replacement of sand by marble powder in concrete

2021 concrete leveling cost | mudjacking cost

Concrete patios, sidewalks, pool decks, foundations, and other areas often develop voids beneath the surface, causing the concrete to sag or dip. Left unfixed, cracks and splitting of the concrete can occur. To fix such imperfections, you'll need to either replace or level the concrete using one of two methods, mud or foam jacking or self-leveling. Mudjacking is a more extensive process of correction than self-leveling.

The national cost to mudjack a 100 sq. ft. concrete patio ranges from $500 to $1,700, with the average being around $1,500. At the low end of the spectrum, you will pay around $180 for concrete leveling 100 sq. ft. using self-leveling compound. At the high end, you may pay up to $2,500 for concrete leveling 100 sq. ft. using polyurethane.

Created a new introduction explaining what concrete leveling is, outlined a new project, and updated the costs throughout the cost guide.Covered the various concrete leveling methods and created a table outlining the costs.Updated the self-leveling concrete prices and included a table with the various self-leveling options and their costs.Wrote about mudjacking costs and added a table listing all mudjacking methods used and their costs.Created a new section with concrete leveling cost by location. Created a table listing all locations and costs. Outlined the various location subsections and methods used.Created a new section on concrete leveling brands and their costs with a table displaying the various concrete leveling brands and the prices.Created a new section on concrete leveling costs, explaining the process and labor costs.Outlined the pros and cons of mudjacking in a paragraph.Updated a section on concrete leveling vs. replacement.Updated enhancements and improvement costs section, which now includes information about drilling prices, the cost to grind concrete floors, and the cost of concrete polishing.Updated Additional information and costs section. It now includes information on DIY, disclaimers about factors that could increase pricing, such as pump location, warranty, and insurance information/disclaimers, and examples of where certain techniques wont be appropriate.Updated FAQs section with two new questions and answers.

Updated Additional information and costs section. It now includes information on DIY, disclaimers about factors that could increase pricing, such as pump location, warranty, and insurance information/disclaimers, and examples of where certain techniques wont be appropriate.

Updated pricing in the introduction and in the materials section.Added an average cost range to the introduction.Changed the materials section to types of leveling, expanded on the two options already present and added a third option on foam leveling.Added two additional costs and considerations including added costs for difficult to reach slabs and the fact that leveling may not be possible for all concreteAdded a FAQ section with 5 questions and answers

The cost to level concrete ranges from $1.80 to $25 per sq. ft. for a concrete slab. The cost variance depends on the method used, with the primary methods being either mudjacking (using mud or foam) or self-leveling. Not every concrete slab can be leveled or lifted. Mudjacking or foam jacking should only be used on slabs that are three to six inches thick. You cannot use mudjacking (or foam jacking) when the soil beneath a structure may expand, as this may cause additional lifting.

The cost of concrete self-leveling averages around $1.80 to $5 per sq. ft. Self-leveling compounds are a liquid-like material that is spread across the surface of the concrete in much the same way that concrete is laid and leveled. The self-leveling formula hardens to create a level surface. The process is usually only used indoors for small depressions. Self-leveling compounds make the most sense for concrete floors, which will be finished to hide the hardened self-leveling formula.

The process of mudjacking, also called slab jacking, averages around $3 to $25 per sq. ft. The cost will depend on whether soil is used to fill the void beneath the concrete slab or a foam filler is injected beneath the slab to create a firm surface. The foam filler costs more than soil, driving the price higher (a process called foam jacking). A liquid foam (polyurethane) material is injected under the slab. As the foam cures, it expands and fills the void. Once cured, the foam never loses density and has optimum compression strength. Mudjacking or foam filling makes the most sense for concrete slabs that are four inches or greater in thickness and have no damage other than settling or sloping. Foam jacking is great for load-bearing concrete.

The cost of self-leveling concrete is around $1.80 to $5 for materials and labor. The compound comes as a bag of dry powder that you mix with water. The self-leveling concrete cost is about $35 per 50 lb. bag, depending on the brand. Self-leveling concrete coverage per bag is determined by cubic feet. Usually, 50 pounds covers 0.45 cubic feet. A self-leveling polymer-compound is mixed with water. Then it is spread across the surface of the concrete or pumped into the concrete. This method should only be used to fill small hills or valleys in the concrete. It is never a good option for an entire slab that has sunk or is in danger of cracking. Self-leveling is a great option to fill a dip in a concrete floor that you later plan to cover with flooring to hide the hardened leveler. Below is a table outlining the various self-leveling formulas you can use to fill in dips and cracks in concrete to create a level surface.

Self-leveling concrete patch is a vinyl formula suitable for very small areas of concrete that have slightly dipped, cracked, or chipped. The price of the formula averages $10 for a 20 lb. patch of pre-mixed solution. This solution cannot be applied in a thick layer. It should only be spread at a depth of 0.5 inches or less to avoid cracking. It is not suitable for a dip crack.

A self-leveling concrete filler is not suitable for filling in severe dips in the concrete. The adhesive formula comes in a tube that averages $10 for a tube that is 9 ounces. It is used to fill in cracks and create a level, smooth surface, not for dips. You can use it to fill in the cracks in a driveway, foundation, sidewalk, patio, or concrete steps. The filler expands to fill in the crack and create a smooth surface. However, it is not suitable for severe dips. It is more of a caulk used to fill in holes.

A self-leveling overlay is a cement base-based compound sold in 50 lb. bags for an average cost of $35. The compound is mixed with water to form a thick cement formula similar to epoxy in composition. You spread the solution over the existing concrete to create a new, durable, hard, and flat surface. This method of leveling is suitable for a small area, but it can crack, especially if settling continues to occur.

Self-leveling foam refers to a self-leveling polymer compound that averages $35 per bag. The compound comes as a powder. You mix it with water and spread it across the surface of the concrete to fill in the dip and create a flat surface. The self-leveling foam dries to create a level surface but does not fix the problem under the concrete that is causing the dip. If settlement continues to occur, the concrete and self-leveling foam can again form a dip.

