rod miller dog breed

how to stop dogs from fighting in your household - whole dog journal

Editors Note: Twenty years ago, people freely used the term aggressive dog to describe what, today, we would call a dog with aggressive behaviors. The problem with the term aggressive dog is that very few dogs are aggressive all the time and if they are, they are unlikely to be in anyones home. Most dogs who display aggression in some situations are loving and loved dogs in other circumstances; calling them aggressive dogs overlooks the fact that they are terrific dogs most of the time. Throughout this article, we may use the older, more familiar term, and we will add the modern term that more accurately describes a dog who sometimes displays aggressive behaviors.

Knowledgeable dog people are quite aware that not all dogs get along with each other, despite the fact thatcanis lupus familiaris(domestic dog) is a social species. Hey, we humans are a social species, and we certainly dont all get along! Two dogs fighting within the same household is unhappily common in our world. As a professional behavior consultant who works with aggressive dogs (dogs with challenging aggressive behaviors), I probably see more than my fair share of it. By far the most difficult and most distressing presentations of tension between dogs are interdog aggression cases: dogs in the same family who arent getting along with each other.

Ive had a spate of these clients in recent weeks. Even our own Lucy and Missy, a Cardigan Corgi and Australian Shepherd who dont always get along seamlessly, seem to have experienced an increase in relationship tensions this winter. I cant give you a tidy explanation as to why, but Im beginning to put more stock in the explanation jokingly offered by my dog-trainer colleague, Jennifer Swiggart, CPDT-KA, PMCT, when she called it snow aggression.

Why do dogs attack other dogs in the house? Far from a case of dog sibling rivalry, when one dog attacks the other in the house, the reason is stress. With the very rare exception of idiopathic aggression at one time called rage syndrome, Cocker rage, or Springer rage and grossly over-diagnosed in the 1960s and 70s aggression is the result of a stress load that pushes a dog over his bite threshold.

You can compare it to incidents of road rage in humans. When you read about the man who pulls out his .38 revolver because someone cut him off on the freeway and blows away the unfortunate offending driver, you can bet there was more going on for him than just a simple traffic violation. This is the guy who was likely laid off his job, lost his retirement investments, had his wife tell him this morning that she was leaving him, and just got notice in the mail that the bank is foreclosing on his home. Getting cut off on the freeway is simply the last straw the final stressor that pushes him over his bite threshold.

So it is for dogs. When tensions increase between Missy and Lucy, I need to look for possible added stressors in their environment that are pushing them closer to, and yes, sometimes over, their bite threshold. From that perspective, snow aggression is a real possibility: With recent record snowfalls reaching a total of 50 inches here, the resulting decrease in exercise opportunities, as well as higher stress levels of human family members who arent fond of snow (guilty!), can be stressors for the canine family members.

To resolve aggression issues between your own dogs, youll want to identify not only the immediate trigger for the aggression fighting over a meaty bone, for example but also everything in your dogs life that may be stressful to him. The more stressors you can remove from his world, the less likely it is that he will use his teeth the canine equivalent of pulling out a .38 revolver.

Stress in dogs can happen anytime and be anywhere. Remember that its the sum total of a dogs stress that pushes him over his bite threshold, so the more of his stressors you can identify and get rid of, the more youll ease tensions between your canine family members.

Live with it (most appropriate for low-level stressors). Next, I help the client make a management plan that will go into place immediately, to help defuse the tension until she is able to start work on behavior modification. Then we create action plans for two or three of the stressors on the list, starting with the one the client is most concerned about in this case, the dog-on-dog aggression.

Its often relatively easy to identify the immediate trigger for your dogs mutual aggression. Its usually whatever happened just before the appearance of the hard stare, posturing, growls, and sometimes the actual fight.

In the best of worlds, #2 defers by looking away, saying in canine speak, Oh sorry, no worries, I was just passing through. When things go wrong, however, a fight breaks out. Dog #2s approach was the trigger for #1, even if #2 had no interest in the chew item. Perhaps Dog #2 failed to notice or failed to heed #1s warning. Remember that resources include more than just food; a guardable resource can also be a high-value human, a coveted spot on the sofa, or access to a doorway. The stressor in these cases is obvious: the dog is anxious over the possibility of losing or having to share his treasured possession.

Other triggers may be less obvious. If a dog is in pain, but not showing it, the mere proximity of a packmate who has inadvertently bumped her in the past could be a trigger. Dogs can be notoriously stoic about pain, especially slowly developing arthritis, or unilateral pain (where you may not see a limp). The undiagnosed arthritic dog may become defensively aggressive in anticipation of being hurt by a livelier canine pal, trying to forestall painful contact in what looks to the owner like unprovoked aggression.

Social aggression can result when neither of two dogs in the same family is willing to defer to the other. Note that this type of aggression is about deference (or lack thereof) not dominance. In behavior science, dominance is simply about access to a mutually desired resource. The dog who gains access in one encounter is dominant *in that encounter*. In the next encounter, the other dog might gain access to the resource and be dominant in *that* encounter. When you have identified your dogs triggers, you can manage their environment to reduce trigger incidents and minimize outright conflict. This is critically important to a successful modification program. The more often the dogs fight, the more tension there is between them; the more practiced they become at the undesirable behaviors, the better they get at fighting and the harder it will be to make it go away. And this is to say nothing of the increased likelihood that sooner or later someone dog or human will be badly injured.

CC&D for intra-pack aggression involves changing your dogs association with each other from negative to positive. The easiest way to give most dogs a positive association is with very high-value, really yummy treats. I like to use chicken thawed out pre-cooked frozen chicken strips (no breading or spices) canned, baked, or boiled, since most dogs love chicken and its a low-fat, low-calorie food.

a)Determine the distance at which your dogs can be in each others presence and be alert or cautious but not fearful or aroused. This is called the threshold distance. If one dog has a greater threshold hold distance than the other (often the case), work at the greater distance.

b)With you holding Dog A on a leash, have your helper appear with Dog B at threshold distance X. The instant your dog sees the other, start feeding bits of chicken, non-stop. Your helper will feed chicken to her dog, too, the instant he notices your dog.

d)Keep repeating steps 1-3 until the sight of the other dog at distance X consistently causes both dogs to look at their handlers with a happy smile and a Yay! Wheres my chicken? expression. This is the physical presentation of the dogs conditioned emotional response (CER); each dogs association with the other at threshold distance X is now positive, so they can deliberately look at you to get their chicken, rather than staying intensely focused on each other.

e)Now you need to increase the intensity of the stimulus by increasing the length of time Dog B stays in sight. Continue to feed chicken when they are in view of each, occasionally pausing to let them look at each other again, and immediately feeding chicken when they do.

f)When length of time seems to make no difference to either dog youre getting a consistent Yay, wheres my chicken? response regardless of how long Dog B stays in view, increase the intensity again, this time by increasing Dog Bs movement. Have the handler walk back and forth with her dog, still at distance X, slowly at first, then with more energy, even adding in some other behaviors such as sit, down, and roll over.

g)Now youre ready to start decreasing distance by moving Dog A a little closer to the location where the Dog B will appear. When you obtain consistent CERs from both dogs at each new distance you can decrease the distance a little more, until both dogs are happy to be very near each other.

h)Then return to your original threshold distance and increase intensity stimulus by having Dog B move around more and more, as you gradually decrease distance and obtain CERs from both dogs along the way, until they are delighted to be near each other.

i)Now go back to your starting distance and increase intensity again, by having both dogs move more naturally as the distance decreases, offering CERs at each new distance before you come any closer, until they can be within six feet of each other, moving around, still relaxed and happy about chicken.

j)Finally, find ways for your dogs to engage separately in mutually enjoyable activities together. If they both enjoy car rides, take them for a drive, but be sure they are seat-belted or crated far enough apart to avoid any tension. If they love hiking, take them on parallel walks, one with you, one with your training partner, with humans between them at first, and eventually with dogs between humans when youre sure their emotions are appropriate. Parallel swims, for dogs who love the water, can work well too.

When you feel the dogs are ready to finally interact with each other again, be careful not to undo all your hard work. You might first let them greet through a barrier, such as a baby gate or exercise pen.

Its useful to desensitize both dogs to a muzzle over the period youre desensitizing them to each other (in separate sessions), so the first time youre ready for them to actually interact together you can muzzle them and be confident they cant hurt each other.

The more intense the relationship between the two dogs, the more challenging it is to modify their behavior. The more negative interactions theyve had, the more injuries, the longer the tension has been going on, and the stronger their emotions, the longer it will take to reprogram their responses to each other. If they were good friends at one time, its likely to be easier than if your dogs have always tried to fight each other.

The second option is to teach your dogs a new operant behavior in response to each other, using the Constructional Aggression Treatment (CAT) procedure developed by Dr. Jesus Rosales-Ruiz and Kellie Snider at the University of North Texas. (See Modifying Aggressive Behavior, and Constructional Aggression Treatment.)

In daily life, dogs learn to offer aggressive distance-increasing signals in order to make other dogs go away. Every time this works, the go away behavior is reinforced. The CAT procedure teaches the dog that calm behavior can make the other dog go away, and as a result, the aggressive dog can ultimately become friendly and happy about the other dogs presence.

A variation on the operant approach is the Behavioral Adjustment Training procedure (BAT) created by Oregon trainerGrisha Stewart, MA, CPDT-KA, CPT. BAT is similar to CAT, but uses a variety of environmental reinforcers rather than the location and movement of the other dog exclusively.

As in CAT, the BAT procedure reinforces behaviors other than aggression in the presence of the other dog. In this case, however, your repertoire of reinforcers is larger, including the use of food reinforcers and having the subject dog (the aggressive one) move away instead of the other dog.

If one or both of the dogs are ready to do battle on sight, they must be strictly managed and kept separate from each other except when youre doing your controlled modification procedure with them. If the aggression is more predictable and situational, the dogs can be together as long as you can manage and prevent the trigger(s) from causing conflict.

What does it mean to manage your dogs environment to minimize exposure to his stressors? Simply put, it means making changes to your dogs environment in order to keep your dogs away from the stimuli that stress them.

If the dogs are stressed by each other, of course, the first task is to keep them separated, through the assiduous use of doors,fences, baby gates,crates, andtethers. Smart positioning can help; locate each dogs crates or tethering area out of the other dogs sightline. Take them outdoors to potty separately, and separate them well before feeding time, to reduce tensions that arise when everyone is jostling to be fed first.

Next, try to minimize your dogs exposure to other stressful stimuli. For example: Say one of your dogs goes over threshold when she sees the mailman approaching your house through the living room window, and her barking display of aggression seems to agitate your other dog. Installing shutters on the window might work (to block your dogs view), but closing the door to the front room (to keep the dogs as far away from the sight and sound of the mailman) would be even better. Or you could move your mailbox to toward the sidewalk, instead of next to the front door the farther from the house, the better. Or get a post office box and do away with the mail carrier altogether. Be creative!

Exercisecan be immensely helpful in minimizing overall tension. Physical activity uses up excess energy that might otherwise feed your dogs aggressive behaviors, (a tired dog is a well-behaved dog and a happy owner!). Exercise also causes your dogs body to release various chemicals, including endorphins and norepinephrine, helping to generate a feeling of well-being; an exercised dog is a happy dog! Happy dogs are simply less likely to fight.

Even the food you feed your dog can have an impact on his behavior. Poor quality protein can interfere with a dogs ability to make use of the serotonin that occurs naturally in his system. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that helps regulate mood and sleep, and also affects memory and learning. Foods containing high-quality protein can contribute to your dogs behavioral health and physical health.

Basic training enables you and your dog to communicate more easily with each other (which is less stressful for both of you), and helps your dog understand how his world works, which reduces his stress. A good training program emphasizes structure and consistency, both of which make a dogs world more predictable. Predictability equals less stress; unpredictability is stressful.

If youve ever had a massage, you know how calming touch can be. Dogs arent that different from us; you can calm and soothe your dog with physical touch, both throughcanine massageandTTouch. Combine your calming touch sessions with aromatherapy, by using a therapeutic-quality lavender essential oil in an electric nebulizing diffuser in the room while you massage your dog. Then you can build your dogs ahhh association with the lavender scent to help him be calm in more stressful environments, by putting a few drops of essential oil on a bandana that you tie around his neck or on the bedding in his crate.

Other environmental stress reducers include: Adaptil (also known as Comfort Zone, Dog Appeasing Pheromone, or DAP). This is a synthetic substance that is reputedly mimics the pheromones emitted by a mother dog when shes nursing puppies. Available through pet supply stores and catalogs.

Sometimes youre lucky: its easy to either get rid of your dogs stressors or just live with them. Stressors you could get rid of easily includechoke, prong, or shock collars(even those used for electronic containment systems); physical or harsh verbal corrections (punishment), and treatable medical conditions. Without these present in their environment, the dogs stress level will decrease.

