refining machine

gold refining systems - safe & simple - machines and equipment for gold and silver electrolytic, wohlwill and aqua regia refining, purification, processing, recovery

Traditionally, the resources necessary to refine, recycle gold, safely and effectively, have been available only to large scale jewelers and precious metal miners, refiners--seldom to small or medium-scale refineries and jewelry businesses, and never to individuals interested in buying scrap gold to turn it into a precious keepsake. That's all changed, though, thanks to Gold Refining Systems, Inc., a company devoted to helping jewelers and refiners of all sizes to refine, recover gold safely, efficiently, and with ease.

Our gold refining systems offer you what you need to refine gold of any kind-- whether its scrap gold, fine gold jewelry, karat gold, gold from mining, prospecting or gold of any other type. The system even works for other precious metals, including silver, platinum, and palladium. But what sets Gold Refining Systems, Inc. apart is our innovative technology:

For the first time ever, gold processing can be done with a high level of confidence and safety, from a very small jewelry business to medium scale refinery. The process is simple and easy. By using our REFINEIT system, all the user has to do is melt the gold in an ingot, submerge the gold in the gold refining equipment we provide, then wait. The next day, pure, 24-karat gold will be waiting!

Gold Refining Systems not only makes the gold refining, reclaiming process easy, but also clean and safe. By using our Safe Gold Refining Technology products, the jeweler or refiner eliminates the production of toxic fumes. Nothing like Aqua Regia, Miller process, inquarting - parting process, with large quantities of toxic fumes produced, toxic gases, boiling acids.

The gold refining systems we offer are cutting edge, and, unlike anything else on the market, they offer an effective alternative to commonplace refining processes like Miller, Wohlwill, Aqua Regia, and inquarting-parting. Our electrolytic machines take what is typically multi-step process dangerous process and turn it into a single-step procedure that can be done quickly, easily, and without the presence of dangerous or irritating fumes. Smelt your low karat gold, place in to the system, wash refined 24K gold, use it.

equipment - stardew valley wiki

Equipment is a term used on the wiki (not in-game) for useful crafted or purchased items in Stardew Valley. You craft most types of equipment from raw materials according to recipes that you learn, usually by advancing in skill levels. You can purchase some equipment from vendors instead of crafting it. At least one piece of fishing tackle must be purchased, and cannot be crafted.

prospector's gold & gems | hand poured silver & gold bars

Since 1999 Prospectors Gold and Gems has been producing highly unique hand poured gold and silver bars. Providing an alternative to identical machine pressed bullion, no two bars will ever be the same. Consisting of different shapes, bubble indentations, pour lines, and a polished satin finish, every hand poured bar will make a great addition to your precious metal stack!

Prospectors Gold and Gems is also a leading precious metal refinery and pays top dollar for your scrap silver and gold! Scrap gold and silver is refined into .999 pure form, and is used in many of the bars you see for sale today.

taking artificial intelligence where the human brain goes | infosys

The human brain intelligent and unique is challenging scientists, who are determined to decode its complexity and unlock possibilities to enhance human lives. By harnessing artificial intelligence (AI), they have already made breakthroughs in man-machine interactions through Watson, Siri, and more. But, for AI to have a truly transformational impact, artificial neural networks need to be further reinforced by human native intelligence.

The human brain has advanced over time in responding to survival instincts, harnessing intellectual curiosity, and managing demands of nature. When humans got an inkling about the dynamics of the environment, we began our quest to replicate nature.

Our success in imitating nature has been related to advances in science and technology. Take for example, our aspiration for flight. We replicated wings to achieve safe and long-haul air travel. However, we are aware that inflexible aircraft wings are not an exact replacement, and a likely solution may lie in the Self-Assembly Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). It is developing a 4D printing technique to create aircraft wings that adapt to aerodynamic conditions.

While the human brain finds ways to exceed our physical capabilities, the combination of mathematics, algorithms, computational methods, and statistical models is accelerating our scientific pursuit. Artificial Intelligence (AI) gathered momentum after Alan Mathison Turing developed a mathematical model for biological morphogenesis, and authored a seminal paper on computing intelligence. Today, AI has grown from data models for problem-solving to artificial neural networks a computational model based on the structure and functions of human biological neural networks.

