is stored separately in suitable storage tanks called SILOS or bins where from it can be drawn out conveniently in requisite quantities.

The blended materials are now ready for feeding into the burning kilns. From this stage onwards, there is practically no major difference between the dry and wet processes, except in the design of the rotary kiln.

(c) Compound Formation: Lime and magnesia as formed above are combined in the next stage with silica, alumina and ferric oxide to form the basic compounds of cement, namely, the tri-calcium and di-calcium silicates, tri-calcium aluminates and tetra-calcium-alunino ferrite.

energy efficiency at the core of cement manufacturing at ultratech cement

UltraTech has imbibed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a business objective and is working towards reducing its energy consumption and carbon emissions. UltraTech Cement is continuously working on various initiatives to improve its energy efficiency through technological upgradation, process optimization, and productivity improvement. The company has undertaken several process efficiencies, utility optimisations and operational control measures across stages of production and across its plants to ensure energy savings. Switching from carbon intensive sources of energy (e.g coal, petcoke etc) to green and cleaner sources of energy including waste heat recovery systems (WHRS), solar power and wind power are also means to reduce carbon emissions.

Watts from Waste UltraTech was one of the first in the Indian cement industry to embrace the technology of WHRS. Waste heat recovery has proved to be an inexpensive energy source in addition to moderating the carbon footprint. This has enhanced energy security (accounting for 20% of power needs) for the company. UltraTech Cement has an aggregate capacity of about 59 MW in waste heat recovery systems.

Setting benchmarks The company is one of the best in the industry in terms of specific thermal energy consumption (704 kcal/kg of clinker) as compared to its peers (Global Average is 843.28, India Average is 731). UltraTech has overachieved its energy reduction target with a saving of 85,040 tonnes of oil equivalent (TOE) in its performance for Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) cycle 1. UltraTech is on track to achieve the next phase of PAT cycle targets.

Leading through innovation Jafrabad Cement Works, an integrated cement unit of UltraTech, in Amreli, Gujarat, was able to save three million units of electric energy annually through an improvement in the preheater fan in slip power recovery system (SPRS) mode. This has helped the unit reduce around 2460 tonnes of carbon emission. This system can be replicated across the business where fans operate in SPRS mode. The biggest advantage of this this initiative is that it does not require any stoppage in plant operations for implementation. Awarpur Cement Works, an integrated cement unit in Chandrapur, Maharashtra, recently upgraded its existing kiln system by adding a new in-line calciner (ILC) preheater which helps in lowering NOx emissions. This is a six-stage preheater which helps to use more heat from exit flue gases for preheating of kiln feed as compared to old four-stage preheater system. This leads to lower specific power and heat consumption. The specific power consumption reduced by 18.5 % and specific heat consumption reduced by 4.3% for the kiln.

cement manufacturing: ways to reduce co2 emissions

However, cement manufacturing is linked inexorably to the ongoing phenomenon of climate change. Greenhouse gases like CO2 trap the suns heat and cause the average temperature to increase in the world. For the last one million years, the total CO2 concentration in the earths atmosphere averaged between 100 and 300 ppm(parts per million).

This equilibrium changed during the industrial revolution when the CO2 concentration started rising rapidly due to the increasing use of coal as a heating source. In the second half of the 19th century, the CO2 growth was exponential and as recently as September 2019, the total CO2 concentration in the world crossed 410 ppm, a value which is extraordinary in the history of the Earth.

In terms of weight, roughly 900 g of CO2 is produced as a by-product, for every 1 kg of cement produced. This is the uniqueness of the cement process, wherein CO2 is produced in substantial quantity, along with the main product (cement).

In the past, cement producers have targeted specific fuel consumption as a means of both improving the economy of operation as well as reducing CO2 emissions. Over the last thirty years, the specific fuel consumption of cement manufacturing has decreased by 40%, which directly reduces the CO2 emission by the same magnitude. Furthermore, coal, which is conventionally used for combustion, is increasingly being replaced by alternative fuels like Municipal solid waste (MSW), rubber tires, dried sewage sludge, etc.

In fact, it is the industrys best-kept secret that cement kilns are the last and best resort for recycling almost any waste produced in human societies. Since the kiln combustion happens at 1500 C, almost anything which has volatile matter could be burnt as an alternative fuel, and the burnt ash is a beneficial additive for the cement end product. Single-use plastics, which are becoming a pressing issue for the environment lately, can be a very good candidate for recycling in cement manufacturing. Additional research is needed to work out the intricate details of such plastic recycling.

Substituting conventional coal with alternative fuel achieves twin benefits by removing harmful waste from the environment as well as reducing process CO2 emissions in the cement kilns.The biggest stumbling block for wider usage of alternate fuels is turning out to be the cost of transportation. Cement manufacturing is a low margin process which cannot justify the added cost of transporting waste over long distances. It is, in fact, not economically viable to transport waste over 200 km for burning in cement kilns, assuming cement is priced normally as is done now.