We all have some stress in our lives, and its pretty near impossible to get rid of all of it. Just because youve identified a stressor for your dog doesnt mean you have to make it go away. You probably dont have enough time in your schedule to address every single thing on your list. As you look at your dogs list of stressors, the ones they can probably live with are those that dont happen frequently, that cause only a mild stress response, and dont appear to escalate over time. You can also refrain from eliminating your dogs fun stressors, such as squirrel-chasing sessions. If you make your way through the rest of your list and still have time on your hands, you can always address the live with it items later.

Any medical condition that causes your dog to behave out of sorts is a massive contributor to stress. Trying to modify aggression while your dog suffers from an untreated medical condition is akin to pushing a behavioral boulder uphill.

Dog-on-dog aggression in the home can feel overwhelming. In fact, it can be dangerous if fights erupt regularly and you try to intervene. Many times a caretaker has been bittentrying to break up fights between her own dogs. The stress that the constant tension generates can damage the quality of your own life, as well as your dogs lives.

When a situation feels beyond your ability to cope, your first best option is to find a qualified positive behavior consultant in your area who can help you implement appropriate management and modification procedures, to keep everyone safe and to start making change happen in your dogs mutual relationships.

A consultation with a veterinarian who is well-educated in behavior or even a veterinary behaviorist should also be on your list, not only for that all-important medical workup, but also for the consideration of psychotropic behavior modification drugs, if and when appropriate, to help your dogs brain be more receptive to your modification efforts.

If you feel youre done your best and peace isnt in the cards for your pack, its okay to admit that some dogs will never get along, and you have had the misfortune to adopt two who dont. If thats the case, your options are:

Some trainers say, Management always fails. In truth, management does have a high risk of failure, perhaps with potentially dire consequences. The risk is even higher if there arechildren in the home not only because theyre more likely to forget to close doors and latch gates, but also because they are at greater risk of injury themselves if they are in the vicinity when a fight happens. Still, I know of several dog owners who have successfully implemented lifetime management protocols for dogs who didnt get along, and felt that their own quality of life, as well as that of their dogs, was above reproach.

Rehoming can be a reasonable option, especially if the dog being considered for placement has no other significant inappropriate behaviors, and if he can be rehomed to an only dog home, or one with dogs hes known to get along well with. Of course, it can be challenging to find an experienced, appropriate home for a dog with a known aggression behavior challenge, but it may be possible, particularly if hes an otherwise wonderful companion.

No one wants to think of euthanizing an otherwise healthy member of their canine family. Still, if youve done all you can reasonably do given the limits of your abilities and resources, and youve not been able to create a safe environment for your family and one of the dogs cant be rehomed, then euthanasia is not an inappropriate decision. It will be terribly painful for you, and you may always feel guilt and regret about not finding the solution to the problem, although perhaps not as much guilt and regret as you would if one of your dogs badly injured or killed the other, or worse, a person. There is a wonderful Facebook support group called Losing Lulu for people who have had to make the impossibly difficult behavioral euthanasia decision. If you are one of these, its worth checking out.

Its now 43 degrees outside, and for the first time in many weeks the snow has melted enough I can actually take my dogs for a long hike around the farm. Id best finish this sentence, turn off my computer, and take our dogs out to stretch their legs so we can all enjoy a very peaceful, aggression-free evening.

Do you recommend euthanasia if the dog has killed one of the others? I have a friend whose mixed breed (approximately #45) killed their #4 Chihuahua. They had lived together for 6 yrs with supposedly no issues. Came home from work one day and found the Chihuahua in really bad shape. Rushed her to vet but she could not be saved. I recommended euthanasia, but they refused and now they have a Chi/ jack Russell mix. Dogs are now starting to fight. Larger dog is female ,spayed, the other is male, neutered. Again around 5-6 yrs with no significant issues but is escalating quickly. She refuses to crate or lock up one or the other. Says it is cruel. How can I get through to her?

I am not a Vet, but I am an experienced dog owner that is experiencing some aggression issues with my own two dogs. One is an eleven-year-old neutered male Doberman with outstanding temperament and the patience of a saint, the other is a one and a half-year-old 15lb spayed female Jack Russel Rat Terrier Mix. Lucy our Jack/Rat terrier has become very aggressive toward our Doberman and we are at the point where we may need to euthanize her or see if we can find the right no-kill shelter that will work with a dog like Lucy to find the right single pet home (no other animals), with full disclosure about her issues. Your friend needs to take this issue seriously and should have her dog vetted to see if there are any medical issues that are causing pain or other medical-related induced aggression. Barring any treatable medical conditions, and if the dog cannot be safely re-homed to a single pet household, I would euthanize the dog since it has already killed one pack member, and it is already fighting with another. Either choice is difficult, but the safety of everyone in the home is imperative. I would speak to her and liken the situation with her Chihuahua as a human child (how would she feel and what would she do if it was a child that was killed)? In the interim, the dog that is being aggressive needs to be segregated from the other dogs for the safety of everyone and she needs to get the dog to the vet immediately. If the vet deems the dog unsafe she should euthanize the dog (and be prepared to do so) at the same vet visit, if the dog can be re-homed, she should keep the dog segregated and find an appropriate no-kill shelter and be completely honest about the dogs history and understand they may not take a dog that has already killed another pet. She should talk to anyone and everyone she can and do the right thing, whatever that may be and as hard as it may be. You are a great friend to reach out and ask for help on her behalf! Crating is not cruel by the way, it is natural for canines to seek a den (crate). She should not punish the dog by any means and leave it in a crate 24/7, but she needs to find a way to keep the aggressive dog separate from the others. I realize you posted in July and I hope things have worked out and you have been able to get her to listen to a professional or to read the article above.

My two dogs suddenly became aggressive towards each other, a pitbull and jack russle and now they cant be put toward because they always break out in a fight which is frightening. Please provide some advice as this is a serious matter.

Well theres some solid advice in this article. If youre still having problems, look into pack leader training. Dogs at the bottom of the pack are generally calm and low energy. Its really effective and easier than most people think. Theres a great guide on this if you Google: 123 Recall Method Takes consistency but worth it in the long run.

I took my puppy from a dog foster home about a year ago. I love him to bits; he has a great personality, and I feel that he loves our family so much. BUT, whenever I take him for walks, we have problems. He hates other dogs and other people sometimes even growls at us. My husband and I were thinking about taking him to doggy school, but then again, its extremely expensive, and the nearest doggy school is far away from us. Maybe you have some advice? THANK YOU!!!!

My family and I were on vacation and my 1yr and 8 month old dane attacked my 1 yr. 4 month Presa. Now my Presa growls at my dane and my dane growls back. We keep them seperate now. I have an appt. To neuter my dane in 2 weeks. My husband refuses to neuter the Presa. Our trainer said both need to be neutered for her to help bc it wont work if not.

I have three dogs: Rosie (14 y/o 25lb American Eskimo), Jazzie (7 y/o 12lb Maltese/Yorkie), and Sadie (4 y/o 40lb American Eskimo/Spitz). Jazzie and Rosie have been together since we adopted Jazzie in 2013 with no problems. When we got Sadie in 2015, things began to change. Sadie never got along with the other two so she was being separated from them with gates. In around 2017 she and Jazzie began getting along with brief, supervised integration. They were never allowed to be together alone, but if we were all watching tv or in one room they were able to be together with absolutely no problems. Whenever we left the house and the dogs were along, Jazzie and Rosie had full roam of the house, while Sade was in the kitchen with gates on the doorways. That was never a problem until August of 2018 when I came home to Rosie covered in blood and Jazzie with a bloody mouth. Rosie needed two emergency surgeries to fix the amount of damage Jazzie inflicted. The three of them are always separated when we leave the house, but again, if we are all watching tv or in the kitchen Jazzie and Rosie are together, or Jazzie and Sadie are together. Rosie and Sadie are never together, alone or supervised, because Sadie constantly wants to play with little bites or jumping and Rosie is too old, so we do not want to stress her out. But, when S&J or J&R are together and barking occurs Jazzie goes into a frenzy and jumps on the back of whatever dog she is with and begins biting and grabbing around the other dogs neck. Rosie is too old and tends to just take it with nothing more than growling and barking, but Sadie is far from taking it. I do not believe Jazzie understands who she is messing with when it comes to Sadie. Sadie has always been a more aggressive dog towards people and other animals. So when Jazzie picks a fight with Sadie it sounds and looks horrific. I am always only steps away to pick Jazzie up and stop the damage, but to say those few seconds are terrifying is an understatement. We do not know what to do anymore because the attacks are only triggered by a dog barking and it is so random when one of the dogs bark we never know when it will occur and we feel awful having to separate all three dogs 24/7. Any suggestions are welcomed. We have been told medications may help Jazzies aggression, but I cannot help hating the idea of medicating my dog.

We have two dogs one that is around 7 years old and one that is about 2 years old. They have lived with each other side the 2 year only was a few months old. The older is dominate and we know this. When we first got the puppy they would get in fights when the puppy would try and get on the bed in the middle of the night. This has subsided and has for a while. What is happening now all of a sudden it seems when Im home alone and we are on the couch and something will startle the older one ie husband coming down the stairs or coming in the front door, the older one will attack and start a fight with the younger one. This leaves the younger one scared and avoiding her for an hour or so. They play together all day, eat next to each other, sleep in beds next to each other I just am at a loss!

I have 2 older dogs have lived together for over 5 or 6 yrs and every once in a while they will fight they are both big dogs and it does it scary k do my best to separate them while staying back I have a piece of plywood that I used to force between there head and push them away. But Im not always around that. My dogs actually got into it tonight the first time in over a year and I had to use my coffee table I know it sounds kinds mean but I also have 2 children 6 and 8 and I have to get it under control as quick as possible. I do have a plan with my kids in place for moments like these thank God my kids have not been in the room anytime this has happened which has been about 4 times over the past 4 yrs they r both over 8yrs old. Hower my male dog is fixed and so is my female. Im nor sure if they r having a lovers spat or what. I keep a dog kit with coconut oil and gauze and triple antibiotic ointment and other things u might need. I also give my dogs melatonin after they have been upset to that point to calm them down and let then relax. Dose according to the dogs weigh. I have pits so I use about 15-20 mg about what I would take. Ive called about dog training and stuff but Im a single mom in welding school at moment and moneys tight. Had the dogs as long as my kids and neither one of them would be right with someone else. So I have to take measurements and stuff and react fast when it does happen. I have seen this thing on fb looks like a remote and it makes a Ulta Sonic noise supposed to be good for any behavior correction need just press button and says it safe and dont hurt them.

Hello, We have 2 Boston Terriers females, 2yrs and the other is 6 mos (spayed 5 days ago). They have gotten along very well until two weeks ago. They started fighting when a neighbor came to house unannounced, and we guessed that was the trigger for thembut they have continued fighting. We cannot determine what the trigger(s) are..it seems to be so randomit doesnt appear to be food or toys . We have resorted to keeping them in separate rooms until we can get a handle on how to move forward. The first few fights drew blood, but once they had calmed down, they seemed to want to soothe each other (licking, laying next to)but now we are so afraid to even let them be in same room. They can see each other through the gate and they seem to be okay, but the vibe feels tense (even though one of their tails are wagging). We now crate the little one at night, because we are afraid something will happen. Any ideas or suggestions on how to move forward??

I have 2 Boston Terriers, brothers/litter mates, that will be 1 on May 1st. Tommy Lee, is 100% deaf, and Oden is partially deaf. They fight over small things, and Tommy broke the skin on Odens face. And it is the same way, they calm down and are good for a while. The vet is suggesting re-homing one, as once they break the skin, thats all bad.. I hate to have to do that. I am also wondering of any suggestions. It is hard with them both being deaf and partially deaf

You really suggested killing the dog because it doesnt get along with your other dogs??? Are you serious?? Rehome it. You should NEVER kill a dog because you cant control it. That makes me sick. And to read that on a journal all about dogs?? Its disgusting.

To christina McRae. You are not reading the whole paragraph regarding rehoming. She said that if youve done EVERYTHING you can and you cant rehome the dog, Euthanasia is not an inappropriate decision. What do you suggest? Throwing the dog in a shelter that will end up someone elses problem, because a shelter will not fully vet the issues of this dog and most people are inexperienced with this that run to a shelter and impulsively adopt a dog, and very likely the dog will end up in a shelter again. So, again, what is your constructive suggestion?

The answer shouldnt be euthanasia unless the dog has had significant treatment by a professional and still maintains a real threat to humans. Although I personally believe that any dog can be rehabilitated at least to be an only animal in an adult home, I know that sometimes a dog is ordered to be put down this woman shouldnt have gotten another dog, especially not a dog so similar to the deceased dog. She should now rehome one of them, and if she cant rehome the adhesive dog then she has to get rid of the small one (by very rod of I mean rehome). A responsible pet owner knows that when they get a dog, its for life, and if the dog presents a danger to humans, there are places that take dogs like that and rehabilitate them. Make her understand that this dog and the new dog are both her responsibility. We dont just euthanize a dog because it cant get along with other dogs. You have to create a safe environment for both.