The cost of mudjacking, also referred to as slab jacking or foam jacking, is $5 to $25 per sq. ft. depending on what filler is used. The process is an excellent option if the concrete has started to sink. It involves using a grout like material that is a mixture of pond sand and cement to fill the space below the concrete. In some situations, soil or foam is used. Holes are drilled into the surface of the concrete, and the substance is pumped into the void below the concrete. As the space is filled, the concrete lifts. Once the dip has lifted, the holes are filled with new concrete. In some cases, a jack is also used to lift the concrete slab slightly to pump the solution beneath the concrete's surface.

The average cost of slab jacking is $3 to $7 per sq. ft. The price usually depends on the composition of the slurry used. The slurry is a combination of sand, such as dry limestone mixed with water. Sandjacking is considered less invasive than standard mudjacking. Holes are drilled in the concrete slab, and the slurry is pumped in under the sides of the concrete slab after the concrete slab has undergone jacking to lift it. Usually, sandjacking is used in areas where the dirt or soil remains wet.

The cost of slab jacking ranges from $3 to $17 per sq. ft. for concrete jacking cost. The costs depend on several factors such as the size of the slab, whether it is a load-bearing concrete slab, and if the load is dynamic or static. In some areas, mudjacking is referred to as slabjacking. The term is used interchangeably to refer to raising the concrete slab to insert filler underneath. Slabjacking is used to lift driveways, sidewalks, and foundations. The process involves using a jack to lift the concrete so a filler can be inserted underneath the concrete slab.

Foundation jacking refers to mudjacking a foundation which can run from $5 to $8 per sq. ft. depending on if you use mudjacking or foam jacking to lift the concrete. Foam jacking is the preferred method for foundation jacking because of the density of the compound and the stability that it offers to a load-bearing concrete surface. You can easily correct uneven concrete and add much-needed structural support.

If you attempt to raise or level a slab on top of an unstable fill, you may need polyurethane jacking rather than traditional mudjacking. Polyurethane is lightweight enough to work on unstable fill but is not as strong as traditional grout, making it unsuitable for most applications. Poly leveling per sq. ft. costs around $20 to $25 per sq. ft.

Concrete leveling is carried out anywhere there is concrete that has formed a dip. Typically, the cost to level a concrete floor or for outdoor concrete leveling averages from $1.80 to $25 per sq. ft. depending on the method you use. A concrete floor, patio, sidewalk, driveway, garage, or more sections might require leveling. If you plan on laying flooring in the home and the concrete slab is not level, you will need to level the surface before laying tile, hardwood, or laminate. Outdoor concrete leveling requires the same methods as indoor.

Spreading laminate requires a smooth surface, or you will notice every imperfection. The cost to level a 200 sq. ft. concrete floor for laminate average from $360 to $5,000 and depends on the degree of unevenness. If the floor has a severe dip, you'll want to lift the concrete using mudjacking for foam jacking to create a smooth surface. However, if the imperfection is minor, a self-leveler might work.

Tile requires a very level surface to look good and prevent cracking. You'll need to level the concrete subfloor using either a self-leveler or mud or foam jacking, depending on the severity of the uneven surface. The average cost to level 200 sq. ft of concrete floor for tile ranges from $360 to $5,000, depending on the method you use. If it is a small uneven area, a self-leveler is ideal.

If you want to level a 200 sq. ft concrete floor, it averages from $360 to $5,000, depending on the method you use. Hardwood is more forgiving than other flooring methods when it comes to how level the floor is before laying the wood pieces. You can easily use a self leveler for minor uneven areas because the self-leveler is hidden beneath the hardwood flooring.

The cost to level a 200 sq. ft. concrete patio averages $360 to $5,000. Concrete patio leveling costs vary depending on the severity of the sagging and your plans for the surface of the patio. If you plan to lay tile on the patio or apply some other flooring, a self-leveler is ideal. If you want to leave the concrete free of any flooring, a self-leveler might not be ideal for filling in the areas of unevenness.

The cost to level a 600 sq. ft concrete subfloor is $1,080 to $15,000, depending on the method you use. If there is a slight dip in the concrete, you can use a self-leveler to fill in the dip. However, if there is a severe dip, you'll need to use either mudjacking or foam jacking to level the floor so you can apply flooring on the subfloors surface. Foam jacking is the most costly of options, but it also creates a dense filler that is favored if the dip is near a load-bearing wall.

The price to level 600 sq. ft. can range from $1,080 to $15,000. If your basement has an uneven surface, youll need to figure out a way to level the concrete. The method that you use will depend on if you plan to lay flooring. Typically, a self-leveler is used if you plan on laying flooring across the basement floors surface. However, if you do not want to lay flooring, you can use mudjacking or some other mudjacking or foam method. If the area that is dipping is near a foundation or supportive wall, youll want to use foam jacking to offer greater density and security.

The cost to level a 600 sq. ft. driveway ranges from $3,000 to $15,000, depending on the method used and the severity of the situation. You will not use a self-leveler on a driveway. The thin leveling surface that forms from the formula will easily crack or chip away under the constant use and weight of a vehicle driving across its surface. Instead, youll need to use mud-jacking or foam jacking to level the driveway.

The cost of concrete leveling products can range from $10 to $50, depending on the product brand, size, and formula. Some products are sold as a dry mix that you add water to create a slurry. Other products are sold in a pre-mixed formula within a tub. You can purchase concrete leveling products in a tube that you use to inject directly into a crack or hole within the concrete. Below is a table that outlines the cost of concrete leveling by the product brand.

