The casting industry is in a state of upheaval. The ability to produce ever more complex shapes, volatile quantities and short delivery times are becoming increasingly important factors for success in competition. Even in the age of digitalization, the world is not binary. voxeljet is focusing here on the intelligent fusion of classic foundry technologies with flexible additive production processes. For sustained optimisation and increased efficiency across the entire value-added chain in production.
From prototyping, spare parts production to agile industrial series production. With Universal Binder Jetting 3D printing technology, and the tool-less production of sand molds and cores for classic metal casting processes, we are opening up new horizons for the foundry industry. Without restrictions in individualization, lightweight construction and demanding or complex geometries. And not to forget with a great potential for cost optimization in the manufacturing process.
Complex geometries and increasingly varied and smaller batch sizes. Wherever conventional processes reach their economic limits due to cost-intensive mold construction or changeover times, 3D production processes offer essential economic advantages. Produced completely digitally and without tools, undercuts or draft angles lose their importance in the calculation and can be produced at optimized costs.
voxeljet has the world's largest and most powerful 3D printing systems for large components or large runs of small components. We overcome the limitations of traditional 3D printing systems and processes. The use of common foundry materials such as sand and complementary binders ensures optimal casting results through seamless integration into traditional production processes.
By eliminating the need for tool and mould making, additive production processes shorten the manufacturing times of components by up to 75%. The 3D printing process allows them to be manufactured in a single, compact production step. Sand molds and cores can be produced in just a few hours. That means a time saving of several weeks.
By using voxeljet's binder jetting technology, we can significantly reduce the delivery time of moulds and cores for our customers. In addition, we achieve new records in terms of the size and weight of the parts we cast.
voxeljet supports you in this process from rapid prototyping, efficient machines for the production of medium-sized series orders to the worlds largest and most powerful 3D printing systems for additive mass production of large components or large runs of small components. With a wide range of possible sand/binder combinations and the ability to choose freely between manufacturing based on furan, phenolic resins or inorganic binders. You can also obtain molds and cores through one of our worldwide 3D service centers to thoroughly test processes without own investment in hardware, as well as to optimize products or accelerate their development.
The VX1000 is the all-rounder for 3D production. With its construction volume of 1000 x 600 x 500 mm it can process plastics, sand and ceramics. From medium-sized molds and cores for metal sand casting, to investment casting patterns and ceramic components.
The VX1300 X is the pioneer for additive mass production on an industrial scale. Ready for integration into IoT production environments and perfectly adapted to automated post-processing, it redefines the optimization options in the value chain.
The VX2000 is an extremely powerful, robust 3D printing system for industrial applications. With a 2,000-liter job box, it is one of the world's most productive 3D printing systems. It is compatible with many sands and all furan and phenolic resin binders from voxeljet.
The VX4000 is the world's largest 3D printing system for sand molds, with a continuous footprint of 4 x 2 x 1 meters. With its patented layering process, the system ensures consistent build times and impressive precision and part quality in virtually any format.
voxeljet is one of the pioneers of the first hour when it comes to establishing 3D production processes in professional or industrial environments. voxeljet 3D printing systems are equipped with the latest technology for 24/7 operation. Our Universal Binder Jetting machines, specially developed for industrial use, are among the best the market has to offer worldwide. Especially when volume, efficiency and speed in production are important. Here is a selection of materials already certified ex works for additive production for sand casting.
Alloys With maximum metallurgical and casting know-how. In well-established processes, voxeljet realises projects quickly, economically and in accordance with German quality standards with experienced network partners from the foundry industry. In aluminium, magnesium, steel, iron, titanium and bronze.
voxeljet 3D systems change the framework parameters in mould making sustainably technically and economically. By eliminating expensive mould making and the problem-free realisation of undercuts, complex geometries or thin-walled structures. With degrees of freedom that go far beyond the possibilities of conventional mould making and yet can be easily integrated into existing production landscapes.
If you have specific questions about the innovative applications of 3D printing in your production? Would you like to maintain machines autonomously or qualify new materials? Your questions on how to optimize production with additive manufacturing technologies are a priority for voxeljet.
Increasing demands on casting quality and the trend to thin-walled structures for high performance components have led to stricter requirements on the quality, and at the same time, greater geometrical complexity of sand cores. Simulation helps optimize the design of core boxes and establishes robust process conditions for shooting, gassing and curing of organic and inorganic binder systems for cold and hot core boxes.
In the shooting process a blow head filled with sand is pressurized with air, leading to the fluidization of the sand which results in a fluid consisting of an air/sand/binder mixture. This fluid flows from the blow head through shooting nozzles into the core box, repelling the air out of the box through venting nozzles. The goal of the shooting is to achieve a density distribution of the sand in the core box as high as possible and at the same time as uniform as possible. Process parameters that can be varied are the shooting pressure and the number and position of shooting and venting nozzles. In order to save time and money it is desirable to use as few nozzles as possible without sacrificing the quality of the core.