I dont think you read the article in its entirety. She said to re-home the dog if you can (meaning safely) and if you cannot, euthanization is not an inappropriate decision. I am dealing with this right now, I have 15lb spayed female one and a half-year-old Jack/Rat mix that is getting more and more aggressive with my 100lb eleven-year-old neutered Doberman that has been extremely patient with her. She has gone from grabbing him by the face with her entire mouth and not letting go as he walks down the stairs, as well as grabbing hold of his Achilles tendons and yanking them around like she has prey in her mouth (and I dont mean playfully), to getting into to full-on fights with him, which I will not physically intervene in. He is growing tired of her and he is pushing back, but so far he has been defensive and not hurt her when it would take nothing for him to kill her as his head is the size of her body. Our smaller dog growls at him, snarls at him, attacks him without any provocation we can see and she may or may not be able to be re-homed. It is an agonizing decision and I have to think of the safety of both animals as well as my husband and I and frankly, she is lucky he has such an amazing temperament and he has not killed her. She has gotten nasty with me which gives me pause about rehoming her, but when she is away from him she is fine. Re-homing her weighs heavily on my mind as I was on the receiving end of owners that gave up their dog when I was a child (they had kids and it was a direct owner to owner transaction and they saw my sister and me there when we came to see the dog) and they knew it was aggressive and I had my face ripped open by the dog when I was sitting on the floor watching television and it was laying next to me, I was petting the dog and everything was fine and she lunged at my face without warning (no growl nothing). I required plastic surgery when I was seven to repair the damage because they did not do the right thing and euthanize it. So, I respectfully disagree with you and believe there are instances when a dog should be euthanized, especially if it has aggression issues that cannot be addressed, which is basically what she is saying in the article. You may not like it, but some animals (dogs) are not safe to have around other animals or people. If you are not able to make the distinction and make difficult decisions such as possibly euthanizing an unsafe uncontrollable animal (we are not talking about a dog that needs obedience training), you may not want to take on all the responsibilities that come along with owning a dog.

Why not personally take on the challenge of rehabilitating aggressive pets around the world. You seem to have it all figured out. Dont deprive these animals of your wisdom and expertise. By all means take on every aggressive pet in the universe and fix them and return them to their owners. In case you were not aware it is quite difficult to rehome a pet with a history of aggression so thank goodness we have you and your infinite resources (I assume youre a billionairess, because being a millionaire has not proven to be sufficient). You are clearly superior to everyone else ever. Thanks for having it all figured out.

My husband and 2 dogs lost our home last November in a wildfire which put us all living in a 29 travel trailer. High stress to say the least. I have a 8 year old lab and 4 year boxer/lab cross. The boxer accidentally ran into my labs hind end and she turned and attached him viciously. Then again the next morning when they saw each other. My husband was able to have them come together for the afternoon until I got home then my lab decided the fight was on again causing both of them to need medical attention. I then out muzzled on them and tried to engage eachother, my lab still went after the younger one. I dont know what to do living in such a small space and will not choose between them. Can anyone help me?

I am so sorry about the loss of your home. The stressful situation is affecting all of you of course and I hope you are able to put your lives back together soon. Do you have a friend or family member that has an adequate size home to take one or both of your dogs in the interim to help reduce their stress levels? I am not sure if you are religious, but you will be in my thoughts and prayers as you navigate your way through this devasting event and rebuild your lives.

I have 4 dogs.2 Staffordshire Terriers, a Black Lab and a Rottweiler/retriever mix. One of the staffies and the black lab were raised together. Got both at 6 weeks old, there birthdays are a month apart. The staffie is very shy and quiet, the lab is goofy and friendly. For the last week the staffie has been challenging the lab. She stands different than normal and stares at the lab. The lab will growl at her in warning but the staffie wont back down and thats when the fight starts. We separate them and they calm down and they go back to being friends. There isnt any good, toys or treats involved, it happens out of the blue. Anyone have any ideas as to what is going on?

This is exactly what is happening in my home. Our two pitbulls have been together for 2 years and have never fought and have always been best friends. The aggression is coming out of nowhere. I can definitely relate on how stressful this is!

Did you ever get help with this ?? My pit is 8 and the other almost 2 and my older spayed female has now attacked the younger pit bull has had to have his ear sewed back together and it seems to be getting worse !

Help!! I have two dogs, a cockapoo (10) (Ginger) and a goldendoodle (2) (Bear) they have always had it out for each other but this has gotten out of hand. Theyve gotten into two fights and broke skin. No one needed the vet either time and the day after they would be fine again. Bear was always the one starting it and she is significantly bigger. I dont know if she just wants to kill Ginger or wants to protect me. The first time we were watching tv and stupidly we threw only one ball and so the one who didnt get it, Bear, went crazy. The second time it was just them fighting for the sake of it and this morning, I woke up and like normal Bear was on my bed. Ginger started walking in and I greeted her. Right as I did that B started growling. I told her no and taped her muzzle but she wouldnt stop. Before i knew it she lept of the bed and put all her effort in killing Ginger. Luckily I was right there so no body was truly injured but now Im scared. I dont know how to discipline B and stop her from doing that so she just got put her kennel getting no! and bad dog every time i walk by. I need help! i will not give one of them away but I can not have fighting!!!

Telling Bear no and bad dog will only make her feel more stressed. And as the article said, it is stress that leads to fighting. What kind of things stress her out? It sounds like she may be guarding her resources you! How much do you exercise your dogs, especially Bear? Have you been to an animal behaviorist? Have you spoken to your vet? Can you put Bear in day care for a one or two days a week? One thing that this article doesnt suggest, which surprises me, is medication such as Xanax and Prozac for the aggressive dog. I fostered a Westie rescue neutered male dog, Willie, age 6. My home dog is a 10 year old neutered male Westie, Ollie. I learned the hard way about how stressed Ollie gets over food, toys, and who gets the prime seating and bed positions. Ollie is no longer toy possessive, and he will now also eat in the same room as Willie without problems. I had to really up my game as far as exercising my dogs. My vet recommended, however, that we treat Ollie with Prozac to see if this will temper his anger issue with Willie. It has only been two weeks, so we dont have any results yet. Prozac takes about 6 weeks to take affect. When I have given him doggie Xanax, he mellows out. He doesnt act stressed and hes nice to Willie. I only use Xanax when he starts to get surly. It is for episodes, not daily use. I do a lot of obedience work with them. I have games set up like Hiding treats in tall yogurt containers Set around the house. You might play with one dog at a time, either outside or inside, but keep the other dog in another room. I put peanut butter in a Kong toy and freeze it. The dog in the crate gets that. I dont crate either dog for longer than 1/2 hour when I am home. I do NOT EVER leave them alone together in the house. But make sure to remove the Kong from the crate the minute you let the dog out. When Ollie starts to growl at Willie, I remove them from each others company. One goes into the crate, but I rotate who goes there. I dont punish Ollie. He is already stressed, thats why he is getting aggressive. Your dog isnt being a bad dog. He is stressed. Punishing him will intensify the negative association with your other dog. You want to develop a positive association. The dogs do terrific on walks together. It takes a lot of patience, but I am hopeful we will get their issues worked out. Remember this a tired dog tends to be a happy dog. The more of a workout I give my dogs, the better they get along. Good luck.

To Christina McRae: I have a 9 year old Aussie (50lbs), born into our home, & 12 year old Lhasa Poo (8lbs) who have never gotten along but maintained distance; things escalated recently & after treats a fight broke out which resulted in the loss of the Lhasa Poos eye. I have kept them mostly separate in the past month since this incident, but this morning they just fought again & now I am distraught beyond imagining. I love them both VERY MUCH but am concerned for general safety in my household. Im not averse to rehoming the Aussie but she is fiercely loyal to me so, a few things: if she were to be re-homed locally, there is a chance that she may escape and come back and also I am concerned that she may react similarly to other small dogs. I cant, in good conscience, send a fighting, potentially violent dog out into the bigger world, knowing she may do this to another dog. THIS is the ONLY reason I am considering euthanasia for this beloved pet.

Dear Annie, you should try your best to check with a behavioral specialist. Euthanasia should be the last resort and I think your loyal friend deserves a chance of a good life. Perhaps in another household she would have that. Some times we think that we provide to our fur friends everything they need but some times we dont. Im in a situation where I have my youngest of three, a 3 year old Pitbull mix attacked my older,13 years old, Lab mix, sending him for the fourth time to the hospital. Many thousand of dollars later working with trainers and the problem is still exist. I will hire one more specialist to see if can help me or I have to look for another home for her, but never put her down because if she is like this is because I didnt do my job.

My friend has three Briards, two of them are mother and daughter. The daughter joined the family after she had been in another home for several months, so she was like a stranger to her mother. The daughter is very mellow, the mother is high strung. The third Briard , unrelated to them, gets along with both mother and daughter.

The daughter wanted to play with her mom,but something set Mom off and she went into attack mode. We had to rush the daughter to the emergency vet. Theyre all back at home now. I have a soft muzzle on the mom when she is anywhere near her daughter. Otherwise, they are separated by a long running gate throught the house. Its a hell of a way to live. Mom dog is on some calming meds, but they arent solving the problem. I dont believe giving the more aggressive dog away is an option my friend would consider.

We have two pitbulls-one 6 year old male and one 2 year old female. The 2 year old female had double ACL surgery a year ago. In December, we moved and then she hurt herself and now has to have knee surgery in March. Over the course of the past six days, the 2 year old has lunged/growled/etc. at the 6 year old every single day. This is so unlike her and its so heartbreaking to watch. It just comes out of nowhere-she isnt doing it around meal time, treats or toys. The 6 year old does not fight back. We are in shock on where to go from here. Our vet says that her aggression is not due to pain but due to behavioral. How can it be when she hasnt been aggressive her whole life? We are at a loss on how to proceed.

Hi, I have a 6 year old female shepherd and a 1 year old female shepherd. Every time I try to take them out the older one Piper attacks Phoebe ( as she had done to our now deceased Boxer) to the point of blood. They are alone together all day, Sharon a water dish, and Piper cleans Her daily. Phoebe is afraid to go outside.

We have three dogs, two full boxers(both male) and a female boxer mix(daughter of one of my males). My girl Savannah (110#) has been really aggressive with my Charlie (50#-tripod). She will attack him from across the room for nothing or go after him if he is walking by her. He is afraid of her, no doubt, and she is just a big horse. I am not sure what to do. I cant afford expensive dog trainers. Charlie gets a little more attention at times than the others as he is a tripod. But each of them get one on one time with us. So far she hasnt majorily hurt him but she is very difficult to get to release him when she has him. I just dont know what to do with this.

I have two older dogs (8 & 10) and there is a walking trail behind my house. They run the fence line and on most occasions will get into a barking match with each other and are a little vicious. No one has ever been hurt, but its really rough sounding and nothing Ive done can stop it. Any suggestions?

I have the same problem we have 4 dogs that have always gotten along great Play together sleep together Now the youngest female now 1 1/2 is lunging at the other dogs like litterly attacking going for the face and neck. At first we thought it was due to her hiding treats around the house and unknowingly the other dogs would go near her hiding spot But now we have changed the way we are giving her treats and not allowing her to hide and still she is super aggressive expecially towards my 2 year old male . All of the dogs are boxer/ pit mix This has been out of the blue butnis getting more and more aggressive We have tried crating her but seems cruel to keep her crated all day Also have her muzzled now because we are afraid she will really hurt the other dogs My 2 year old is much stronger but he is very patient and probably could hurt her also if he wanted to . She is the only dog showing this aggression. Any suggestions on how to make this stop or will I just have to continue to keep them separated forever.

My 2 sister dogs cant agree who is top dog since their parents died previously the top dogs. This happened when they are 3 and before that they got on most of the time. Now as soon as they have access to each other they fight without stopping. We try break it up with varying success but have spent thousands on vet treatments. I tried to rehome the most aggressive one but she turned on the dog at her new home too. So shes back and the other dog is being fostered temporarily with someone she knows well. We need to find a way to get them to get along again if it is possible. Its very upsetting and unsettling and the rest. My only idea is separate fenced areas then muzzle and harness them if they may have contact. I dont know much about dogsHELP!

I have a shi-chi (14lbs) and a dachshund (23lbs). They are only about 3mo apart in age, with the chi being the older. They are both male, neutered. We got them both as puppies and they have never really been separated. Even when we got them fixed they went together. They share a food dish, sleep in the same bed, and when we are not home they go into a large kennel together. We moved into a new home in August 2019. Prior to that we had a much larger home but no yard. Now we have a fenced yard that they can run around in. They are not well socialized with other dogs since our small town didnt have a dog park until recently and only one of our neighbors had a dog before the move (a rotti mix). Now, we have pit bulls on either side of us. My doxie has never cared much for dogs other than his brother. He tolerates my parents Pekingese on occasion because she doesnt put up with shenanigans from either of my boys. In the last three or so months I have noticed that the doxie is showing some aggressive tendencies. He urinates over anywhere the chi goes, he is completely unwilling to be introduced to other dogs, he is not very accepting of visitors (goes crazy when they arrive, will only calm down if they sit and stay put, going nuts the moment they move again). Especially kids. He also seems to pick fights with the chi, but he seems completely willing to let the chi be dominant. Up until now, the chi had established dominance over the doxie, although they both defer to me in every way. He also has always seemed to be an incredibly anxious dog, from the day we brought him home. I am just wondering if there is something going on, because I have never really seen a power play like this.