Param 5500, made by Duraamen, acts as a self-leveling and self-curing leveler. A 50 lb. bag averages $1 to $5 per sq. ft. It is made from a calcium aluminate cement-based overlay that quick sets to provide resurfacing and create a smooth, level surface. It is applied at a thickness of to 1 inches. But, you can add aggregate to the solution to create a thickness of up to 5 inches. It bonds well with concrete to create an acceptable surface for ceramic tile.

The price of Ardex Self-Leveling Concrete averages $2 to $3 per sq. ft. The Portland-based, cement-based, self-leveling formula is high strength and fast-setting. It forms a non-shrink underlayment. It works well to rapidly level floors and provides a strong, durable floor covering. You simply mix the powder-like formula with water and pour, pump, or spread the formula on the area that is not level.

Gypcrete is a brand name owned by Maxxon Corporation. The gypcrete price per sq. ft. ranges from $2 to $6. In most cases, the cost of gypcrete per square foot is considered very reasonable. This product is universally used by construction contractors and architects around the world. The brand is very popular for use in condominiums, hotels, large businesses, and apartment complexes because it provides sound reduction, radiant heating, floor leveling, and fire resistance.

RapidSet Concrete Leveler acts as a self-leveling underlayment. The cost of RapidSet Concrete Leveler averages $2 to $6 per sq. ft. It is favored due to its long life. It provides chip resistance so you can drive nails directly through the cement flooring into not only the concrete but also into the concrete leveler to produce even greater stability and help to hold the leveling in place after it sets. It works well for both indoor and outdoor use.

Quikrete is a classic. It comes in a large 80 lb. bag for about $8. You simply mix it with water to form a slurry. You can spread it across the surface to act as a self-leveler or inject it under the concrete slab to fill in the void and create a level surface. In some situations, the concrete slab is jacked up, and the Quikrete slurry is pumped under the slabs surface. It is typically used for driveways, patios, and other outdoor projects.

Most companies will charge $1.80 to $25 per sq. ft. to level concrete, including all materials and labor. The cost to level 100 sq. ft of concrete ranges from $500 to $1,700, with the mid-range being $1,500. It typically takes only one to two hours to level concrete regardless of the method used. The typical labor cost runs around $350. The labor fee includes mixing and pouring the compound. It also includes any drilling or patching of the holes that might be required after mudjacking.

Mudjacking has many pros, such as it is an affordable way to fix sagging concrete. It is typically fast and effective and costs a fraction of what it would cost to pour new concrete. Also, it preserves your landscape because you dont have to have the old concrete removed, which can cause a mess. However, the main con against mudjacking is that it does not fix the problem that caused the sagging concrete. If you fix the concrete using mudjacking, the soil settlement issue can again occur, which causes additional sagging and cracking in the repaired area.

If you have a sunken slab of concrete, it can be tempting to replace it. But if the material is only sunken and is not significantly damaged in any way, concrete leveling can be significantly less expensive than removing and replacing the slab. In most cases, a new slab will cost between 50% and 70% more than the leveling. It is not uncommon for a 400 sq. ft concrete slab to cost $2,000 or more, plus the cost of demolition, making the total closer to $3,000.

However, if the slab is severely cracked, has missing sections, or has other significant damage, then leveling may not be possible. In this case, you will need a new slab. Keep in mind that a sunken slab can crack if not addressed, so by avoiding leveling, you may end up requiring a replacement down the road.

The cost of concrete core drilling averages $11 per sq. ft. This calculates to an average price of around $1,100 for a job that is 100 sq. ft. Concrete core drilling is used to raise concrete in areas that are hard to reach. Holes or channels are drilled into the concrete. Next, a self-leveler or foam is pumped through the holes into the void beneath the uneven concrete. As the leveler expands, the concrete forms a level surface.

Concrete grinding per square foot averages $3 to $12 if the concrete is polished. Concrete grinding prices vary depending on the location and complexity of the project. The process of concrete grinding refers to using an abrasive tool to grind down the surface of the concrete. Polished concrete prices are usually higher because they require many grinding levels to reach the area beneath the concrete to effectively fill the void.

After repairing an unlevel surface on a polished concrete floor, you will need to repolish the concrete for a price that ranges from $3 to $15 per sq. ft. The concrete floor polishing hides where any holes have been drilled to create a level concrete floor. The surface of the concrete is recreated across the drilled holes to make the entire area match.

Created a new introduction explaining what concrete leveling is, outlined a new project, and updated the costs throughout the cost guide.Covered the various concrete leveling methods and created a table outlining the costs.Updated the self-leveling concrete prices and included a table with the various self-leveling options and their costs.Wrote about mudjacking costs and added a table listing all mudjacking methods used and their costs.Created a new section with concrete leveling cost by location. Created a table listing all locations and costs. Outlined the various location subsections and methods used.Created a new section on concrete leveling brands and their costs with a table displaying the various concrete leveling brands and the prices.Created a new section on concrete leveling costs, explaining the process and labor costs.Outlined the pros and cons of mudjacking in a paragraph.Updated a section on concrete leveling vs. replacement.Updated enhancements and improvement costs section, which now includes information about drilling prices, the cost to grind concrete floors, and the cost of concrete polishing.Updated Additional information and costs section. It now includes information on DIY, disclaimers about factors that could increase pricing, such as pump location, warranty, and insurance information/disclaimers, and examples of where certain techniques wont be appropriate.Updated FAQs section with two new questions and answers.

Updated Additional information and costs section. It now includes information on DIY, disclaimers about factors that could increase pricing, such as pump location, warranty, and insurance information/disclaimers, and examples of where certain techniques wont be appropriate.