The first generation of AI created machine learning systems. Machine learning focuses on the development of computer programs that can change, or learn, when exposed to new data. Algorithms from the first generation of AI taught machines to identify images and objects, see obstructions, correlate, and discover relationships between variables. It resulted in intelligent applications that managed single tasks at a time.

AI makes industrial machinery accurate, reliable, and self-healing; and paves the way for calibrated performance resembling human action. Modeling techniques locate indecisive voters, identify crops that are most suitable for a specific topography, and verify clinical diagnosis and treatment. AI integrates with robotic controls, vision-based sensing, and geospatial systems to automate advanced systems. It enhances disease prevention and treatment, boosts engineering systems, and drives self-organizing supply chains. As of today, AI provides near-human customer care at the Royal Bank of Scotland, and assesses insurance claims at Fukoku Mutual Life Insurance.

In fact, we now rely on machines for decision-making across processes underwriting, recruitment, fraud detection, maintenance, and more. Real Core Energy uses machine learning algorithms that evaluate production and performance parameters to guide oil drilling operations as well as investment decisions. 1800-Flowers.com gift conciergeservice uses AI to recommend gifts. It combines customer interaction with macro buying trends and consumer behavior to recommend personalized gifting ideas. Philips has developed a deep learning-based, automatic screening solution for detecting tuberculosis, a disease that affects 2.5 million people in India.

The human race conceded to artificial intelligence in move # 37 of the game between Lee Sedol, the world champion of Go, and AlphaGo in Seoul, South Korea. Experts took weeks to understand the wisdom of the AlphaGo machine.

The structure of artificial neural networks is inspired by the human nervous system. It helps train machines to make sense of speech, images, and patterns. DeepFace, the Facebook facial recognition system, was trained to recognize human faces in digital images by using millions of uploaded images. Researchers at MIT have developed a model for facial recognition that duplicates the neurological functions of the human brain.

Computational neuroscience bridges the gap between human intelligence and AI by creating theoretical models of the human brain for inter-disciplinary studies on its functions, including vision, motion, sensory control, and learning.

Research in human cognition is revealing a deeper understanding of our nervous system and its complex processing capabilities. Models that offer rich insights into memory, information processing, and speech / object recognition are simultaneously reshaping AI.

A nuanced understanding of the structure of the human brain can help restructure hierarchical deep learning models. Deep learning, a branch of machine learning, is based on a set of algorithms that attempt to model high-level abstractions in data. It will enhance speech / image recognition programs and language processing tools by understanding facial expressions, gestures, tone of voice, and other abstracts. We are at the threshold of experiencing advances in speech technology that will lead to more practical digital assistants and accurate facial recognition that will take security systems to the next level.

However, contemporary deep neural networks do not process information the way the human brain does. These networks are highly data-dependent and should be trained to accomplish even simple tasks. Complex processes require large volumes of data to be annotated with rich descriptors and tagged accurately for the machine to learn. Further, deep learning systems consume far more power than the human brain (20 watts) for the same amount of work.

We need to discover less intensive machine learning approaches to augment artificial intelligence with native intelligence. Our world is awash with data from Internet of Things (IOT) applications. Deep neural networks capable of consuming big data for self-learning will be immensely useful. Just as children identify trees despite variations in size, shape, and orientation, augmented intelligence systems should learn with less data or independently harness knowledge from the ecosystem to accelerate learning. Such self-learning algorithms are necessary for truly personalized products and services.

The interface imperative The merger of human intelligence and AI will turn computers into super-humans or humanoids that far exceed human abilities. However, it requires computing models that integrate visual and natural language processing, just as the human brain does, for comprehensive communication.

Language learning skill is one of the defining traits of human intelligence. Since the meaning of words changes with context, learning human language is difficult for computers. AI-embedded, virtual assistants can address complex requests and engage in meaningful dialogue only when they think and speak the human language. Machines should learn to understand richer context for human-like communication skills. They should be endowed with richer cognitive capabilities to interpret voice and images correctly.

AI systems such as IBMs Watson, Amazons Alexa, Apples Siri, and Google Assistant will become more useful, if enhancements to the quality of language and sensory processing, reasoning, and contextualization are achieved. Voice-activated devices and smart machines will create a centralized, artificial intelligence network or intelligent Internet, which will redefine man-machine and machine-machine collaboration.