We adopted what turned out to be an Eskipoo according is his DNA results. He is part American Eskimo, part poodle. He loves my husband and I to no end but does not like people. He does well with smaller dogs when we are on walks but can act aggressive toward high energy dogs. Our problem is when my daughter brings her Sharpei/pug mix to our home. She is a very high energy when she sees our dog and scares him to the point where he has bitten her and wehad to take her to an Emergency Vet. We now separate them and it becomes very stressful since we are afraid to let them both out in our backyard at the same time. When we first got our dog I had a behaviorist come in since he had bitten my daughters dog and showed aggressive behavior toward othe people. She told us he was not agressive but very protective. I would love to be able to have both dogs in the backyard at the same time and in my home without separating them, and I don;t know if our anxiety is causing a problem and maybe we just arent handling this very well, I get very envious when I see people that have adopted two or more dogs and never have a problem with them being together. Any words of wisdom??? My daugter has been coming overmore since the virus and she wants to get out of the city. The only stress is these two dogs!!

Hello, We have 3 dogs: Ava a 4 1/2 yr old boxer we have had for almost 3 yrs, Bentley a 14yr old pit/lab that we have had for 12yrs, and we just rescued Otis a 2 1/2 yr old mastiff we have had since March. Recently in the past couple of weeks our boxer has attacked our pit/lab and then the mastiff will then attacked the boxer what seems to be to defend the pit, all of this for what seem to be for no reason. Our boxer and pit have lived happily together for the past 3 years and up until Feb with a 3rd dog a (rodegin ridgeback) that no longer lives here. At first I thought it was the mastiff that was causing the 2 to fight but after the last 2 fights I dont think his is the one to start anything. We have been having some issues with the mastiff like marking and some aggression towards adults but he is getting better and we are waiting to get him neutered in the beginning of July. I am guessing adding the mastiff has stressed out the boxer who use to be shy and skid-dish but we have never seen 1oz of aggression from her until now. Now we have been trying to keep her separate from the other 2 but that usually means in her kennel. What can we do to stop the attacking on the pit which can barely move to beginning with?

Hi Weve had Nino ( English springer spaniel) & Enzo ( cocker spaniel) both since pups. There is a six month age gap. Theyve always lived happily together. Enzo was neutered about 10 years ago. Nino is intact. They are now both almost 13 years old. For the last year & 1/2 Nino has started to viciously attack Enzo. Sometimes for no apparent reason Enzo cant even get up to get a drink of water without Nino growling at him and poor Enzo is a quivering mess. Something he will start on him multiple times in one day, but then once its all calmed down theyll cuddle up together Nino testing his head on Enzo. When they fight Nino will often pierce the skin, leaving poor Enzo bleeding. Despite all this, Nino really is the most lovely boy hes been a wonderful dog all his life. Enzo has too.

Have looked at conditioning behaviour techniques but my husband cant see this helping as for the majority of the day they get on just fine. they sit/walk/play side by side and wont fight but then all of a sudden Nino cant stand the site of Enzo.

I rescued a Yorkie male hes was neuted had two homes before me I pulled him out of kill shelter as last owner put him in after 4 weeks as was attacking resident dogs . my intention was putting in safe foster based rescue well he melted my heart I kept him . I have 2 more yorkies females for first year he was very aggressive towards them I trained him my self took that long know 2 years later hes loveing happy boy he just needed re training as past owners never disciplined him .Just past it on dont get me wrong they have odd fight but soon as I say no they stop female very dominant was my Daugthers dog I took her on . same age he just needed guidance patience understanding it takes time to re train dog with behavoure issues not overnight fix but worth it happy lovely boy wouldnt be without him just needed right owner .

I am in DESPERATE need of help. I have 2 dogs, Lucy (roughly 5) and Drake (roughly 1), both are believed to be pitbull mixes. I adopted Lucy 3 years ago and she has always been a sweet, and for the most part, well behaved dog. I adopted Drake this past spring in April. For the most part, they get along and enjoy each others company. But over the course of last 6 months, theyve probably gotten in a fight at LEAST once a month. This month (October) now they have fought twice. They are breaking skin on each other, however nothing that needs vet attention. I thought at first it was just getting used to each other and they both come from tough backgrounds. And they did improve for a while. I think mid summer they maybe went an entire month or two months without a fight, but its picked back up again. I cant seem to figure out what the stressors/triggers are at all. Its happened outside, inside, multiple different places, when Im in the room, when Im in another room. I truly have no idea. Theyre good at sharing toys, theyre not aggressive about food. I think one trigger may be from both wanting my attention, but I dont feel that thats the cause every time. It just seems like one second everything is fine, next theyre fighting each other. And being that theyre both pit bulls, obviously strong, I am scared shitless that its only going to get worse. Ideally Id like to send them to a boot camp, but I cant afford that. And I live in rural Minnesota, with absolutely NO dog trainers near me. Im at a total loss. Im so sad. I have no idea what to do. The thought of having to rehome either of them makes me sick to my stomach, but I also dont want either of them seriously hurt or even dead. I really need some help. Im also single so doing this all on my own and I dont have supports to help me with the suggested training. Any help is really appreciated. Im so heartbroken and I dont know what to do.

I too am struggling. Ive rescued three female dogs same age but different breeds. Theyve all three been breaking out in fights recently. At first I noticed one is very bone/new toy aggressive so Ive stopped that or done it solely where the other dogs arent around so each dogs can have her own new toy but not the stress of the others taking it etc. then recently its more about attention. The minute I pet one and the others are around one attacks and all three are at it. This last time my arm got bit-not through the skin just a little sore and swollen but fine, 2 dogs fine and the third limping and some cuts. Its getting hard to break them up-Ive used blankets/wooden canes/ a bag of potatoes-i now walk around cringing. Im afraid to pet them unless they are all laying down, we now separate them when we leave, Ive read tools about shock collars only to break up the fight but how reasonable to go find the remote to that. Im at a loss.

My Cane Corso pit mix has been attacking are smaller terrier mix dog. The terrier is the newest of the three dogs we have. I dont want to get rid of any of them but my big d are smaller terrier mix dog. The terrier is the newest of the three dogs we have. I dont want to get rid of any of them but my big dog keeps attacking. Its happening at lease once a week. Would the fact that all 3 of my male dogs arent neutered be a contributor?

I find it reassuring, at least, that others have similar issues and its not just bad dog parenting on our part. We adopted a now 4 year old mix a year ago. We have a 10 year old mix already. The older dog tolerates the new dog but that is it. She can at times be playful with her but mostly they ignore each other. Until they dont. The situation is either my older dog being protective of me- which she is and always has been- and goes after the younger one if she thinks (wrongly) that shes being aggressive with me. Or the young one will start something by trying to provoke the older one into playing by poking the bear, so to speak. Im hoping as the younger one gets older shell calm down a little more. Until then were just trying our best.

My male dog when he cannot get to the dogs on the other side of the fence in my female gets in his way to bark at them he then will attacks her. She is much stronger then him but I am worried that as she ages she will no longer be able to defend herself. Unfortunately, my husband brought home a new female dog, who came to my other females rescue today. To be honest the new female is more comfortable around females that includes humans. She will pee on the floor if my husband even gets to close to her. So I did make my male come inside and placed him away so that he can calm down. Both females can be outside with no issues from the neighbors dogs because they both ignore them but if my male is outside my older female is at his side backing him up. I am not sure what to do.

the all-time best dog movies, ranked by fans

Dogs have been featured in films since the dawn of cinema. The best dog movies ever feature cute pups that the audience can connect with. As they say, dog is man's best friend. If an audience doesn't like anyone in the cast, then they'll at least like the dog this is especially important in good dog movies for kids. Unlike other animals, canines are easily trained, and therefore ideal for motion picture production. This Hollywood dog movie list includes all types of dogs. So your favorite breed is probably included. For more movie ideascheck out our Disney dog movies listor our list of dog movies for kids. You can also check out our lists of anime shows and the best comedies on Netflix and even the best names for dogs from movies.