Typically, governments have alleviated this issue by providing incentives to cement plants that process waste as fuel. The incentives vary from a straightforward payment per ton of waste burnt to the provisioning of carbon credits, which could be utilized towards the mandated emission norms. Perhaps an additional way that should be looked at by the governments is to encourage more private players in waste processing.

Private players could unlock more value in the waste streams by recovering useful minerals and transporting the remaining in an efficient way to the cement plants. For cement plants, this would ensure a stable and predictable supply of processed waste which is beneficial for their operation.

Nevertheless, in order to have a true zero-emission cement plant, more work needs to be done. As mentioned earlier, cement produces CO2 as a by-product, so, unless the CO2 is captured, stored or utilized, it is not possible to drastically reduce the emissions from the cement plant, CO2 capture being the easiest part of the process.

There are ready solutions available that can capture the emitted CO2 from the process: Oxyfuel combustion, chemical looping, all-electric process heating, etc. are some of the technologies that are in various stages of development for carbon(CO2) capture.

Storage of the captured CO2 is slightly more complicated and, presently, the most viable option seems to be the pumping of CO2 into used oil wells and other geological formations. The utilization of captured CO2 into other beneficial minerals is still in its early stages.

However, installing these technologies in a process like cement is not viable in todays economy. The average cost of production of cement is 58 /tonne. With a limited profit margin, investment costs and limited potential for realizing carbon costs, the currently viable selling price for cement is 78 /tonne.

Unfortunately, the operation of CO2 reduction using technologies available today costs roughly 60 /tonne of cement produced. This is comparable to the production cost of cement itself. In other words, a cement manufacturer might roughly spend the same cost for preventing CO2 emission as he spends on producing cement. Therefore, it is unviable in the present economic scenario for a sustainable cement manufacturer to realize a reasonable return on his investment.

This is because, at present, only the end product (Cement) is priced and sold by the manufacturer. The environmental cost of production is borne by society as a whole.This pricing structure needs to be inverted for the sustainable manufacturing of cement. The price of cement should include both the cost of cement manufacturing as well as the cost of not emitting CO2.

Establishing a market for CO2 is the most efficient way of calculating its cost. Initial steps along this line are already been taken in the form of carbon credits in the EU. This needs to be made more universal with strong regulation and covering all sources of carbon emission, both industrial and non-industrial. And this market should become global with all countries partnering and becoming part of it.

Alternatively, another localized solution is possible if the cement manufacturer is allowed to realize its manufacturing price including the cost of preventing CO2 emission. This could work by establishing a green cement similar to organic vegetables, priced higher compared to the normal variety:

Either way, the challenge of sustainable cement manufacturing is not technological but economic. The solution would be to re-align the economy by rewarding environmentally sustainable products which will ensure that cement production becomes more sustainable in the long run.

cement plant process flow diagram ppt

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Cement Manufacturing Process Flow Chart Ppt. I03 cement June 2010 GSgct IEAETSAP. 2015731&enspbasic methods to produce cement are the wet and dry manufacturing processes. The main difference between wet and dry process is the mix preparation method prior to burning clinker in the kiln. In the wet process water is added to the raw materials to form a .

took place in design of cement plant equipment/systems. The analysis shows that there are Strong areas such as opencast lime stone mining, lime Stone crushing & stacking, raw material handling & Grinding, coal grinding, preheater kiln & cooler, Clinker grinding (cement mill), packing plant & Loading plant, quality control. It also provides the brief description about the .

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A process flow diagram (PFD) is a diagram used in chemical and process engineering to indicate the general flow of plant processes and equipment. Chemical and Process Engineering Solution from the Industrial Engineering Area of ConceptDraw Solution Park is a unique tool which contains variety of predesigned process flow diagram symbols for easy creating various Chemical and Process Flow ...

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1971-08-17 materials are produced in portland cement manufacturing plants. A diagram of the process, which encompasses production of both portland and masonry cement, is shown in Figure 11.6-1. As shown in the figure, the process can be divided into the following primary components: raw materials acquisition and handling, kiln feed preparation, pyroprocessing, and finished cement .

1971-08-17 A diagram of the process, which encompasses production of both portland and masonry cement, is shown in Figure 11.6-1. As shown in the figure, the process can be divided into the following primary components: raw materials acquisition and handling, kiln feed preparation, pyroprocessing, and finished cement grinding.