Updated pricing in the introduction and in the materials section.Added an average cost range to the introduction.Changed the materials section to types of leveling, expanded on the two options already present and added a third option on foam leveling.Added two additional costs and considerations including added costs for difficult to reach slabs and the fact that leveling may not be possible for all concreteAdded a FAQ section with 5 questions and answers

partial replacement of cement with marble powder in concrete - civil engineering portal biggest civil engineering information sharing website

ABSTRACT: Marble powder is one of the most active research areas that encompass a number of disciplines including civil engineering and construction materials. The marble industry inevitably produces wastes, irrespective of the improvements introduced in manufacturing processes. In the marble industry, about 50 to 60% production waste. These waste create many environmental dust problems in now a day to day society. In requiring a suitable form of management in order to achieve sustainable development. In this paper explained about the behavior of concrete with partial replacement of cement with added percentage values of marble powder and attain required strength. Partial replacement of marble powder in cement accordingly in the range of 20%, 30%, 40%, by weight for M20 grade of concrete. With this experimental research work the problem of waste production management of this agro waste are will be solved. It analyzed the research work the compressive strength, flextural strength, split tensile strength values at 7, 14, 28 day. The test results show that the compressive strength, split-tensile strength and flexural strengths are achieved up to 30% to 40% replacement of cement with marble powder without affecting the characteristic strength of M20(1:1.5:3) grade concrete.

1.INTRODUCTION: This paper aims to focus on the possibilities of using waste materials from different manufacturing activities in the preparation of innovative mortar and concrete. Marble stone industry generates both solid waste and stone slurry. Leaving the waste materials to the environment directly can cause environmental problems. Advance concrete technology can reduce the consumption of natural resources and energy sources, thereby less the burden of pollutants on the environment. We describe the feasibility of using the marble sludge dust in concrete production as partial replacement of cement. These materials, participate in the hydraulic reactions, contributing significantly to the composition and microstructure of hydrated product. Presently large amounts of marble dust are generated in natural stone processing plants with an important impact on the environment and humans. This project describes the feasibility of using the marble sludge dust in concrete production as partial replacement of cement. In INDIA, the marble and granite stone processing is one of the most thriving industry the effects if varying marble dust contents on the physical and mechanical properties of fresh and hardened concrete have been investigated. The use of the replacement materials offer cost reduction, energy savings, arguably superior products, and fewer hazards in the environment. In this project our main objective is to study the influence of partial replacement of cement with marble powder , and to compare it with the compressive and tensile strength of ordinary M20 concrete. We are also trying to find the percentage of marble powder replaced in concrete that makes the strength of the concrete maximum. The nowadays marble powder has become a pollutant. So , by partially replacing cement with marble powder, we are proposing a method that can be of great use in reducing pollution to a great extent.

2. EXPERIMENTAL MATERIALS: Cement (OPC): The cement used to be ordinary Portland cement 53 (OPC 53).All properties of cement were determined by referring IS 12269 1987. The specific gravity of cement is 3.15. The initial and final setting times were found as 55 minutes and 258 minutes respectively. Standard consistency of cement was 30%.

Coarse aggregate: The 20mm size aggregates-The coarse aggregates with size of 20mm were tested and the specific gravity value of 2.78 and fineness modulus of 7 find and selected. The coarse aggregate fine angular sharpened edges aggregates were available from local sources.

3.METHODOLOGY: The evaluation of tile powder which is used as a replacement of cement material begins with the concrete testing. With the conventional concrete 20%, 30%, 40% of the tile powder replaced with cement. weight batching is done by volume, but most specifications required that batching be done by mass rather than volume. Cement: 53 grade (OPC), Content=330kg/m3. Combination material mix proportion: (M20 grade) 1:1.5:3 is 10262-2009.

Test specimens: Test specimens consisting of 150150150 mm cubes for Compressive strength, 150mm dia, 300mm Length cylinders for split tensile strength and 150150700 mm beam for flextural strength using different percentage glass fiber for M20 grade of concrete mix were cast and tested as per IS: 516 and 1199.

Curing of concrete: Casting of concrete after the completion of 24 hours mould will be removed then cured by using portable Water. The specimen is fully immersed in potable water for specific age of 7, 14, 28 days. After the Completion of curing it will be tested.

5. RECOMMENDATION: The result of the test, it is recommended that optimum values of 30%, 40% marble powder. The use of local materials like MP as pozzolans should be encouraged in concrete production. Similar studies are recommended for concrete beams and slab sections to ascertain the flextural behavior of better bonding strength made with this material. Durability studies of concrete cubes made with MP as partial replacement for cement should be carried out.

6. CONCLUSION: Due to marble dust, it proved to be very effective in assuring very good cohesiveness of mortar and concrete. From the above study, it is concluded that the marble dust can be used as a replacement material for cement ; and 30 to 40% replacement of marble dust gives an excellent result in strength aspect and quality aspect. The results showed that the substitution of 30 to 40% of the cement content by marble stone dust induced higher compressive strength, and improvement of properties related to durability. Test results show that this industrial waste is capable of improving hardened concrete performance up to 30%, enhancing fresh concrete behavior and can be used in plain concrete.

7. REFERENCE: [1] Lalji Prajapati, I. N. Patel, V. V. Agarwal Analysis Of The Strength And Durability Of The Concrete With Partially Replaced By The Ceramic Slurry Waste Powder. IJETAE:International Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, Vol. 4, Issue 3, March- 2014, PP.725-729. [2] Amitkumar D. Raval, Dr.Indrajit N. Patel, Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda, Reuse Of Ceramic Industry Wastes For The Elaboration Of Eco-efficient Concrete. International Journal Of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies, Vol. 2, Issue 3, April- June, 2013 PP. 103105. [3] F.Pacheco Torgal, A. Shahsavandi, S. Jalali, Mechanical Properties And Durability Of Concrete With Partial Replacement Of Portland Cement By Ceramic Wastes. 1St International Conference, September 12th 14th 2011. [4] Electricwala Fatima, Ankit Jhamb, Rakesh Kumar, Ceramic Dust as Construction Material in Rigid Pavement. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 2013, Vol. 1, No. 5, 112-116. [5] Jay Patel, Dr. (Smt.) B. K. Shah, Prof. P.J.Patel, The Potential Pozzolanic Activity of Different Ceramic Waste Powder as Cement Mortar Component (Strength Activity Index) International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 9, Number 6, Mar 2014.