canine anatomy | veterian key

5 Canine Anatomy Cheryl Riegger-Krugh, Darryl L. Millis and Joseph P. Weigel This text is intended for people who already possess knowledge of either veterinary or human anatomy. To assist communication among human rehabilitation and veterinary colleagues, some anatomic terms used for dogs appear in regular print with the analogous terminology for humans in parentheses following the canine term. These comparisons have been minimized, as this is a chapter about canine anatomy and not a chapter about comparative anatomy. Comparative anatomy between dogs and humans has been described in other sources.1-3 We have chosen to use some terms consistently throughout the chapter, rather than use equally acceptable synonyms. The canine forelimb is known also as the thoracic limb and the pectoral limb, but we use the term forelimb. The canine hindlimb is known also as the pelvic limb or rear limb, but we use the term hindlimb. Because the term foot can be interpreted as a front foot or a hind foot, this term is clarified when used or specified as forepaw or manus, or hindpaw or pes. The terms trunk, neck, and head refer to the same body segments in dogs and humans. The word canine is an adjective and the word dog is a noun; these terms are used in this consistent grammatical form throughout the chapter. Directional Terms and Anatomic Planes Directional Terms from Normal Stance (Anatomic Position) The dog stands upright on digits or phalanges of each forepaw or manus and each hindpaw or pes (Figure 5-1). This type of stance is termed a digitigrade stance. The human stands upright on the feet, with the plantar aspect of the feet contacting the floor and adjacent to each other. The upper limbs hang at the sides of the body, palms facing forward. This type of stance is called a plantigrade stance. Figure 5-1 Orientation to planes of motion and directional terms for the dog. (From Dyce KM: Textbook of veterinary anatomy, ed 4, St Louis, 2010, Saunders.) Directional terms from anatomic position in dogs are more directly compared with the directional terms in humans when the human is in a quadruped position or the dog is in an upright stance posture. Directional terms include cranial, caudal, rostral, dorsal, palmar, plantar, medial, and lateral. Other specific directional terms include (1) radial and ulnar to indicate toward the radius and ulna, respectively; (2) axial and abaxial to indicate toward or away from the axis of the digits, which is between the third and fourth digits of the forepaw, and the third and fourth digits of the hind paw, respectively; and (3) tibial and fibular to indicate toward the tibia and fibula, respectively. Anatomic Planes The main planes of motion for dogs are as follows (see Figure 5-1): The sagittal plane divides the dog into right and left portions. If this plane were in the midline of the body, this is the median plane or median sagittal plane. The dorsal plane divides the dog into ventral and dorsal portions. The transverse plane divides the body into cranial and caudal portions. Axes of Rotation Motion may occur in any of three planes of motion or some combination. Joint motion within a plane usually occurs around an axis of rotation, which may be centered within the joint space or within the bone comprising the joint. Some joint motions are planar or gliding motions and do not occur around an axis of rotation. An axis of rotation for a joint motion is a straight line or rod that is 90 degrees to the plane of motion. For each axis of rotation listed in the next section, the plane of motion around which joint motion occurs can be viewed from Figure 5-1. Axes of Rotational Joint Motion The axes of rotational joint motion are as follows: Transverse axis: Sagittal plane motion occurs around an axis of rotation that is directed mediolaterally. Ventrodorsal axis: Dorsal plane motion occurs around an axis of rotation that is directed ventrodorsally. Craniocaudal axis: Transverse plane motion, such as rotation of the trunk, occurs around an axis of rotation that is directed craniocaudally. Most joints allow motion in more than one plane. Dogs and humans have the ability to selectively produce motion in one, some, or all of the planes of motion at one time. Dogs have much more limitation in motion in the dorsal and transverse planes. Bones The bones of the dog skeleton and limbs are illustrated in Figures 5-2, 5-3, and 5-4. Bony landmarks on the bones of the limbs are shown in Figures 5-5 through 5-10. Figure 5-2 Skeleton of a male dog, left lateral view. (From Evans HE: Millers anatomy of the dog, ed 4, Philadelphia, 2013, WB Saunders.) Figure 5-3 Left forelimb skeleton, noting joints and flexor surfaces. (From Evans HE, de Lahunta A: Millers guide to the dissection of the dog, ed 7, Philadelphia, 2010, WB Saunders.) Figure 5-4 Left hindlimb skeleton, noting joints and flexor surfaces. (From Evans HE, de Lahunta A: Millers guide to the dissection of the dog, ed 7, Philadelphia, 2010, WB Saunders.) Figure 5-5 Skeleton of the lateral forelimb of the dog. (Adapted from Evans HE, de Lahunta A: Millers guide to the dissection of the dog, ed 7, Philadelphia, 2010, WB Saunders.) Figure 5-6 Skeleton of the medial forelimb of the dog. (Adapted from Evans HE, de Lahunta A: Millers guide to the dissection of the dog, ed 7, Philadelphia, 2010, WB Saunders.) Figure 5-7 Skeleton of the left dorsal (A) and left palmar (B) forepaw of the dog. (From Evans HE, de Lahunta A: Millers guide to the dissection of the dog, ed 7, Philadelphia, 2010, WB Saunders.) Figure 5-8 Skeleton of the lateral hindlimb of the dog. (Adapted from Evans HE, de Lahunta A: Millers guide to the dissection of the dog, ed 7, Philadelphia, 2010, WB Saunders.) Figure 5-9 Skeleton of the medial hindlimb of the dog. (Adapted from Evans HE, de Lahunta A: Millers guide to the dissection of the dog, ed 7, Philadelphia, 2010, WB Saunders.) Figure 5-10 Skeleton of the left plantar (A), left lateral (B), and left dorsal (C) hindpaw of the dog. Forelimb The forelimb skeleton consists of the thoracic or pectoral girdle and bones of the forelimb (see Figures 5-5 and 5-6). The size of forelimb bones varies a great deal, because of the greater variation in size for breeds of dogs. The forelimbs bear 60% of the dogs weight. The canine scapula is positioned close to the sagittal plane. Dogs have an abbreviated clavicle that does not articulate with the rest of the skeleton. It is a small oval plate often 1cm or less in length and cm wide, located at the tendinous intersection of the brachiocephalicus muscle. The adult canine clavicle is mostly cartilage and is usually not visible on radiographs. The canine humeral head is less rounded compared with the human head, to assist with weight bearing. Distally, there is an olecranon fossa and supratrochlear foramen for the secure positioning of the protruding anconeal process of the ulna for more stability in weight bearing. The radius is the medial forearm bone and is the main weight-bearing bone of the antebrachium distally. The proximal surface of the radius articulates with the humeral capitulum, which is not as prominent as in the human. The canine distal radius has distinct facets for articulation with carpal bones, providing stability in weight bearing. The ulna is the lateral forearm bone and has a very prominent olecranon process, which allows secure attachment for the large triceps brachii muscle, needed as an antigravity muscle for weight bearing in dogs. The ulna is the longest bone of the canine body. It articulates distally with the ulnar carpal and accessory carpal bones by two distal facets and does not have an articular disk. The dog has an anconeal process, which is near the attachment site of the anconeus muscle. The anconeal process is needed for stability in weight bearing. At the carpus or wrist (see Figure 5-7), there are seven carpal bones. The radial carpal bone is analogous to the fused scaphoid and lunate. There are five metacarpal bones. The first metacarpal is short and nonfunctional. Dogs have many sesamoid bones that are embedded in tendons or near them. Sesamoid bones occur when there are significant changes in directions of pull on tendons in addition to the tensile forces produced during muscle contractions. They allow for constant, biomechanically advantageous alignment of angles of insertion of tendons at their attachment sites, which helps relieve stress on the tendinous insertions for animals that walk on their digits. Dogs are digitigrade animals and bear weight on digits II to V, with the main weight bearing occurring on digits III and IV. The sesamoid bones at the dorsal surface of each metacarpophalangeal joint align the extensor tendons for optimal muscle action. Those on the pad surface of the manus align the flexor tendons. Hindlimb The hindlimb skeleton includes the pelvic girdle, consisting of the fused ilium, ischium, and pubis, and the bones of the hindlimb (see Figures 5-8 and 5-9). The size of hindlimb bones varies a great deal, because of the great variation in size for breeds of dogs. The hindlimbs bear 40% of the dogs weight. The canine pelvis is positioned between the dorsal and transverse planes and closer to the dorsal plane. The canine pelvis is relatively small and narrow. The canine ischiatic or ischial tuberosities are wide and project caudally to form a broad ischiatic table. The canine pelvis shape from a ventral view resembles a rectangle. The symphysis pelvis is relatively long and has two portions, the symphysis ischii and symphysis pubis, compared with the relatively shorter joining of the anterior aspect of the human innominates at the symphysis pubis. The distinction of the shape of the male and female pelvic inlet and outlet in humans is not made in dogs. The canine femur is the heaviest4 and largest5 canine bone. In most dogs, it is slightly shorter than the tibia and the ulna and approximately one-fifth longer than the humerus. The average canine angle of inclination or cervicofemoral angle is 144.7 degrees.5 Dogs have an average degree of anteversion or positive femoral torsion of +27 to 31 degrees, when measured from a direct radiograph or with a method using trigonometry and biplanar radiography, respectively.5 The canine femur has a relatively thick and short femoral neck, a caudomedially located lesser trochanter, a prominent lateral greater trochanter, and a relatively short and wide shaft with a narrow isthmus in the middle. The greater trochanter has a craniolateral prominence called the cervical tubercle. Dogs have a third trochanter, which is the attachment site of the superficial gluteal muscle. Canine medial and lateral femoral condyles are equally prominent, but the articular surface of the medial femoral condyle projects more cranially than that of the lateral femoral condyle. There are three sesamoid bones in the caudal stifle joint region. Two are located in the heads of the gastrocnemius muscle caudal to the stifle joint and are called fabellae. The sesamoid in the lateral head is the largest, is palpable, and articulates with the lateral femoral condyle, whereas the one in the medial head is smaller and may not have a distinct facet on the medial femoral condyle. The third is the smallest, is located in the proximal attachment of the popliteus muscle, and articulates with the lateral tibial condyle. The canine patella, or kneecap, is the largest sesamoid bone in the body. It is an ossification in the quadriceps femoris muscle. The patella alters the pull, increases the moment arm, and protects the quadriceps tendon, as well as provides a greater contact surface for the tendon on the trochlea of the femur than would exist without the patella. The canine patellar articular surface is mildly convex. The canine tibia is the major bone in the crus. The triangular proximal tibia is wider than the distal cylindrical tibia. Medial and lateral tibial condyles, an intercondylar eminence, and a tibial tuberosity are on the proximal tibia. The tibial plateau slopes distally from cranial to caudal. The extensor groove, on the cranial tibia and lateral to the tibial tuberosity, provides a pathway for the long digital extensor muscle. There is a popliteal notch on the caudal tibia in the midline, where the popliteal vessels course. The tibia articulates with the fibula proximally, along the interosseous crest, and distally. The tibial cochlea articulate with the trochlea of the talus to form the talocrural joint. The canine fibula is a long, slender bone that articulates with the tibia and also serves as a site for muscle attachment. There is a distinctive groove in the lateral malleolus, the sulcus malleolaris lateralis, through which course the tendons of the lateral digital extensor and peroneus brevis muscles. The tarsus, or hock, consists of the talus, calcaneus, a central tarsal bone, and tarsal bones I to IV (see Figure 5-10). The talus articulates with the distal tibia and has prominent ridges. At the talocrural joint, two convex ridges of the trochlea of the talus articulate with two reciprocal concave grooves of the cochlea of the tibia. The orientation of the grooves and ridges deviates laterally approximately 25 degrees from the sagittal plane. This deviation allows the hindpaws to pass lateral to the forepaws when dogs gallop.4 The calcaneus is large and serves as the insertion of the common calcaneal tendon. The central tarsal bone lies between the talus and the numbered tarsal bones I to III. Tarsal IV is large and articulates with the calcaneus and metatarsal bones, spanning this entire region. The canine hindpaw has five metatarsal bones; however, the first metatarsal can be short or absent. Dogs have many sesamoid bones that are embedded in tendons where there are significant compressive and tensile forces produced during muscle contractions. The sesamoid bones at the dorsal surface of each metatarsophalangeal joint align the extensor tendons for optimal joint action. The sesamoid bones on the plantar surface of the hindpaw align flexor tendons. Spine The spine consists of five areas of the vertebral column: the cervical vertebrae and its articulation with the head, thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, sacral vertebrae, and the coccygeal vertebrae (Figures 5-11 through 5-14). The number of vertebrae is listed in Box 5-1. Box 5-1Body Segments Forelimb Forelimb: Arm, forearm, and forepaw Thoracic or pectoral girdle Scapula, clavicle Arm or brachium: Shoulder to elbow Forearm or antebrachium: Elbow to carpal joint Forepaw or manus Carpus or carpals Metacarpus or metacarpals Phalanges or digits Sesamoid bones or cartilages Dorsal on MCP joints in common digital extensor tendons of digits II to V; one per digit; small Pad surface on MCP joints in interosseous tendons of digits II to V; two per digit; smaller Dorsal and palmar on DIP joints of digits I to V; cartilage; small One sesamoid bone in the tendon of the abductor pollicis longus Digits or phalanges I to V, numbered medial to lateral No common names for digits Anatomic name: pollex for digit I Dewclaw or pollex or digit I with 2 phalanges Pads on the paws or digital pads: Weight-bearing pads Carpal pad: Small pad palmar to the carpus Metacarpal pad: Largest pad palmar to the MCP joints; triangular in shape Digital pads: Palmar to the DIP joints; ovoid and flat Ungual process: Extension of the phalanx into the claw Nails or claws Hindlimb Hindlimb pelvic limb, or rear limb Thigh, leg, hindpaw Hip bone or os coxae Ilium, ischium, pubis Pelvic girdle Right and left hip bones and sacrum Thigh: Hip to stifle or knee Leg or crus: Stifle to talocrural joint Hindpaw or hind foot or pes Tarsus or tarsals (hock area) Metatarsus or metatarsals Phalanges or digits or toes Sesamoid bones or cartilages Dorsal on MTP joints in long digital extensor tendons of digits II to V; one per digit; small Plantar surface on MTP joints in interosseous tendons of digits II to V; two per digit; large Digit I: One per digit, smaller Dorsal and plantar on DIP jointscartilaginous; one per digit I to V; small Digits or phalanges or toes I to V Dewclaw or digit I or halluxmay be absent, fully developed and articulating with a metatarsal, or may be a vestigial, that is, a trace or rudimentary structure, with a terminal phalanx and no proximal phalanx or metatarsal bone Digital pads or pads on the hindpawsweight-bearing pads Tarsal pad: Small pad plantar to the talocrural joint Metatarsal pad: Largest pad plantar to the MTP joints; triangular in shape Digital pads: Plantar to the DIP joints; ovoid and flat Ungual process: Extension of the distal phalanx into the nail Nails or claws Spine Trunk Borders: Inguinal ligament to C7-T1 disk Neck or cervical spine Head Tail Spinal regions Cervical: C1 through C7 Thoracic: T1 through T13 Lumbar: L1 through L7 Sacral: S1 through S3 Caudal or coccygeal: Cd1-Cd20; some dogs have more or fewer Ribs: 13 Bones in the dog skeleton (excludes auditory ossicles) Vertebral column: 50 Skull: 49 Hyoid bone: 1 Ribs: 26 Sternum: 8 fused bonesmanubrium or first sternebra, 6 additional sternebrae, and the xiphoid process Forelimbs: 90 Hindlimbs: 96 Total: 320 Other: os penis in males1 Hip bone or os coxae Ilium, ischium, pubis Sacrum Pelvic girdle: Right and left hip bones and sacrum Pelvic complex: Hip bones, lumbar spine, sacral spine, caudal spine, sacroiliac joints, and hip joints C, Cervical; Cd, caudal; DIP, distal interphalangeal; L, lumbar; MCP, metacarpophalangeal; MTP, metatarsophalangeal; S, sacral; T, thoracic. Figure 5-11 A, Identified portions of the axial skeleton cranial to the thirteenth thoracic vertebra. B, Ribs and sternum, ventral view. Figure 5-12 Detailed skeletal anatomy of the atlas and axis from a craniolateral view (A), atlas and axis from a cranial view (B), and C5 vertebra from a craniolateral view (C). (A from Evans HE, de Lahunta A: Millers guide to the dissection of the dog, ed 7, St Louis, 2010, WB Saunders.) Figure 5-13 Detailed skeletal anatomy of T6 vertebra from a lateral view (A) and craniolateral view (B), L1 vertebra from a craniolateral view (C), and L5 vertebra from a caudolateral view (D). Figure 5-14 Detailed skeletal anatomy of the sacrum from a caudolateral view (A), sacrum and caudal 1 or Cd1 vertebra from a lateral view (B), Cd4 vertebra from a cranial view (C), and Cd6 vertebra from a dorsal view (D). (From Evans HE: Millers anatomy of the dog, ed 4, Philadelphia, 2013, WB Saunders.) All vertebrae, except the sacral vertebrae, remain separate and form individual joints. Four sites with limited motion exist within the canine spine.6 These sites occur at areas where the cranial and caudal articular surfaces are inclined in a nonparallel manner and in different directions. The nonparallel alignment of the articular surfaces markedly restricts joint accessory motions, such as glides. The restricted joint motions and areas resulting from these joint alignments include atlantoaxial motion other than rotation, the cervical (C) 7-thoracic (T) 1 junction, the caudal thoracic region, and the sacrum. Individual vertebral bone size and shape vary among breeds. For any one breed, canine cervical through lumbar vertebrae are fairly consistent in size. The consistent size in dogs reflects the relatively equivalent cranial-to-caudal compressive loading. Because dogs are quadruped, there is weight bearing on all four limbs. There is cervical spine compression as a result of the positioning of the dogs head as a cantilever, which requires cervical extensor muscle activity to maintain head posture. The massive cervical extensor muscle activity requires relatively large and strong cervical vertebrae to support the muscle mass. Canine intervertebral disks likewise change little in size from the cervical through the lumbar vertebrae. The C5-C6 area is a site of relative hypermobility in large dogs. The spinal cord ends at lumbar (L) L6-L7. The canine atlas, or C1 vertebra (see Figure 5-12), has a transverse foramen in each transverse process, a craniodorsal arch, and right and left lateral vertebral foramina for the passage of cervical spinal nerve 1. The atlas has correspondingly shaped condyles for articulation with the occiput. The canine lateral wings or transverse processes are prominent and easily palpable from the skin surface. The canine axis or C2 has a large spinous process with an expanded arch, a wide body, and large transverse processes (see Figure 5-12). The spinous process is nonbifid. The canine axis is very large relative to the size of other canine cervical vertebrae. The axis has a dens, which projects cranially to allow pivotal motion between the atlas and axis. The condyles are oriented near the transverse plane to allow cervical spine rotation. The C3-C6 vertebrae have nonbifid spinous processes, large and flat spinous processes, caudal and cranial articular surface facets that are narrower than the transverse processes, large transverse processes, and transverse foramina for the passage of vertebral arteries. Caudal and cranial articular surfaces are oriented between the dorsal and transverse planes to facilitate cranial and caudal glides needed for cervical spine flexion and extension. The C7 vertebra has a similar shape, a large prominent nonbifid spinous process, and caudal and cranial articular surfaces, which are oriented nearly craniocaudally. Thoracic vertebrae (see Figure 5-13) have small bodies relative to the size of the entire vertebrae. Canine spinous processes are relatively long. The spinous processes block excessive extension of the thoracic spine. At T10, the size of the body begins to increase and the length of spinous process decreases. The spinous processes are oriented close to the transverse plane. Cranial to T11, the spinous processes project caudally, but caudal to T11, they project cranially. Caudal and cranial articular surfaces are oriented close to the dorsal plane. Lumbar vertebrae (see Figure 5-13) have bodies that are larger than thoracic vertebral bodies. Canine lumbar transverse processes are long and thin, and they project lateroventrocranially. In the cranial lumbar spine, cranial and caudal articular surfaces are oriented between the transverse and sagittal planes, which facilitate lumbar spine flexion and extension. The L7-S1 joint appears to orient between the sagittal and frontal planes to allow more rotation at this intervertebral level. The canine sacrum is relatively narrow and is linked to the pelvis with sacroiliac joints (see Figure 5-14). Caudal (Cd) vertebrae (see Figure 5-14) have distinct bodies and transverse processes. The cranial articular surfaces are similar to those in more cranial vertebrae in shape and location; however, the caudal articular processes are bifid and are more centrally located, whereas articular processes in more cranial vertebrae are located more laterally. Hemal arches are separate bones that articulate with the ventral surfaces of the caudal ends of the bodies of Cd4-Cd6. The hemal arches provide protection for the median coccygeal artery, which is enclosed by the arches. In vertebrae caudal to Cd6 and in relatively the same position as the hemal arches are the paired hemal processes, which extend from Cd7-Cd17 or Cd18. The ribs have vertebral attachments (see Figure 5-11). There are nine pairs of vertebrosternal, or true, ribs and four pairs of vertebrocostal, or false, ribs. The sternum is relatively long and has a manubrium and xiphoid process, with a prominent xiphoid cartilage. The ribs limit overall thoracic spine motion and protect internal organs. Joint Motion The body segments of the forelimb and hindlimb are illustrated in Figures 5-3 and 5-4, respectively, with the major joints and their flexor and extensor surfaces. Body segments are listed and defined in Box 5-1. Types of joints are listed in Box 5-2. Box 5-2Types of Joints Forelimb Artificial joint: Not described as a joint Ball and socket: Shoulder Hinge: Elbow, metacarpophalangeal I Pivot: Proximal, and distal radioulnar Syndesmosis: Middle radioulnar Hinge with lateral motion: Carpal Ellipsoid: Antebrachiocarpal, radiocarpal Plane: Middle carpal or midcarpal, intercarpal, intermetacarpal Saddle plane: First carpal with MC I Plane: Second carpal with MC II, third carpal with MC III, fourth carpal with MC IV and V intermetacarpal Hinge: Metacarpophalangeal I Condylar or condyloid: MC II to V with the same numbered proximal phalanx Saddle/condylar Proximal interphalangeal II to V Distal interphalangeal II to V (Interphalangeal of thumb) Hindlimb Synovial and fibrous: Sacroiliac Symphysis: Symphysis pelvis Ball and socket: Hip or coxofemoral Complex condylar: Stifle (the term knee is used commonly with an animals owner) Plane Patellofemoral Tarsal joints or hock joints (this joint is referred to as the hock joint in common usage) Talocalcaneal Talocalcaneocentral and calcaneoquartal joints combined Proximal intertarsal or talocentral Calcaneoquartal Calcaneocentral Centroquartal Centrodistal Distal intertarsal: Central bone with tarsal III Tarsal I with II, II with III Tarsal III with IV Tarsometatarsal Tarsal I with MT I Tarsal II with MT II Tarsal III with MT III Tarsal IV with MTs IV and V Intermetatarsal Tibiofibular Synovial: Proximal and distal tibiofibular Syndesmosis: Middle tibiofibular Hinge: Talocrural, tarsocrural, tibiotarsal (the tarsocrural has been referred to as the talocrural and the talocalcaneal joints combined) or ankle joint (the term ankle is commonly used with an animals owner) Metatarsophalangeal IMT I with digit I Condylar: MT II to V with the same numbered digit Saddle Proximal interphalangeal II to V Distal interphalangeal II to V Interphalangeal of hallux Spine Part synovial and part fibrous: Sacroiliac Condyloid: Atlantooccipital Pivot: Atlantoaxialdens of C2 and atlas Plane Atlantoaxialarticular surfaces Between cranial and caudal articular surfaces Costovertebral Sternocostal: Sternum and true ribs Synchondrosis: Costochondralribs with cartilage MC, Metacarpal; mT, Metatarsal. Joint Motion and Shape of Articular Surfaces The shape of articular surfaces of bones helps define the motions available for a joint. Articular surfaces of two bones forming a joint are usually concave on one bone and convex on the other bone. Some articular surfaces are flat. Occasionally adjacent bones are convex on both joint surfaces. Intraarticular structures, such as the medial and lateral menisci in the stifle joint, may modify adjacent surfaces. Understanding the concave-convex relationships as a guiding principle in determining joint motion allows prediction of possible joint motions based on articular surface shape. Ligamentous and other soft tissue around the joint guide and restrict the motion that would be possible based on articular surface shape alone. Joint motions are named, most commonly, by movement of the distal bone relative to the proximal bone. For example, cranial movement of the tibia on a stable femur is named stifle joint extension. The major direction of motion, such as flexion of the stifle, is physiologic or osteokinematic motion. Accessory, or arthrokinematic, motion is smaller in magnitude and less observable. Examples of accessory motions are glide or slide, rotary motion, distraction or traction, and compression or approximation. A normal amount of glide occurs in normal functioning joints. Glides are shear type or sliding motions of opposing articular surfaces. Rolls involve one bone rolling on another. Gliding motion in combination with rolling is needed for normal physiologic joint motion. Spins are joint surface motions that result in continual contact of articular cartilage areas on opposite sides of a joint. Distraction or traction accessory motions are tensile or pulling-apart movements between bones. Compressive or approximation accessory motions are compressive or pushing-together movements between bones. Normal joint motion involves both physiologic motion and accessory motion. Physiologic motion in joints with opposing concave and convex articular surfaces involves both roll and glide. Roll occurs in the same direction as the movement of the moving segment of the bone, but glide directions differ based on whether the moving articular surface is concave or convex. A glide is described by identifying the joint motion, the direction of the glide, and which bone is moving. For example, stifle flexion involving the tibia and femur is termed caudal glide of the tibia on the femur. Joint Motion in the Limbs and Spine Joint motions are named by one body segment approaching or moving away from another body segment or movement of some referenced body landmark. Joint motions are named in the following sections and described (see Figures 5-3 and 5-4) as they refer to the limbs, starting from normal stance. Limb motion is usually described by motion of the joint rather than a body segment. For example, elbow flexion is recommended rather than forearm flexion. Occasionally, body segment motion is used to describe limb motion when motion does not involve axial motion with a joint as a pivot point. For example, rotation of the forelimb might be observable when pronation at the radioulnar joint would be difficult to observe clinically. Flexion During flexion, a limb is retracted or folded, a digit is bent, and the back or neck is arched dorsally (i.e., the convex portion of the arch is directed dorsally). In the limbs, flexion motion occurs as the bones on either side of a joint move closer together and the joint angle becomes more acute. Flexion may also be referenced to limb motions involving closing angles during the swing phase of gait. Flexion motions of the limb joints are noted in Figures 5-3 and 5-4. In the spine, flexion occurs as the back or neck arches dorsally (i.e., the convex portion of the arch is directed dorsally). A notable difference between dogs and humans is the meaning of shoulder flexion. In dogs, caudal retraction of the humerus in relation to the scapula is shoulder flexion, whereas cranial motion of the humerus in relation to the scapula is shoulder extension. The direction of shoulder flexion motion is opposite to this in humans. The terminology used in dogs is consistent with naming flexion as described previously. In normal stance, as shown in Figure 5-2, a dogs spine is flexed at the atlantooccipital and atlantoaxial joints, straight (neither flexed nor extended) in the remainder of the cervical spine, extended at the cervicothoracic junction, slightly lordotic in the thoracic spine, and flexed or normally kyphotic in the lumbar spine. There is either a slightly flexed or extended sacrum on the lumbar spine, depending on the tail posture. The flexed canine lumbar spine is beneficial to running speed. During running, the lumbar spine moves through varying degrees of flexion as running speed changes. Extension During extension, the limb reaches out, the digit is extended, and the back or neck is less arched dorsally or arched ventrally. Extension is motion in the sagittal plane in the direction opposite to that of flexion motion. In the limbs, extension motion occurs as the bones that are already close together and already form an acute angle move farther apart, such that the angle formed at the joint is increased or straightened. Extension beyond normal is sometimes termed hyperextension. The carpus normally has greater than 180 degrees of extension. In the spine, extension occurs as the back or neck is arched ventrally (i.e., the convex portion of the arch is directed ventrally).< div class='tao-gold-member'>