In the near future, drones with built-in navigation systems will deliver goods in crowded cities. And smart home appliances will translate recipes, assemble ingredients in response to voice commands, and serve gourmet meals.

Of course, as computers become more powerful, more networked, and more human, they become capable of independent interaction with stakeholders. However, creativity and strategic thinking differentiate the human race from artificially intelligent entities. Today, we do not fully understand concepts that make our intelligence unique. We need to know more deeply how the human mind operates, as a means to incorporate emotional and social intelligence into machines. Human beings will continue to control everything until machines become self-referential systems. Till then, we must revisit our ecosystem, which spans education systems, skill development processes, and social welfare models, to make way for more efficient methods.

AI systems will be a force multiplier for every industry and human activity. It can transform billions of lives via myriad applications, and solve fundamental issues: clean the air we breathe, purify the water we drink, enrich the food we consume, and ensure our wellness.All it needs is that the person-to-machine user interface mimics the brain-to-brain interface.

The world will be a better place for successive generations when technology works in transformative and invisible ways. While native intelligence of the human race has produced inventions that are ubiquitous, the confluence of human intelligence and artificial intelligence will amplify growth and deliver sustainable progress.

oms launches "oms elearning academy for downstream refining operations"

HOUSTON, June 30, 2021 /PRNewswire/ --Offsite Management Systems LLC (OMS) has launched their "OMS eLearning Academy" to offer online courses for the downstream oil Refinery Offsite Operations. The academy provides 200+ extensive courses to eLearn to Manage Infrastructure, Control manufacturing, Optimize production, and Reconcile hydrocarbons. Downstream refineries produce 85-90% of their end products like gasoline, diesel, fuel oil, etc., in offsite areas peripheral to onsite process units. Therefore, inefficient and sub-optimal production of these products can affect the refinery's bottom line. For example, a 100KB/day refinery can lose 2-3 M$/year of tangible benefits by merely selling gasoline just 0.1 octane above its grade Octane spec.

The academy curriculum features interactive free, structured, Choose N Enroll, specialized, live, and hybrid streaming curriculum. These courses target refinery executives, managers, engineers, operators, management and technical consultants, EPC vendors, fresh engineering graduates, and students. And they vary in length from 2 hours to 72 hours of online learning to teach the latest refinery technology and management strategies to regain lost tangible benefits. The format of the courses is in high-quality interactive audio-video with English/Spanish subtitles.

The academy curriculum features interactive free, structured, Choose N Enroll, specialized, live, and hybrid streaming curriculum. These courses target refinery executives, managers, engineers, operators, management and technical consultants, EPC vendors, fresh engineering graduates, and students. And they vary in length from 2 hours to 72 hours of online learning to teach the latest refinery technology and management strategies to regain lost tangible benefits. The format of the courses is in high-quality interactive audio-video with English/Spanish subtitles.

OMS eLearning Academy courses cost about 25-30% of similar public courses and save refineries millions of dollars per year in training their new and existing staff. Dr. Suresh Agrawal, Founder & CEO, has taught these courses for both public and private audiences for 25+ years and has earned a reputation for premium content and interactive and stimulating presentations. The academy features "eLearn whatever you want and take whenever, wherever and however you want."

"I have not attended any training course before which is so organized, exceptional, rich in topics and presented excellently. I learned a lot about fuel blending in this course, thanks to the instructor. Sergio Carvajal IST corporation, Bogota".

"The course was exciting as I could relate the refining and auto industry problems and challenges in terms of fuel quality specifications and ways to meet them economically. Jay Cummings, General Motors"

refine | definition of refine by merriam-webster

These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'refine.' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.

oil refining machine - waste oil desulfurization | yangjiang

The waste oil refining plant can recycle the waste oil into yellow base oil, which can not only effectively remove impurities, water, acids, organic acids and inorganic acids, but also remove carbon particulate matter and peroxide. In gasoline/diesel oil, asphalt and colloids and other sludge can be similarly removed, and the color can be changed to gold to remove odors.

The waste oil desulfurization refining machine can quickly remove water and sulfide in oil. The oil it can process includes: waste engine oil, tire oil, plastic oil, bunker oil, and the processed oil will eventually become clean yellow diesel.Yangjiang's desulfurization extraction equipment can reduce the sulfur content of the oil to 80-100ppm.