We at engineeringcivil.com are thankful to Er. Vijayvenkatesh Chandrasekaran for submitting this very useful paper to us. We hope this will provide valuable insights to those seeking more information on this topic.

what are the materials for replacement of sand in concrete? - happho

A concrete mix necessarily contents cement, water, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate. Aggregate occupy about 60 70% volume of concrete. In this percentage 40 to 50 % proportion of aggregate is fine aggregate (sand). Fine aggregate selection plays vital role in concrete performance and its cost.

Lately the need for replacing sand with alternative materials have picked governing serious environmental impact of dredging sand from river bed, also there is huge demand and supply gap in major cities.

As per BIS fine aggregate is divided in four Zones as per their grading ,Zone II are fine aggregates are best for concrete ,Zone- I & III can also be used, Zone IV is to fine cant be used for concrete application(will lead to stickiness in concrete).

In total aggregate, the proportion of sand to coarse aggregate (C.A) is altered depending on fineness of sand. Fineness modulus (F.M) measures the degree of fineness of a fine aggregate, lower value of F.M indicates finer particles.

Fineness modulus of fine aggregate is calculated by sieving fine aggregate on standard sieve sizes starting from 4.75 mm to 150 microns, it is derived by summation of cumulative percentage retained on each sieve divided by 100 giving the value of F.M of fine aggregate.

Fine sand (lower F.M Value ) reduces the sand requirement % in the total aggregate proportion. On the other hand, coarser sand will require higher sand % in the total aggregate proportion to give a cohesive concrete mix consuming least cement.

Crushed sand (Manufactured sand) is produced by crushing rock (as in the case of coarse aggregate) to give particle size and grading at par with river sand, the texture may differ using Vertical Shaft Impactor Machines.

The percentage passing 150 microns of manufactured sand is relaxed to 20% (while that of natural sand is limited to 10%). As per design and economics, crushed sand can be used to partially or fully replace river sand from a concrete mix.

In crusher dust, the particles (% finer than 150 microns) are generally high, a major concern limiting its percentage replacement to minimum with sand in a concrete mix. It can be replaced to the amount 25%. Its Availability is not a concern.

Bottom ashes are waste of coal fired thermal power plant generally disposed in landfills. Post washing (basically done to remove carbon, unwanted in concrete), it can be used for replacing sand to the amount of 35% in a concrete mix. Its Availability is limited, restricted to power plant area.

Granulated blast furnace slag is a waste of steel industry; its use can be best exploited as part replacement of sand in concrete. It can replace sand to the amount of 70 % in concrete mixes. Its Availability is limited, restricted to steel plant area. As Granulated blast furnace slag has high glass content with sharp particles, precautions while handling it and in concrete have to be ensured.

a study of the chemical effect of marble and granite slurry on green mortar compressive strength | bulletin of the national research centre | full text

The marble and granite industries in Egypt produce a vast amount of by-product slurry waste that could be used in green mortar production suitable for construction purposes. This research highlights the effect of the chemical constituents of marble and granite waste powders on the compressive strength of the green concrete produced. A chemical analysis of the constituents of granite and marble wastes was compared with those of the cement to study the effect of these components on the hydration reaction inside the mixture. The experiment was based on replacing the same proportions of sand and cement in the green concrete mixes with each of granite and marble waste powders after dissolving it in the water content.

The study revealed that by replacing 5% of cement in (NC5) mix, 10% of sand in (NF10) mix, as well as 5% of cement and 10% of sand in (NC5 + NF10) mix, by granite waste powder, the compressive strength values increased by 33%, 39%, and 41%, respectively. This was due to the presence of more than 26% fine free silica particles in granite which undergo pozzolanic reaction with calcium hydroxide present in mortar pores producing calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) crystals resulting in high strength to the cement mortar. For the same mixes containing marble powder, the compressive strength showed less values by 14%, 10%, and 0% for NC5, NF10, and NC5 + NF10 mixes, respectively, when compared to the control mix values.

Ornamental stones, specifically marble and granite, are common building materials being widely used in construction processes. Handling as well as disposal of these stones wastes is considered one of the major environmental and land pollution problems due to both its highly alkaline nature, and its manufacturing and processing techniques, which impose a health threat to the surroundings (Hamza et al. 2011).

Several researches worldwide attempted to use these industrial by-products efficiently in producing mortar and concrete on an experimental scale. Marble and granite wastes (MGWs) do not require any processing before its use in mortar and concrete production. Moreover, its physical and chemical properties are suitable for making concrete products. Also, due to its finesse, MGW is a promising material which acts as a micro-filler in cement aggregate matrix (Ramos et al. 2013; Bacarji et al. 2013).

Bahar (2010) studied the effect of using marble dust waste as a fine material on the mechanical properties of the concrete mix. The study revealed that substituting the very fine aggregate passing through a 0.25-mm sieve by marble waste performed better than the control mix in terms of compressive strength. Marble dust had a filler effect at an early age and played a noticeable role in the hydration process. The SEM investigations indicated a difference between the appearance of CH crystals with and without marble dust addition, verifying the fact that the marble dust played a noticeable role during the hydration process.

Manpreet et al. (2017a, 2017b) indicated in his study that replacing 15% of the cement content in the concrete mix at a water to cement ratio of 0.35 with marble slurry would decrease the water permeability and abrasion of the mix. Higher replacement ratios increased the density of the mix and reduced water penetration in the long term.

Similarly, Sarbjeet et al. (2015) observed that the optimum replacement percentage of marble waste for both cement and sand was found 15% to produce paver concrete blocks. Increasing this replacement percentage affected negatively the compressive strength of the produced blocks. The percentage increment in the compressive strength for the optimum mix is greater in case of sand replacement as compared to the cement replacement.