This text is intended for people who already possess knowledge of either veterinary or human anatomy. To assist communication among human rehabilitation and veterinary colleagues, some anatomic terms used for dogs appear in regular print with the analogous terminology for humans in parentheses following the canine term. These comparisons have been minimized, as this is a chapter about canine anatomy and not a chapter about comparative anatomy. Comparative anatomy between dogs and humans has been described in other sources.1-3

We have chosen to use some terms consistently throughout the chapter, rather than use equally acceptable synonyms. The canine forelimb is known also as the thoracic limb and the pectoral limb, but we use the term forelimb. The canine hindlimb is known also as the pelvic limb or rear limb, but we use the term hindlimb. Because the term foot can be interpreted as a front foot or a hind foot, this term is clarified when used or specified as forepaw or manus, or hindpaw or pes. The terms trunk, neck, and head refer to the same body segments in dogs and humans. The word canine is an adjective and the word dog is a noun; these terms are used in this consistent grammatical form throughout the chapter.

The dog stands upright on digits or phalanges of each forepaw or manus and each hindpaw or pes (Figure 5-1). This type of stance is termed a digitigrade stance. The human stands upright on the feet, with the plantar aspect of the feet contacting the floor and adjacent to each other. The upper limbs hang at the sides of the body, palms facing forward. This type of stance is called a plantigrade stance.

Directional terms from anatomic position in dogs are more directly compared with the directional terms in humans when the human is in a quadruped position or the dog is in an upright stance posture. Directional terms include cranial, caudal, rostral, dorsal, palmar, plantar, medial, and lateral. Other specific directional terms include (1) radial and ulnar to indicate toward the radius and ulna, respectively; (2) axial and abaxial to indicate toward or away from the axis of the digits, which is between the third and fourth digits of the forepaw, and the third and fourth digits of the hind paw, respectively; and (3) tibial and fibular to indicate toward the tibia and fibula, respectively.

Motion may occur in any of three planes of motion or some combination. Joint motion within a plane usually occurs around an axis of rotation, which may be centered within the joint space or within the bone comprising the joint. Some joint motions are planar or gliding motions and do not occur around an axis of rotation.