Different configurations of shooting and venting nozzles and their impact on the resulting sand density distribution can be analyzed using simulation. Predicted velocities and shear stresses allow the engineers to draw conclusions on the wear and hence the lifetime of the core box.
In organic binder systems the sand is coated with an organic resin. The hardening of this resin is accomplished by a gaseous agent, usually amine, which is typically injected through the nozzles which were used for the shooting. This gassing needs to be sufficiently long that the gas reaches every part of the core in order to ensure that the core is hardened everywhere. On the other hand, the gassing should not be longer than necessary in order to save the poisonous gas.
The simulation predicts the amine concentration distribution in the core over time which is equivalent to the hardness of the core. This allows the engineers to decide on a sensible time-scale for the gassing process.
For an increasing number of castings, inorganic, water-based binder systems are used instead of poisonous, organic systems. Besides the advantage of an emission-free core production process these systems reduce the core gas production during the casting process, improving the casting quality.
For the hardening of the sand core the water must be removed from the core which is typically accomplished by the injection of hot air. For these binder systems the residual moisture in the core is a measure for the hardness. The simulation has to model not only the air flow through the core but also the evaporation and condensation of the water or vapor and the transport of the vapor with the hot air.
In certain core manufacturing processes, such as hot box and Croning, the hardening of the core is accomplished through a thermal reaction of the binder in a heated core box. The heating of the box is carried out with heating channels and electrical heating elements. A uniform temperature distribution in the core box is desirable for a good core quality. The simulation predicts the temperature distribution over time for a certain configuration of heating elements and provides an indication of the uniformity of the heating and the time required to reach the desired temperature.
Core shooting experiments were carried out at TU Munichs Foundry Institute. Process parameters such as shooting time and pressure, number of inlets and vents were varied and their influence on the core quality analysed. The occurrence of defects in the real cores correlated well with the areas of low sand density in the simulation (see the picture below).
Core shooting experiments were carried out at TU Munichs Foundry Institute. Process parameters such as shooting time and pressure, number of inlets and vents were varied and their influence on the core quality analysed. The occurrence of defects in the real cores correlated well with the areas of low sand density in the simulation (see the picture below).
Core boxes are mostly made of aluminum with a polyurethane resin coating. The erosion of the core box surface by the sand during the shooting process is the limiting factor for the lifetime of a core box. The project goals were the analysis of erosion processes, understanding the influence of the surface treatment on the lifetime and the development of a computational model that allows the prediction of the erosion caused by a multitude of shots in a single simulation.
The numerical model derives a quantity for the erosion based on the spatial and temporal integration of pressure and shear forces at the core box walls. The erosion predicted by the model was in good agreement with the experimental values (see the picture below).
B. When sanding with 80 grit sandpaper, the goal is to remove any leftover blemishes from raft or support material, and create an even surface that you will later refine. This process will remove the most amount of material and take the most time.
C. In early stages of sanding you will notice that your model surface that was once fairly shiny will become dull and rough and change in color. The shine will return as you move to higher sanding grits.
The artificial sand produced by proper machines can be a better substitute to river sand. The sand should be sharp, clean and course. The grains should be of durable material. The grain sizes must be such that it should give minimum voids. The presence of clay and silt retards the setting of the cement and makes the mortar weaker and the walls or the slab leaks and holds dampness.
The sand in the mortar does not add any strength but it is used as an dulterant for economy and with the same it prevents the shrinkage and cracking of mortar in setting. The sand must be of proper gradation (it should have particles from 150 microns to 4.75 mm in proper proportion) When fine particles are in proper proportion, the sand will have less voids. The cement required will be less when there will be less void in sand. Such sand will be more economical.
Only sand manufactured by V.S.I. Crusher is cubical and angular in shape. Sand made by other types of machines is flaky, which is troublesome in working. There is no plasticity in the mortar. Hence the mason is not ready to work with machine made crushed stone sand. For the same reason, inferior river sand may be used. Manufacturing sand from jaw crusher, cone crusher, roll crusher often contains high percentage of dust and have flaky particle. Flaky and angular particles may produce harsh concrete, and may result in spongy concrete. Flaky particles increase voids over cubical or spherical particles about 5 to 6 percent more, and reduces the strength of concrete.