Additional studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of using granite waste as a replacement for cement and sand in the concrete and mortar mixes. Shehdeh (2016) observed that substitution of 10% of sand by weight with granite powder in concrete resulted in a maximum increase in compressive strength to approximately 500 kg/cm2 compared to 365 kg/cm2 of control concrete and an increase in splitting tensile strength to 30 kg/cm2 compared to 26 kg/cm2 of control concrete.

A distinctive study was undertaken by Abhishek and Pradeep (2015) to examine the effect of partial replacement of sand with granite quarry dust and cement with marble powder in concrete. The results indicated that the compressive strength increased gradually by adding up to 10% replacement of cement with marble powder and 20% replacement of fine aggregate with granite dust. Beyond these proportions of waste addition, the compressive strength of the concrete mix decreased. This was referred to the lack of combination between the CSH gel and the granite marble wastes during the hydration process leading to a weak micro-structure of concrete.

Bakhoum et al. (2017) presented a study on the use of nano-granite waste particles as a partial replacement of cement and fine aggregate in mortar production. The research concluded that replacing 5% cement and 10% sand with nano-granite waste in the mortar mix increased the compressive strength of the green mortar by 41% compared to that of the control mix (CM). SEM images reinforced this result as the green mortar mix showed maximum density and minimum micro-cracks and a number of pores. The research was extended to study the social, environmental, and economic effects of using granite waste as a partial replacement for both cement and sand simultaneously. Savings in energy consumption and CO2 emissions reached 5%.

The materials used in this study were obtained from the local Egyptian market. Normal Portland cement used was CEM I 42.5N, confirming the Egyptian standards ES 47561. The specific gravity of cement used in this study was 3.15 gm/cm3, and the percentage of fine particles passing from sieve 170 was 9% which presents the fineness of cement used. The initial and final setting times were 2h and 3.2h, respectively.

Natural sand composed of siliceous materials was used as fine aggregate in this study. The nominal maximum size of the sand was 4.75mm. The marble and granite waste powder were obtained from Shaqu-Elteban area, Egypt. This fine powder was used to substitute conventional cement and fine aggregates in the green mortar mixes produced. The fine waste material is obtained in the form of slurry material containing various percentage of water. In order to ensure a constant W/C ratio for mortar mixes, the natural waste material was dried up using an oven at a temperature of 200C for 6h. The waste material powder was weighed before and after the drying process, and the difference of weight proved to be less than 10% to ensure proper drying state of this waste material. The water was clean tap water with a temperature ranging 2030C.

The waste materials were then sieved and the fine particles passing through sieve 300m were used as a partial replacement of cement. This waste was dissolved in water resulting in a consistent solution which in turn was added to the other mix components to produce the resulting green mortar mixes.

X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) is a method of elemental analysis that assesses the presence and concentration of various elements by measurement of secondary X-radiation from the sample that has been excited by an X-ray source.

Classically, elements from the heaviest down to atomic number 9 (F) can be determined at levels of a few milligram/kilogram (ppm). Newer developments with wavelength dispersive spectrometers (WDXRF) allow the determination of some of the ultralow atomic number elements including (O).

The design mixes used in this study to produce green mortar were prepared by partially replacing cement, sand, and both of them with different percentages by weight of waste material. It should be stated that the W/C ratio was 0.5 for all mixes produced.

The first mortar mix prepared (CM) was a control mix with a 0% replacement ratio of waste. The first mortar green mix (NC5) was containing 5% of marble waste as a partial replacement of cement, while (NF10) was a green mortar containing 10% of marble waste as a partial replacement of sand. The last green mix (NC5 + NF10) was prepared using 5% cement replacement and 10% sand replacement together. Table 1 presents the mixes components produced for this study.

It should be noted that the mix proportions used in this study were selected similar to those done on granite waste powder in Bakhoum et al. (2017) in order to conclude a complete understanding of the behavior of the chemical constituents of marble and granite in mortar mixes.

A compressive strength test was carried out for mortar mixes after curing for 28days. The Shumadsu 1000 KN universal compression machine was used in testing the mortar samples. The machine is equipped with a data analyzing output for data recording.

Table 2 shows the chemical analyses of the raw materials as obtained from XRF analyses, whereas Table 3 presents the percent of free silica and organic matter of the two wastes. The loss on ignition obtained is significantly higher in case of marble waste than that of granite waste. This is mainly due to the loss of carbon dioxide from the decomposition of marble waste (consisting mainly of calcium carbonate), in addition to the organic matter content as revealed in Tables 2 and 3.

The compression tests were carried out to investigate the mechanical behavior of green mortar mixes prepared using marble waste powder. Table 4 presents the compression test results for mortar mixes at a curing time of 28days.

Test results show that for the control mix (CM), the compression strength was 251kg/cm2. By replacing 5% of cement with marble powder in NC5, the compressive strength value dropped by 14%. For sand replacement, and by replacing 10% of sand with marble powder in (NF10), the compressive strength value rises up to 5% above the control CM. Replacing 5% of cement and 10% of sand with marble waste powder in NC5 + NF10 mix gives almost the same compressive strength value obtained from CM.

Comparing these results of marble replacement to those of granite with the same mixing proportions cited in Bakhoum et al. (2017), the results of green mortar using granite waste powder in Table 5 showed an increase in the compressive strength for all mixes NC5, NF10, and NC5 + NF10, of 33%, 39%, and 41%, respectively.

The probable reason for that behavior is the presence of a relatively large amount of fine free silica particles in granite as evidenced from Table 3. The table shows that granite waste contains more than 26% fine free silica particles. These particles will undergo pozzolanic reaction with calcium hydroxide present in mortar pores producing CSH crystals which result in high strength to the cement mortar. On the other hand, marble waste is largely composed of limestone (Table 2) which possesses no pozzolanic properties.