An axis of rotation for a joint motion is a straight line or rod that is 90 degrees to the plane of motion. For each axis of rotation listed in the next section, the plane of motion around which joint motion occurs can be viewed from Figure 5-1.

Most joints allow motion in more than one plane. Dogs and humans have the ability to selectively produce motion in one, some, or all of the planes of motion at one time. Dogs have much more limitation in motion in the dorsal and transverse planes.

The forelimb skeleton consists of the thoracic or pectoral girdle and bones of the forelimb (see Figures 5-5 and 5-6). The size of forelimb bones varies a great deal, because of the greater variation in size for breeds of dogs. The forelimbs bear 60% of the dogs weight.

The canine scapula is positioned close to the sagittal plane. Dogs have an abbreviated clavicle that does not articulate with the rest of the skeleton. It is a small oval plate often 1cm or less in length and cm wide, located at the tendinous intersection of the brachiocephalicus muscle. The adult canine clavicle is mostly cartilage and is usually not visible on radiographs.

The canine humeral head is less rounded compared with the human head, to assist with weight bearing. Distally, there is an olecranon fossa and supratrochlear foramen for the secure positioning of the protruding anconeal process of the ulna for more stability in weight bearing.

The radius is the medial forearm bone and is the main weight-bearing bone of the antebrachium distally. The proximal surface of the radius articulates with the humeral capitulum, which is not as prominent as in the human. The canine distal radius has distinct facets for articulation with carpal bones, providing stability in weight bearing.

The ulna is the lateral forearm bone and has a very prominent olecranon process, which allows secure attachment for the large triceps brachii muscle, needed as an antigravity muscle for weight bearing in dogs. The ulna is the longest bone of the canine body. It articulates distally with the ulnar carpal and accessory carpal bones by two distal facets and does not have an articular disk. The dog has an anconeal process, which is near the attachment site of the anconeus muscle. The anconeal process is needed for stability in weight bearing.

At the carpus or wrist (see Figure 5-7), there are seven carpal bones. The radial carpal bone is analogous to the fused scaphoid and lunate. There are five metacarpal bones. The first metacarpal is short and nonfunctional. Dogs have many sesamoid bones that are embedded in tendons or near them. Sesamoid bones occur when there are significant changes in directions of pull on tendons in addition to the tensile forces produced during muscle contractions. They allow for constant, biomechanically advantageous alignment of angles of insertion of tendons at their attachment sites, which helps relieve stress on the tendinous insertions for animals that walk on their digits. Dogs are digitigrade animals and bear weight on digits II to V, with the main weight bearing occurring on digits III and IV. The sesamoid bones at the dorsal surface of each metacarpophalangeal joint align the extensor tendons for optimal muscle action. Those on the pad surface of the manus align the flexor tendons.

The hindlimb skeleton includes the pelvic girdle, consisting of the fused ilium, ischium, and pubis, and the bones of the hindlimb (see Figures 5-8 and 5-9). The size of hindlimb bones varies a great deal, because of the great variation in size for breeds of dogs. The hindlimbs bear 40% of the dogs weight.

The canine pelvis is positioned between the dorsal and transverse planes and closer to the dorsal plane. The canine pelvis is relatively small and narrow. The canine ischiatic or ischial tuberosities are wide and project caudally to form a broad ischiatic table. The canine pelvis shape from a ventral view resembles a rectangle. The symphysis pelvis is relatively long and has two portions, the symphysis ischii and symphysis pubis, compared with the relatively shorter joining of the anterior aspect of the human innominates at the symphysis pubis. The distinction of the shape of the male and female pelvic inlet and outlet in humans is not made in dogs.

The canine femur is the heaviest4 and largest5 canine bone. In most dogs, it is slightly shorter than the tibia and the ulna and approximately one-fifth longer than the humerus. The average canine angle of inclination or cervicofemoral angle is 144.7 degrees.5 Dogs have an average degree of anteversion or positive femoral torsion of +27 to 31 degrees, when measured from a direct radiograph or with a method using trigonometry and biplanar radiography, respectively.5 The canine femur has a relatively thick and short femoral neck, a caudomedially located lesser trochanter, a prominent lateral greater trochanter, and a relatively short and wide shaft with a narrow isthmus in the middle. The greater trochanter has a craniolateral prominence called the cervical tubercle. Dogs have a third trochanter, which is the attachment site of the superficial gluteal muscle. Canine medial and lateral femoral condyles are equally prominent, but the articular surface of the medial femoral condyle projects more cranially than that of the lateral femoral condyle.

There are three sesamoid bones in the caudal stifle joint region. Two are located in the heads of the gastrocnemius muscle caudal to the stifle joint and are called fabellae. The sesamoid in the lateral head is the largest, is palpable, and articulates with the lateral femoral condyle, whereas the one in the medial head is smaller and may not have a distinct facet on the medial femoral condyle. The third is the smallest, is located in the proximal attachment of the popliteus muscle, and articulates with the lateral tibial condyle.

The canine patella, or kneecap, is the largest sesamoid bone in the body. It is an ossification in the quadriceps femoris muscle. The patella alters the pull, increases the moment arm, and protects the quadriceps tendon, as well as provides a greater contact surface for the tendon on the trochlea of the femur than would exist without the patella. The canine patellar articular surface is mildly convex.

The canine tibia is the major bone in the crus. The triangular proximal tibia is wider than the distal cylindrical tibia. Medial and lateral tibial condyles, an intercondylar eminence, and a tibial tuberosity are on the proximal tibia. The tibial plateau slopes distally from cranial to caudal. The extensor groove, on the cranial tibia and lateral to the tibial tuberosity, provides a pathway for the long digital extensor muscle. There is a popliteal notch on the caudal tibia in the midline, where the popliteal vessels course. The tibia articulates with the fibula proximally, along the interosseous crest, and distally. The tibial cochlea articulate with the trochlea of the talus to form the talocrural joint.

The canine fibula is a long, slender bone that articulates with the tibia and also serves as a site for muscle attachment. There is a distinctive groove in the lateral malleolus, the sulcus malleolaris lateralis, through which course the tendons of the lateral digital extensor and peroneus brevis muscles.

The tarsus, or hock, consists of the talus, calcaneus, a central tarsal bone, and tarsal bones I to IV (see Figure 5-10). The talus articulates with the distal tibia and has prominent ridges. At the talocrural joint, two convex ridges of the trochlea of the talus articulate with two reciprocal concave grooves of the cochlea of the tibia. The orientation of the grooves and ridges deviates laterally approximately 25 degrees from the sagittal plane. This deviation allows the hindpaws to pass lateral to the forepaws when dogs gallop.4 The calcaneus is large and serves as the insertion of the common calcaneal tendon. The central tarsal bone lies between the talus and the numbered tarsal bones I to III. Tarsal IV is large and articulates with the calcaneus and metatarsal bones, spanning this entire region.

The canine hindpaw has five metatarsal bones; however, the first metatarsal can be short or absent. Dogs have many sesamoid bones that are embedded in tendons where there are significant compressive and tensile forces produced during muscle contractions. The sesamoid bones at the dorsal surface of each metatarsophalangeal joint align the extensor tendons for optimal joint action. The sesamoid bones on the plantar surface of the hindpaw align flexor tendons.

The spine consists of five areas of the vertebral column: the cervical vertebrae and its articulation with the head, thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, sacral vertebrae, and the coccygeal vertebrae (Figures 5-11 through 5-14). The number of vertebrae is listed in Box 5-1.

Dewclaw or digit I or halluxmay be absent, fully developed and articulating with a metatarsal, or may be a vestigial, that is, a trace or rudimentary structure, with a terminal phalanx and no proximal phalanx or metatarsal bone

All vertebrae, except the sacral vertebrae, remain separate and form individual joints. Four sites with limited motion exist within the canine spine.6 These sites occur at areas where the cranial and caudal articular surfaces are inclined in a nonparallel manner and in different directions. The nonparallel alignment of the articular surfaces markedly restricts joint accessory motions, such as glides. The restricted joint motions and areas resulting from these joint alignments include atlantoaxial motion other than rotation, the cervical (C) 7-thoracic (T) 1 junction, the caudal thoracic region, and the sacrum.

Individual vertebral bone size and shape vary among breeds. For any one breed, canine cervical through lumbar vertebrae are fairly consistent in size. The consistent size in dogs reflects the relatively equivalent cranial-to-caudal compressive loading. Because dogs are quadruped, there is weight bearing on all four limbs. There is cervical spine compression as a result of the positioning of the dogs head as a cantilever, which requires cervical extensor muscle activity to maintain head posture. The massive cervical extensor muscle activity requires relatively large and strong cervical vertebrae to support the muscle mass. Canine intervertebral disks likewise change little in size from the cervical through the lumbar vertebrae. The C5-C6 area is a site of relative hypermobility in large dogs. The spinal cord ends at lumbar (L) L6-L7.

The canine atlas, or C1 vertebra (see Figure 5-12), has a transverse foramen in each transverse process, a craniodorsal arch, and right and left lateral vertebral foramina for the passage of cervical spinal nerve 1. The atlas has correspondingly shaped condyles for articulation with the occiput. The canine lateral wings or transverse processes are prominent and easily palpable from the skin surface. The canine axis or C2 has a large spinous process with an expanded arch, a wide body, and large transverse processes (see Figure 5-12). The spinous process is nonbifid. The canine axis is very large relative to the size of other canine cervical vertebrae. The axis has a dens, which projects cranially to allow pivotal motion between the atlas and axis. The condyles are oriented near the transverse plane to allow cervical spine rotation. The C3-C6 vertebrae have nonbifid spinous processes, large and flat spinous processes, caudal and cranial articular surface facets that are narrower than the transverse processes, large transverse processes, and transverse foramina for the passage of vertebral arteries. Caudal and cranial articular surfaces are oriented between the dorsal and transverse planes to facilitate cranial and caudal glides needed for cervical spine flexion and extension. The C7 vertebra has a similar shape, a large prominent nonbifid spinous process, and caudal and cranial articular surfaces, which are oriented nearly craniocaudally.

Thoracic vertebrae (see Figure 5-13) have small bodies relative to the size of the entire vertebrae. Canine spinous processes are relatively long. The spinous processes block excessive extension of the thoracic spine. At T10, the size of the body begins to increase and the length of spinous process decreases. The spinous processes are oriented close to the transverse plane. Cranial to T11, the spinous processes project caudally, but caudal to T11, they project cranially. Caudal and cranial articular surfaces are oriented close to the dorsal plane.

Lumbar vertebrae (see Figure 5-13) have bodies that are larger than thoracic vertebral bodies. Canine lumbar transverse processes are long and thin, and they project lateroventrocranially. In the cranial lumbar spine, cranial and caudal articular surfaces are oriented between the transverse and sagittal planes, which facilitate lumbar spine flexion and extension. The L7-S1 joint appears to orient between the sagittal and frontal planes to allow more rotation at this intervertebral level. The canine sacrum is relatively narrow and is linked to the pelvis with sacroiliac joints (see Figure 5-14).

Caudal (Cd) vertebrae (see Figure 5-14) have distinct bodies and transverse processes. The cranial articular surfaces are similar to those in more cranial vertebrae in shape and location; however, the caudal articular processes are bifid and are more centrally located, whereas articular processes in more cranial vertebrae are located more laterally. Hemal arches are separate bones that articulate with the ventral surfaces of the caudal ends of the bodies of Cd4-Cd6. The hemal arches provide protection for the median coccygeal artery, which is enclosed by the arches. In vertebrae caudal to Cd6 and in relatively the same position as the hemal arches are the paired hemal processes, which extend from Cd7-Cd17 or Cd18.

The ribs have vertebral attachments (see Figure 5-11). There are nine pairs of vertebrosternal, or true, ribs and four pairs of vertebrocostal, or false, ribs. The sternum is relatively long and has a manubrium and xiphoid process, with a prominent xiphoid cartilage. The ribs limit overall thoracic spine motion and protect internal organs.

The body segments of the forelimb and hindlimb are illustrated in Figures 5-3 and 5-4, respectively, with the major joints and their flexor and extensor surfaces. Body segments are listed and defined in Box 5-1. Types of joints are listed in Box 5-2.

Hinge: Talocrural, tarsocrural, tibiotarsal (the tarsocrural has been referred to as the talocrural and the talocalcaneal joints combined) or ankle joint (the term ankle is commonly used with an animals owner)

The shape of articular surfaces of bones helps define the motions available for a joint. Articular surfaces of two bones forming a joint are usually concave on one bone and convex on the other bone. Some articular surfaces are flat. Occasionally adjacent bones are convex on both joint surfaces. Intraarticular structures, such as the medial and lateral menisci in the stifle joint, may modify adjacent surfaces. Understanding the concave-convex relationships as a guiding principle in determining joint motion allows prediction of possible joint motions based on articular surface shape. Ligamentous and other soft tissue around the joint guide and restrict the motion that would be possible based on articular surface shape alone.