YANGJIANG Machine Manufacture Co., Ltd takes into consideration the technical feasibility, economic benefits, and ease of operation, narrowing the refining process to a combination of solvent treatment, distillation, hydrotreating, vacuum distillation, clay polishing, chemical treatment, and demetallization. It saves economic costs and improves the efficiency of oil recycling.

emak refining & recycling

100% Satisfaction No Extra Charges World Wide Customer Care 3 Times Faster Leaching Turn-Key Installation 100% Recovery Rate from Jewelry Waste 99,99% Purity Environmental Friendly No Fume, No Smoke, No Odor Operation

automatic gold refining machine at best price in india

Andheri East, Mumbai 116/B, Plot No. 150, Gokul Industrial Estate, Marol Co Operative Industrial Area Sagbag, Off. Andheri-Kurla Road, Marol, Andheri East, Andheri East, Mumbai - 400059, Dist. Mumbai, Maharashtra

Andheri East, Mumbai ,Unit No. 80,Post Office Lane, Behind Tunga International,Mistry Industrial Estate,Andheri East P. O. Lane, M. I. D. C., Andheri East, Andheri East, Mumbai - 400093, Dist. Mumbai, Maharashtra

Sakinaka, Mumbai Gala No. 11, Shiv Mangal Compound, Shankar Nagar Behind Shiv Prabha Housing Society, A. G. Link Road Asalpha Village, Ghatkopar West, Sakinaka, Mumbai - 400084, Dist. Mumbai, Maharashtra

paper machine refining - convergence training

Get Convergence courses into your current LMS to track and report employee training. Or contact us to learn more about the advantages of licensing our courses with the Convergence LMS.

The full course is 26 minutes long and available in a number of affordable formats.

Refining is one of the critical process steps in engineering the structure of paper and board as it has a major influence on fiber quality. Refining mechanically alters the fibers by brushing, hydrating, and cutting them. This course will describe low consistency refining as well as refining actions as they relate to double disc refiners. It also discusses the different refiner types, key components of a double disc refiner, typical control strategies, and the effects of refining on sheet properties.

What is the purpose of paper and board machine refining?The main purpose of most paper and board machine refining is to improve certain sheet properties, including strength and density-related properties.

What happens to the fibers during refining?The fiber cell walls are delaminated, allowing them to absorb more water and increasing their flexibility. External fibrillation of the fiber surfaces increases the surface area available for bonding, and some fiber cutting and creation of fines takes place.

Why is it important to keep the flow rate through a refiner steady?Flow rate determines the amount of time the fibers are available for treatment in the refiner. Low flow can lead to fiber cutting, fiber channeling in the plate grooves, and poor strength development. High flow can cause plugging and poor fiber development.

Why do broke fibers and recycled fibers not respond as well to refining?Broke and recycled fibers have already been refined and contain some shorter fibers, which don't respond as well to refining. Also, they have been previously dried, so don't absorb water as readily, making them more difficult to refine.

ultimate guide to upgrading, enhancing, refining & enchanting

There are multiple ways to upgrade your equips in Ragnarok M: Eternal Love to make them more powerful. It may be confusing at first because they all sound similar. This guide will explain the differences between the four methods to help you get the best gear possible for your character!

To Enhance your item simply open your Backpack and click the 2nd tab button on the right. Then select an equipped item and tap Enhance. It only costs a few zennies but it will increase for each level.

You should always Enhance your equips as this is the cheapest and easiest form of item improvement. The cool thing about this is you can pass on the Enhance levels to other items. Just equip a different item (of the same type), and youll be asked if you want to inherit the Enhancement of the previous item.

Refining items gives it a Refined stat, like Refined Atk or Refined MAtk (see screenshot above). Refined stats are different from your normal stats and do not reflect in your stats screen. Refined Atk and MAtk are pure offensive stats and ignore a targets normal Def/MDef stats, only Refined Def/MDef stats can reduce them.

Refining your equips requires materials like Oridecons for weapons and Eluniums for armors, so it can get pricey. Thats why its better to prioritize Enhancing first before Refining since its way cheaper and still gives good bonuses.

To Refine your items simply go to Equipment Refinement blacksmith in Prontera. But be careful. Theres a chance that the refinement will fail beyond +4! Players of the classic RO games know how heartbreaking it feels when your favorite +6 weapon disappears to thin air after attempting to upgrade it to +7.