This result concedes with those presented by Manpreet et al. (2017a, 2017b), which revealed that the increase in compressive strength is observed only due to micro-filler effect of marble powder whereas a decrease in strength begins to appear at 10% substitution as the amount of C3A and C2S required for hydration process reduces.

Marble waste has a high percentage of fines but does not have a considerable amount of silica and alumina. Calcite and dolomite are the main constituents present in the marble slurry. Replacing cement and sand by marble waste did not result in a significant increase in the cement mortar compressive strength when compared to the control mix.

Granite waste contains more than 26% fine free silica particles which undergo pozzolanic reaction with calcium hydroxide present in mortar pores. This pozzolanic reaction produces CSH crystals which increase the strength of the cement mortar.

This result is corroborating with the chemical composition analysis conducted by Bruna et al. (2018), which revealed that the main components of the granite waste were silica (42.80%), calcium oxide (19.00%), and aluminum trioxide (8.07%) together with small amounts of other oxides.

For future work, it is highly recommended to study the effect of using both marble and granite wastes together as a partial replacement to cement and sand on the cement aggregate matrix with different mixing proportions to reach the optimum green mortar compression strength results.

Bruna SA, Fernanda GP, Luciane SCM, White JS, Maria TPA (2018) Study of Portland cement composites replacing cement for waste from the cutting and polishing of ornamental rocks. Int J Sci Eng Invest 7(76):120124

Sarbjeet S, Anshuman T, Ravindra N (2015) Comparative assessment of effects of sand & cement replacement in concrete by marble dust & in turn deriving an optimum design mix for concrete paver blocks. Conference Paper: Global Stone Technology Forum (GSTF)

SA performed the chemical laboratory analysis tests for raw materials, and SA, HE, and MA performed the compression mechanical test. MA, SA, and GG analyzed and interpreted the results of chemical analysis and compression test values obtained, and all authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Amin, S.K., Allam, M.E., Garas, G.L. et al. A study of the chemical effect of marble and granite slurry on green mortar compressive strength. Bull Natl Res Cent 44, 19 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s42269-020-0274-8

By using this website, you agree to our Terms and Conditions, California Privacy Statement, Privacy statement and Cookies policy. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre.

marble powder as fine aggregates in concrete | engineering, technology & applied science research

Marble industry contributes significantly to the socio-economic development of any country. Due to the abundance of marble reserves, Pakistan relies on marble industry, which in turn contributes to its GDP. Marble powder (MP), produced from the marble industry is also increasing, which constantly remains a source of hazards to the environment. At the same time, natural sand deposits are decreasing, causing an acute need for a product that matches the properties of sand in concrete. This study has been conducted to demonstrate the possibility of using MP as a replacement of sand in the manufacturing of concrete. The MP was used in 5 different dosage percentages ranging from 0% to 100% by weight of sand with an increment of 25%. The effect of MP on the strength behavior of concrete was studied at three different curing ages (7, 14 and 28 days). It was observed from the results that MP could potentially replace sand up to a certain limit without compromising on strength. It was also noticed that 50% sand replacement with MP was optimum at which 13.52% and 35.54% increase in compressive and flexural strength was achieved compared to the control sample. Based on the results of this experimental study, it is clear that MP can partially be used in place of sand in concrete.

A. A. Jhatial, S. Sohu, N. K. Bhatti, M. T. Lakhiar, R. Oad, Effect of Steel Fibres on the Compressive and Flexural Strength of Concrete, International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, Vol. 5, No. 10, pp. 16-21, 2018

S. Sohu, K. Ullah, A. A. Jhatial, M. Jaffar, M. T. Lakhiar, Factors Adversely Affecting Quality in Highway Projects of Pakistan, International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, Vol. 5, No. 10, pp. 62-66, 2018

S. E. Aprianti, A Huge Number of Artificial Waste Material Can Be Supplementary Cementitious Material (SCM) for Concrete Production-a Review Part II, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 142, pp. 4178-4194, 2017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.12.115

A. A. Jhatial, W. I. Goh, K. H. Mo, S. Sohu, I. A. Bhatti, Green and Sustainable Concrete-The Potential Utilization of Rice Husk Ash and Egg Shells, Civil Engineering Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1. pp. 74-81, 2019 DOI: https://doi.org/10.28991/cej-2019-03091226

A. R. Sandhu, M. T. Lakhiar, A. A. Jhatial, H. Karira, Q. B. Jamali, Effect of River Indus Sand and Recycled Concrete Aggregates as Fine and Coarse Replacement on Properties of Concrete, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 9, No. 1. pp. 3831-3834, 2019 DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2558

C. S. Poon, Z. H. Shui, L. Lam, H. Fok, S. C. Kou, Influence of Moisture States of Natural and Recycled Aggregates on the Slump and Compressive Strength of Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 31-36, 2004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(03)00186-8

S. Singh, R. Nagar, V. Agrawal, Feasibility as a potential substitute for natural sand: a comparative study between granite cutting waste and marble slurry, Procedia Environmental Sciences, Vol. 35, pp. 571-582, 2016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2016.07.042

A. A. Jhatial, W. I. Goh, N. Mohamad, S. Sohu, M. T. Lakhiar, Utilization of Palm Oil Fuel Ash and Eggshell Powder as Partial Cement Replacement-A Review, Civil Engineering Journal, Vol. 4, No. 8, pp. 1977-1984, 2018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.28991/cej-03091131

R. Malpani, S. K. Jegarkal, R. Shepur, R. H. N. Kiran, V. K. Adi, Effect of Marble Sludge Powder and Quarry Rock Dust as Partial Replacement for Fine Aggregates on Properties of Concrete, International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 39-42, 2014

G. C. Ulubeyli, R. Artir, Properties of hardened concrete produced by waste marble powder, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 195, pp. 2181-2190, 2015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.06.294