2012-08-30 Now cement plant grind the raw mix with the help of heavy wheel type rollers and rotating table. Rotating table rotates continuously under the roller and brought the raw mix in contact with the roller. Roller crushes the material to a fine powder and finishes the job. Raw mix is stored in a pre-homogenization pile after grinding raw mix to fine powder. Cement Manufacturing Process Phase III ...

cement manufacturing process flow chart ppt. Sep 17 2015 The Electrostatic Precipitators are used in cement plants particularly for removal of dust from the exit gases of cement kilns and from the exhaust air discharged by dryers combined grinding and drying plants finishing mills and raw mills through water injection 08 Kiln A kiln is the heart of any cement plant

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2014-06-10 Evolution of the cement Process Wet process easiest to control chemistry & better for moist raw materials. Wet process high fuel requirements - fuel needed to evaporate 30+% slurry water. Dry process kilns less fuel requirements Preheater/Precalciner further enhance fuel efficiency & allow for high production rates. 17.

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The study evaluates the energy consumption of both wet and dry processes cement manufacturing plant in Nigeria. En- ergy consumption data collected for the period 2003 to 2011 were used to estimate the energy consumption of the crushing, milling, agitation, burning, grinding and bagging operations. The total energy evaluation was based on the three primary energy .

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Cement Production Process June 2020 Cement is considered as one of the vital construction materials due to its exceptional property and effectiveness that fulfill the need for developing of small and heavy engineering.

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The larger existing kiln in a wet process plant produces 3600 tonnes of clinker per day. The manufacture of cement by wet process is energy intensive and thus uneconomical as compared to dry process and semi dry process. Also Read: OPC vs PPC: How to Make the Right Choice. Tanvi Lad. Tanvi Lad is a Senior Manager (Civil). She gained her BE in Civil Engineering .

Cement Manufacturing Process Flow Chart Ppt. I03 cement June 2010 GSgct IEAETSAP. 2015731&enspbasic methods to produce cement are the wet and dry manufacturing processes. The main difference between wet and dry process is the mix preparation method prior to burning clinker in the kiln. In the wet process water is added to the raw materials to form a .

cement manufacturing process | phases | flow chart | cement | engineering intro

Cement is the basic ingredient of construction and the most widely used construction material. It is a very critical ingredient, because only cement has the ability of enhancing viscosity of concrete which in returns provides the better locking of sand and gravels together in a concrete mix.

Cement uses raw materials that cover calcium, silicon, iron and aluminum. Such raw materials are limestone, clay and sand. Limestone is for calcium. It is combined with much smaller proportions of sand and clay. Sand & clay fulfill the need of silicon, iron and aluminum.

Generally cement plants are fixed where the quarry of limestone is near bye. This saves the extra fuel cost and makes cement somehow economical. Raw materials are extracted from the quarry and by means of conveyor belt material is transported to the cement plant.

There are also various other raw materials used for cement manufacturing. For example shale, fly ash, mill scale and bauxite. These raw materials are directly brought from other sources because of small requirements.

Before transportation of raw materials to the cement plant, large size rocks are crushed into smaller size rocks with the help of crusher at quarry. Crusher reduces the size of large rocks to the size of gravels.

The raw materials from quarry are now routed in plant laboratory where, they are analyzed and proper proportioning of limestone and clay are making possible before the beginning of grinding. Generally, limestone is 80% and remaining 20% is the clay.

Now cement plant grind the raw mix with the help of heavy wheel type rollers and rotating table. Rotating table rotates continuously under the roller and brought the raw mix in contact with the roller. Roller crushes the material to a fine powder and finishes the job. Raw mix is stored in a pre-homogenization pile after grinding raw mix to fine powder.

After final grinding, the material is ready to face the pre-heating chamber. Pre-heater chamber consists of series of vertical cyclone from where the raw material passes before facing the kiln. Pre-heating chamber utilizes the emitting hot gases from kiln. Pre-heating of the material saves the energy and make plant environmental friendly.

Kiln is a huge rotating furnace also called as the heart of cement making process. Here, raw material is heated up to 1450 C. This temperature begins a chemical reaction so called decarbonation. In this reaction material (like limestone) releases the carbon dioxide. High temperature of kiln makes slurry of the material.

The series of chemical reactions between calcium and silicon dioxide compounds form the primary constituents of cement i.e., calcium silicate. Kiln is heating up from the exit side by the use of natural gas and coal. When material reaches the lower part of the kiln, it forms the shape of clinker.

After passing out from the kiln, clinkers are cooled by mean of forced air. Clinker released the absorb heat and cool down to lower temperature. Released heat by clinker is reused by recirculating it back to the kiln. This too saves energy.

Final process of 5th phase is the final grinding. There is a horizontal filled with steel balls. Clinker reach in this rotating drum after cooling. Here, steel balls tumble and crush the clinker into a very fine powder. This fine powder is considered as cement. During grinding gypsum is also added to the mix in small percentage that controls the setting of cement.

Material is directly conveyed to the silos (silos are the large storage tanks of cement) from the grinding mills. Further, it is packed to about 20-40 kg bags. Only a small percent of cement is packed in the bags only for those customers whom need is very small. The remaining cement is shipped in bulk quantities by mean of trucks, rails or ships.

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