Joint motions are named, most commonly, by movement of the distal bone relative to the proximal bone. For example, cranial movement of the tibia on a stable femur is named stifle joint extension. The major direction of motion, such as flexion of the stifle, is physiologic or osteokinematic motion.

Accessory, or arthrokinematic, motion is smaller in magnitude and less observable. Examples of accessory motions are glide or slide, rotary motion, distraction or traction, and compression or approximation. A normal amount of glide occurs in normal functioning joints. Glides are shear type or sliding motions of opposing articular surfaces. Rolls involve one bone rolling on another. Gliding motion in combination with rolling is needed for normal physiologic joint motion. Spins are joint surface motions that result in continual contact of articular cartilage areas on opposite sides of a joint. Distraction or traction accessory motions are tensile or pulling-apart movements between bones. Compressive or approximation accessory motions are compressive or pushing-together movements between bones.

Normal joint motion involves both physiologic motion and accessory motion. Physiologic motion in joints with opposing concave and convex articular surfaces involves both roll and glide. Roll occurs in the same direction as the movement of the moving segment of the bone, but glide directions differ based on whether the moving articular surface is concave or convex. A glide is described by identifying the joint motion, the direction of the glide, and which bone is moving. For example, stifle flexion involving the tibia and femur is termed caudal glide of the tibia on the femur.

Joint motions are named by one body segment approaching or moving away from another body segment or movement of some referenced body landmark. Joint motions are named in the following sections and described (see Figures 5-3 and 5-4) as they refer to the limbs, starting from normal stance. Limb motion is usually described by motion of the joint rather than a body segment. For example, elbow flexion is recommended rather than forearm flexion. Occasionally, body segment motion is used to describe limb motion when motion does not involve axial motion with a joint as a pivot point. For example, rotation of the forelimb might be observable when pronation at the radioulnar joint would be difficult to observe clinically.

During flexion, a limb is retracted or folded, a digit is bent, and the back or neck is arched dorsally (i.e., the convex portion of the arch is directed dorsally). In the limbs, flexion motion occurs as the bones on either side of a joint move closer together and the joint angle becomes more acute. Flexion may also be referenced to limb motions involving closing angles during the swing phase of gait. Flexion motions of the limb joints are noted in Figures 5-3 and 5-4. In the spine, flexion occurs as the back or neck arches dorsally (i.e., the convex portion of the arch is directed dorsally).

A notable difference between dogs and humans is the meaning of shoulder flexion. In dogs, caudal retraction of the humerus in relation to the scapula is shoulder flexion, whereas cranial motion of the humerus in relation to the scapula is shoulder extension. The direction of shoulder flexion motion is opposite to this in humans. The terminology used in dogs is consistent with naming flexion as described previously.

In normal stance, as shown in Figure 5-2, a dogs spine is flexed at the atlantooccipital and atlantoaxial joints, straight (neither flexed nor extended) in the remainder of the cervical spine, extended at the cervicothoracic junction, slightly lordotic in the thoracic spine, and flexed or normally kyphotic in the lumbar spine. There is either a slightly flexed or extended sacrum on the lumbar spine, depending on the tail posture. The flexed canine lumbar spine is beneficial to running speed. During running, the lumbar spine moves through varying degrees of flexion as running speed changes.

During extension, the limb reaches out, the digit is extended, and the back or neck is less arched dorsally or arched ventrally. Extension is motion in the sagittal plane in the direction opposite to that of flexion motion. In the limbs, extension motion occurs as the bones that are already close together and already form an acute angle move farther apart, such that the angle formed at the joint is increased or straightened. Extension beyond normal is sometimes termed hyperextension. The carpus normally has greater than 180 degrees of extension. In the spine, extension occurs as the back or neck is arched ventrally (i.e., the convex portion of the arch is directed ventrally).

rod miller, disneyland's main street ragtime pianist retires | the disney blog

Rod Miller started his career as the Main Street Ragtime Pianist in 1969, the year I was born. Since that time his magical high speed tickling of the ivories have entertained, and this is no exaggeration, hundreds of millions of guests to Walt Disneys Magic Kingdom. 99.99% of those guests left happy and one of those guests was me.

I remember dancing to his Ragtime music as a child. I only knew one song then, The Entertainer. He didnt groan when asked to play it but instead launched into a roaring version of the song like it was the only one he would play that day. As an adult who spent a lot of time listening to Rods music, I knew that The Entertainer was the number one request. And he still played it with a smile and with style every time (ask him to play the wrong note version!).

Rod doesnt read sheet music, but instead plays by ear (although using his fingers is easier). He learned to play by slowing down the piano rolls and rehearsing two or three measures at a time until he mastered the music. Practicing two to six hours a day, it took him three months to learn his first piece, "I Cant Give You Anything But Love." Rod developed a unique style that was part Jo Anne Castle and part Liberace.

He has recorded LP records, including one in the 70s, a very popular CD "Rod Miller Ragtime" recorded in 1995, and an absolutely out of the world CD of "Four-Hand Piano" in 1999 (hard to find unfortunately). He also has a few songs on various Disney Theme Park Soundtracks.

Rods expertise extended beyond the piano as well. He was a collector and cultivator of Plumeria plants. At one time he owned over 2000 of them. When they were in bloom hed bring a baggy of blooms in and set them on the tables. The tropical aroma filled the air and if you closed your eyes you could imagine yourself on the Hawaiian beach with a ragtime piano playing near by. He also took special requests for Leis and many of my friends have celebrated special occasions with Rods fresh flowers around their necks and heads.

What makes all this even more amazing was that Rod broke his back as a child and had his spine fused. Doctors told him hed never walk again, but he defeated that prophecy. He shouldnt have been able to sit and play piano either, but Rod figured out how to do that too. In the end, the 30 plus years of playing 8 hours aday, plus outside gigs and practice, took its toll on Rods body and tortured spine. He is retiring now, but not because he wants to, I can assure you.

There is no way for me to sum up in one post what Rod Miller means to me, to Disneyland, and to the world of Ragtime music. He has been Ragtime musics greatest ambassador, churning out the tunes a breakneck speed to guests at Disneyland. He was always learning new songs right up until the end of his career. He tutored students of Ragtime Piano with whatever time he could spare (a few have followed in his footsteps working at Disney Theme Parks). He has been a great friend to many and could always be counted on to cheer you up when you were down, play that special song of memories for you, or just to make you laugh and feel good with a song.

Wow I dont know what to say. Too bad I dont live in Anaheim anymore and I cant afford to go half-way across the country on a moments notice He will be VERY missed. He (and Alan) are one of the few things that would get me to miss Fantasmic during summer evenings in the late 90s

This is terribly saddening news to hear, not only because of the effect it will have on Disneylands music scene, but that a piece of its history is retiring. We will all miss Rod and his piano skills very much. And I for one hopes that he keeps playing on.

I only met him once, two years ago. My choir was on a trip to California, and of course we had a day at Disneyland. I dont recall what he was playing when my sister and I wandered in. All I remember is that he was a very kind, very friendly man who could carry on a conversation and play at the same time. I was learning piano at the time, so seeing such a talented man was a bit stunning.

Rod was there when I proposed to my wife. Many many hours have been spent with him tapping quarters on his pianos hinges, cracking wise during many of his greatest hits and performing the closing ceremonies with him. I ALMOST helped with the cover design for four-hand piano at one point and I think I actually have Rods home phone number still in my cell. During one of my calls to him he said Anyhoo! and I picked it up instantly hehe. Now everyone makes fun of me for it.

I grew up listening to Rod Miller at Disneyland. While studying animation in college, I would fill sketchbooks with people at Disneyland always sure to run them by Rod for his encouragement. It was so nice of him to support this random kid.

After relocating north to Pixar, I would often fly down to Anaheim for the sole purpose of seeing Rod. I was always greeted with a smile and an Everyone, this is Mark. Hes an animator at Pixar and plays like me. How did he remember everyones name??

Rod inspired me to play ragtime as he has many others. I learned several of his songs by ear (they took a month each) and had a dream of one day quitting animation and devoting my life to ragtime. Which of us havnt spent hours out there at that beat-up piano, watching Rod run his fingers up and down the ivories whilst directing a tourist to the bathroom! The man was the greatest entertainer Ive ever seen.

Ive kept making the trips to find Rod, wondering if he was ill or worse. Retirement is a relief on one hand but a devastation on the other. I think we all feel a sense of loss. Deep loss. Im so grateful to that man.

I too have wondered, hoping Rod was okay after his recent operations. It is a relief and a pleasure to know that he has retired, a very well deserved retirement. It is also a sense of loss, he will definitely be missed. I hope he stops by the Corner once in a while to say hi to his fans.

I first heard Ragtime Rod play in 1972 while I was in high school. I bought his album and wore it out. He had great arrangements of Maple Leaf Rag, How You Gonna Keep Em Down on the Farm and many others. He let me sit in on piano a couple times over the years at Coke Corner. He was a great entertainer and he encouraged my playing. I appreciate what he has done to inspire many of us who love that syncopated music.

The CDS are still available at the website. (I am the webmaster) Rod still shows up at the park on occasion but I havent convinced him to play Yet PS. Johnny is now also retired.. So the mainstreet piano is now split about 6 ways

Ragtime was his Forte By ear he learned to play An just inside a Kingdom One could watch his fingers flay Rod was at his Upright Stroking keys, count Eighty-Eight At his spot outside Coke-Corner Playing old tunes until quite late His fingers touched the Ivorys His hands in constant blur His Smile always Beaming His Demeanor always Sure Ragtimes still his Forte Born an Era long ago When time it was uncertain And roads uphill did go Rods kept up his playing For nearly Forty years Thirty-six Im thinkin With Applause from all his peers A crisp white shirt with stripin A Garter on each sleeve A Captivating Talent To see you would believe In the year before a Seventy He began at Disneyland And with Magical Evolution His playing became Grand Rods filled our Souls with Memories And with Sounds that still return To Linger Deep within our minds And causing us to Yearn Millions have heard his Music On perhaps one evening or a day Just outside Coke-Corner On Main Street U.S.A. He was a Master of his Music In his Signature Up-Tempo Style And when you Heard him Playing You just had to stay awhile Rod gave all that was within him Each day and into night With a speed Beyond Believing And when he slowed down all was right He has a Unique and Life-Long Talent In an Era oh so Grand And we, his Fans, will Miss him At His Spot in Disneyland 11172006 Dedicated to Mr. Rod Miller Ragtime Piano Player of Disneyland 1969 thru 2006 By Rolfe Dennis Barbata The Wizard of Words

Great Player. Im 17, and have been to disneyland only twice. I never did talk to him, but Im sure he saw me there sitting at a table, eating a hot dog, and listening to him play. As of now I working on my rag skills, and I consider him to be an influence to my career.

This is the Son of a woman of worth who found him to be beconing her with his wonderful piano playingbut alas, her everlasting soul has found eternal solace in the Lord after being unable to be there with him. Her name was Bonnie Jean McPheeters Schneider and her Husband of 50+ years will profoundly miss her until the inevitable takes place in my lifetime.

I use to work at the Plaza Pavilion back in 1977-1979, which is right next door to Coke Corner were Rod use to play the piano and it was a blast to listen to him everyday.We would be working and shouting out request for him and he would always smile and play our request, we would stand around and listen and horse play with him even though we were suppose to be working. I remember one time he had one us still in costume and on stage sit next to him and play a duet it was great. I think it was against policy but he didnt care. I left the company but everytime I came back to the park I would look him up just to listen and say Hi, years later I took my daughter to see the piano player and he told her he still remeber me and how I would stand around and listen and not work. He was the best

Wow really? Man, its been a while since I last saw him play. Whenever I was there I always made a point to see himI four times a year. I am a disney kid. what can I say. I was five when I first went to Disney and had been going ever since. In college, I shared a house with friends and we all got an annual pass three years in a row. Whenever we were bored, we went there, even if it just meant a couple of hours to go to downtown disney. I think i was twenty-four when I last went. I really will miss him. Is anyone playing in his place though?

I was one of the young musicians Rod inspired. A year later, I was playing at pizza parlors (this was back when they had live music!). A couple of years after that, I was fortunate enough to be playing piano not only at Disneyland, but Walt Disney World and Tokyo Disneyland too.

Though Ive branched out into other styles since, Ill never forget the electric effect Rod and his ragtime had on me. Its fun to think about the hundreds (thousands?) of other young people Rod inspired to play, just by showing them what was possible.

Its also important to mention that Rod was, and no doubt still is, a complete NUTwitty, wacky, flirtatious, baffling, the whole bit. He probably couldve entertained people by just sitting there at the piano, not playing a note, and making some of his hilarious faces. Hes unique.

What an amazing guy!! My first trip to Disneyland was in 1955 and Ive been there hundreds of times since. Ever since Rod started at the park, his playing and personality has been part of the intrigue. He always made us feel like old friends. Truly someone who cant be replacedtoo bad the people at Disney didnt recognize how much a part of Disneyland Rod was when he retired part of Disneyland was retired with him. If Rod is performing anywhere, I would certainly like to know it would be worth a trip to see him.