N. M. Soliman, Effect of using Marble Powder in Concrete Mixes on the Behavior and Strength of R.C. Slabs, International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 1863-1870, 2013

M. Y. Celik, E. Sabah, Marble Deposits and the Impact of Marble Waste on Environmental Pollution Geological and technical characterization of Iscehisar (AfyonTurkey), Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 87, pp. 106-116, 2008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2007.01.004

K. E. Alyamac, R. Ince, A preliminary concrete mix design for SCC with marble powders, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 1201-1210, 2009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2008.08.012

Q. Khan, S. Maqsood, S. B. Khattak, M. Omair, A. Hussain, Evaluation of Activity Hazards in Marble Industry of Pakistan, International Journal of Engineering & Technology, Vol. 15, No. 5, pp. 73-78, 2015

A. Ergun, Effects of the usage of diatomite and waste marble powder as partial replacement of cement on the mechanical properties of concrete, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 25, pp. 806-812, 2011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.07.002

A. A. Aliabdo, A. E. M. Abd Elmoaty, E. M. Auda, Re-use of waste marble dust in the production of cement and concrete, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 50, pp. 2841, 2014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.09.005

R. Baboo, N. H. Khan, K. Abhishek, R. S. Tabin, S. K. Duggal, Influence of Marble powder/granules in Concrete mix, International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 827-834, 2011

S. D. Kore, A. K. Vyas, Impact of marble waste as coarse aggregate on properties of lean cement concrete, Case Studies in Construction Materials, Vol. 4, pp. 85-92, 2016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cscm.2016.01.002

M. Vijayalakshmi, A. S. S. Sekar, G. G. Prabhu, Strength and durability properties of concrete made with granite industry waste, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 46, pp. 1-7, 2013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.04.018

A. M. Rashad, A preliminary study on the effect of fine aggregate replacement with metakaolin on strength and abrasion resistance of concrete, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 44, pp. 487-495, 2013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.03.038

K. E. Alyamac, A. B. Aydin, Concrete Properties Containing Fine Aggregate Marble Powder, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 19, No. 7, pp. 2208-2216, 2015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12205-015-0327-y

M. Singh, K. Choudhary, A. Srivastava, K. S. Sangwan, D. Bhunia, A study on environmental and economic impacts of using waste marble powder in concrete, Journal of Building Engineering, Vol. 13, pp. 87-95, 2017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2017.07.009

- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.

- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.

- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.

Some updated stats about ETASR (July 3, 2021):- Editorial Board: 32 board members / 35 institutions / 22 different countries- 11th year of operation, 63 issues (bimonthly, first issue in Feb. 2011)- 1263 published papers, 3932 authors (3.11 authors per paper)- 2863 different authors from 74 different countries and 791 different institutions/organizations (not counting departments)- acceptance rate: 38.62%- days to first editorial decision: 16- days to acceptance: 46

Indexed in: Web of Science / Master Journal List / Emerging Sources Citation Index, National Library of Greece, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) (incl. DOAJ Seal), Crossref, HEAL-Link, ReviewerCredits, Publons, ResearchGate, Scilit, EBSCOhost, HEC Journal Recognition System (HJRC), Zenodo, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, WorldCat, Journal Table of Contents (Journal TOCs), BASE, Academic Journals Database, JournalSeek, ScienceGate, SHERPA/ROMEO, MedOAnet, Latest Journal Articles, Open Access Journals Search Engine, Open Access Library (OALib), Open Science Directory, Directory of Open Access Scholarly Resources (ROAD), Advanced Science Index, Electronic Journals Library, SciTitles, Open Access Library (JourLib), Journal Guide, CiteFactor, InfoBase Index, Open Academic Journals Index, Global Impact Factor, International Impact Factor Services, Universal Impact Factor, Scientific Journal Impact Factor, General Impact Factor, EuroPub, Publication Integrity & Ethics (PIE), ORiginal RESearch (ORES), Quality Factor, Cosmos Impact Factor, Eurasian Scientific Journal Index, Journal Factor, Scientific Indexing Services, International Society for Research Activity - Journal Impact Factor, Systematic Impact Factor, Journal Checker Tool

properties of hardened concrete produced by waste marble powder - sciencedirect

Marble is industrially processed by being cut, polished, and used for decorative purposes, and thus, economically valuable. In marble quarries, stones are cut as blocks through different methods. During the cutting process, 20-30% of a marble block becomes waste marble powder. Marble powder is a waste material generated in considerable amounts in the world. Marble waste leads to a serious environmental problem as well. Therefore, the use of waste marble in the concrete production as an admixture material or aggregate has increasingly become an important issue. In the present study, effect of different usage areas of waste marble on the hardened concrete properties was investigated based on previous studies. In this context, (1) compressive, flexural, and splitting tensile strength, (2) modulus of elasticity, (3) ultrasonic pulse velocity, (4) Schmidt surface hardness, and lastly (5) sorptivity coefficient/porosity of the hardened concrete, were examined. Comparing all results, the proposition the marble waste can be used in the production of concrete was discussed in a detailed manner. As a result, the use of waste marble powder in (1) conventional concrete mix, (2) self-compacting concrete mix, and (3) polymer concrete mix, was revealed. Consequently, it was found out that the use of waste marble in the conventional concrete mix as an admixture material or aggregate is suitable as it can improve some properties of the hardened concrete. However, the use of waste marble in the self-compacting and polymer concrete mixes as an admixture material or aggregate is not affected positively in terms of hardened properties of concrete.

home pros guide - professional home improvement magazines

Try to move quickly to keep the edges wet, this will help to prevent lap marks, due to the finish drying. It's good to stop every 10 minutes to pour out a 1-inch-wide stripe of finish in line with the grain.

Before starting, bring pallet wood pieces into the room you'll be hanging them in for a few days before installation. Wood shrinks and expands due to the air temperature and humidity.This will give the wood time to adjust to the temperature of the room.