However, Ragnarok Mobile players are in luck: when the refining fails, the item wont disappear forever.Instead there are only 2 scenarios when it fails: 1) it goes back to a lower refine level (e.g. from +4 to +3) or 2) it goes down to a lower refine level AND become broken, indicated by a red item name and a red hammer icon.

Heres the trick though: you can still equip broken items! The only disadvantage of broken items is that you cant refine it further, thats all! So, some people actually prefer buying broken items from the Exchange because they are way cheaper. It doesnt matter if its broken if youre not planning on refining it anyway, right?

So how do you repair broken items? Simplejust acquire a copy of that same item, it doesnt matter if it doesnt have the same refine level or number of slots. Then just talk to Hollergrehnn again and Refine the broken item, but instead of refining it the repair window will show instead.

Theres multiple types of Enchantments which you can unlock by doing quests for Mora, the Cat NPC. You can already start with Basic Enchantment which only requires 5,000 zeny but it doesnt give really decent stats. For Advanced Enchantments, you will need Mora Coins.

You can purchase Mora Coins from the Event NPC (near Miu) in Prontera for 50,000 zeny each. Or you can buy them for 10 Friendship Tokens from Mora. You can obtain Friendship Tokens when doing quests and rifts with your partymates, so you should always help your friends as much as possible to save money for Enchanting.

You can then Enchant again and again until you are satisfied with the bonuses (or until you run out of cash and Mora Coins /heh). Sometimes the stats will show a Poring icon, which means that the bonus stat is overpowered or above average.

Once youre done Enchanting the item, you can see the Enchanted attribute in your items stats. Unlike Enhancements, you cannot pass Enchantments to other items, it will be bound to one item only. And always remember, Enhancement is different from Enchantment!

Not all items are upgradable. You can check it by tapping on your item and see if theres a red up arrow icon next to the icon, thats the Upgrade button. You can also check other items in your Adventure Handbook (its the last tab on the bottom).

To Upgrade the item, click on the red up arrow button and it will show you the materials required to upgrade. You can Quick Buy the materials from the market if you have the zeny. Otherwise you have to farm them yourself. Heads up though, it can get really difficult at higher Upgrade levels!

In the example below, my Mage Coat is in Upgrade Level III and will transform into Robe of Cast on the next upgrade, which gives amazing bonuses such as reduced cast time. Take note though that sometimes well-carded and refined Tier 3 items are better than End tier items if the End tier requirements are very difficult to obtain

So, Enhance and Enchant as much as you want, but do not refine and add the extra card slot before Upgrading to End tierif you cannot afford to lose the -2 refine and the extra card slot. Therefore the best path is:

But as I mentioned earlier, some people prefer to have their equips at Tier 3 with good refine, enchants and cards while the End form materials are still impossible to obtain. I will leave that decision up to you.

Remember, a low-level but well-equipped character is much better than a high-level character with low-tier unenhanced, unrefined, unenchanted gear. So take your time to research on the best equips for your class, gather materials and save up on zeny to strengthen your gear!

I do not have any multi job character, but my best guess here would be that you should just equip the Bow and have the enhancement transfer there, if you cannot equip the bow in your champion, then just get the refund from the machine in Prontera, you can just reset the enhancement level of your equipment in there and you will get a refund.

Also remember that different equipments may have different zeny values for their renhancement levels, so you may end up with an enhancement level that is higher or lower by investing the same amount of zeny

is there any available information regarding the blacksmith skill refine expert and its relation to refining success? i made an alt blacksmith just because refining to +7 is so expensive or impossible!

If it doesnt say that it will be transformed into anything different, there is no reason to believe it will loose the refinement, as you said Doom Axe is already the final form, so I wouldnt worry about that

hi.. there are gears that need to have the same item to upgrade to the next level.. for example, orleans necklace.. in order to upgrade it to orleans necklace I, II, III and so forth, you need to have another orleans necklace as one of the materials needed.. can u use a broken orleans necklace to upgrade a non-broken orleans necklace?

what are the five basic refining processes?

Oil plays a very important role in our daily life. When it comes to oil. The first thing everyone thinks of is fuel for vehicles . Such as cars and airplanes. In fact. Many of the raw materials used in our daily life include Petroleum. Such as plastics. Asphalt. Clothing. Cosmetics. And some synthetic rubbers, etc. Generally speaking. Petroleum plays a very important role in our daily lives. Not only oil. But edible oil is very important to us. Our diet in life is inseparable from oil. Without oil. Our life will become extremely bleak. Not only is there a lot of choices in diet. If you can't drive or fly when you go out. It will make our lives go backwards for many years in an instant. Now that everyone has realized . That oil is very important to us. Do you know how oil is produced? What are the five basic refining processes? The professional technical article in the top three. Oil refining production lines in 2021 shows. That all aspects of our lives are inseparable from oil. And the amount of oil used is increasing. The industry has always been closely related to us. The basic process of oil refining refers to the process of refining crude oil into products. Such as fuel oil . And lubricating oil. Also known as petroleum refining methods or petroleum processing methods. Including primary processing . And secondary processing. The former refers to the direct distillation process of crude oil. The latter refers to the reprocessing of straight-run products. The specific five processing techniques are as follows: Atmospheric . And vacuum distillation After the crude oil pretreat by desalting . And dehydration. It heat to 360-370C . And distilled in an atmospheric tower to obtain atmospheric gasoline. Kerosene. Diesel. And heavy oil. Then the heavy oil heat to 380-400C . And distilled in a vacuum tower to obtain vacuum diesel. And residual oil. Catalytic cracking The atmospheric . And vacuum distillate oil heat in a fluidized bed reactor containing a catalyst at 460530. And a pressure of 12kg/cm to obtain high-octane gasoline. Diesel, etc. The catalyst usually uses silicic acid aluminum. Catalytic reforming The gasoline fraction use as the raw material. In the presence of a catalyst . And hydrogen. Maintaining a certain pressure (25-30 kg/cm) . And temperature (490-530C) . To carry out a structural reforming reaction to convert non-aromatic hydrocarbons into aromatic hydrocarbons. Refined to obtain high-octane gasoline. Benzene. Toluene. Xylene, etc. Hydrocracking Using heavy oil as raw material. In the co-existence of hydrogen and catalyst. Maintaining a certain temperature . And pressure. Cracking. Hydrogenation. Isomerization . And other complex chemical reactions occur to obtain high-quality light oil. Or lubricating oil. The method has the advantages of wide range of raw materials. Good product quality. High yield. And full utilization of a large amount of hydrogen produced. By the catalytic reforming process. Further processing The purpose of treatment is to eliminate impurities . Such as sulfur. Nitrogen. Oxygen. Water. Dissolved metals . Inorganic salts . And other organic compounds. After treatment. The processed products can be mixed into various products. Eventually. These products are transported to the dock via ships. Pipelines. Trains or trucks to perform their functions. The above are the five basic processes required in the petroleum refining process. Through these five processes, petroleum can be refined into various products that we need daily. It is of great significance to us. Edible oil is also of great significance to us. Now many manufacturers are producing edible oil. The improvement of the public economy has caused the demand for oil to continue to increase. Using the Refining oil production line can produce high-quality edible oil. Shandong Loyal Industrial Co., Ltd. is a professional food machinery manufacturer. With many years of R&D experience and a very high reputation. The biscuit production line. Corn flakes production line. And baby food production line are sold at home and abroad. Helping many The company has expanded the market. Our Refining oil production line also has a very high cost performance. Very reliable quality. And can be used for a long time . When made with high-quality raw materials. The failure rate is low. The operation is simple. And the price is low. The manufacturer can use the lowest. It is our corporate goal . In order to get the highest return on investment . And help companies expand the market . And get more profits. Regardless of whether it is petroleum or edible oil. The refining process is very rigorous. It is the crystallization of the efforts of many engineers over the years. We have the most advanced production technology today and represent the most advanced productivity in the world. If you need it. Please contact us!

edible oil refining process machine | honest-industrial

This oil refining machine is consists of refining tank, vacuum dehydration tank, decoloring tank, vacuum pump, oil pump, alkali mixing tank, measurement tank, electric cabinet, automatic temperature control system, vacuum dehydration, thermal insulation layer, feeding buffer set etc. It has functions of degumming, deacidification, drying and decolorization of the crude oil.