So, the process of manufacturing should be such that it should give Cubical particles. Vertical shaft Impactor principle is used for crushing bigger particles, for shaping the crushed metal (giving better shape of the particle) and for crushing fines aggregates below 4.75 mm. It is best machine for making sand from stone. Sand manufactured by Vertical Shaft Impactor is of cubical shape. Such sand can be used for all types of construction work, Concreting, plastering etc. and is better substitute to river sand. V.S.I. Crushers is a most economical machine for Crushing Stone in Cubical shape and manufacturing artificial sand. In this machine, the particles are thrown at a high speed. Those particles colloids in crushing chamber on anvil or stone lining. Rubbing of the particles with each other grounds the edges and also the surface texture.
Our operations are based on unique expertise in materials technology, extensive knowledge about industrial processes and close customer cooperation. This combination, coupled with continuous investments in research and development (R&D), has enabled us achieve leading positions in the following areas:
The ever-growing variety of 3D printing filaments is amazing we can now print in strong, flexible, glowing, and dissolvable plastics but sometimes plastic isnt the right material for the job. Sometimes, you just need metal!
Although the big boys in the industrial world can directly 3D print metal parts with laser sintering machines, this technology hasnt yet reached consumers. However, you can make your own metal parts at home with the help of your 3D printer and these easy-to-learn metal casting techniques.
Bismuth alloys (makezine.com/go/bismuth) have a lower melting point than bismuth alone (~212F versus 520.6F). This low melting point means a hollow mold can be printed in ABS and it wont melt or deform when the molten metal is poured into it. After the metal has cooled, the mold can be split away or, for more complex objects, immersed in acetone to dissolve or soften the ABS so it can be easily removed, leaving behind only the final cast metal piece.
NOTE: Many bismuth alloys contain toxic elements such as lead. Acetone is not a friendly substance either. Proceed with caution and follow proper safety measures when working with these materials. For a nontoxic bismuth alloy, try Fields metal (see Desktop Foundry, MAKE Volume 35).
A common technique in jewelry making and manufacturing is lost-wax casting or investment casting. A model or pattern is made in wax, then a plaster mold is made around the wax model. When the mold is fired in a kiln, the wax is burnt out or lost; then metal parts can be cast in the mold.
This same technique can be used with PLA filament. Jeshua Lacock of Boise, Idaho, used the lost-PLA technique and a homemade furnace to cast aluminum parts for his home-built CO2 cutting laser, going from design to print to metal part in just one day. He thoroughly documented the process at 3Dtopo.com/lostPLA.
Backyard furnaces fueled by charcoal or propane can get hot enough to melt aluminum (1,220F) and bronze (1,742F). Engineers at Coreprint Patterns in Hamilton, Ontario, even used the lost-PLA method to cast stainless steel (2,750F), taking their mold to a local foundry that could attain the higher temperatures needed (coreprintpatterns.com/lost-pla).
When QC Co-Lab (qccolab.com) opened the doors on their new hackerspace in Davenport, Iowa, they wanted to celebrate in style. They used their 3D printer to create commemorative medallions and then cast the medallions in bronze using a homemade charcoal furnace and the sand casting method. Theres a great tutorial at Foundry101.com (foundry101.com/new_page_7.htm).
With these techniques, your personal desktop factory can help you create precious metal jewelry, aluminum parts for your robots, or bronze busts from your Kinect scans. The next time someone asks you, Can you make metal parts with that thing? you can happily proclaim, Yes!
A metal ball rolls silently through sand, forever creating and erasing beautiful patterns. Sisyphus is a kinetic sculpture that has mesmerized millions of visitors at its permanent installations in museums around the world. Now we bring you a museum-quality kinetic sculpture you can enjoy in your home.
People often claim 3D printers can make you anything you can imagine. Dial up the digital model you want, hit Go, and the machine hums to work, producing an object, accurately and repeatably. But as an astute 8-year-old pointed out to me when I handed her two of my favorite printed models at Maker Faire Bay Area last year, the results dont always match your intentions.
Im reminded of advice I got from a pair of industrial design professors at Pratt, after I showed them my print of a fluorescent-green clockwork mechanism: It is worth enormous effort to make prototypes look like they were created from real-world materials. Even the most creative engineers and businesspeople will have difficulty seeing your prototype as a machine when it looks like a toy.
The domain of finishing techniques for 3D printed objects (i.e., everything that takes place after printing) is the craftsmans workshop, where patience, tools, skills, and experience can transform the raw products of these machines into fully realized models. Like builders of dollhouses and model trains, many 3D printer jocks appreciate a loving and accurate rendering of a miniature world.
Makers who have mastered finishing techniques are granted wizard status by fellow 3D practitioners. Take artist Cosmo Wenman, who creates pieces that accurately mimic distressed metals and stones. And sculptor Jason Bakutis, whose sanded, painted, and polished faux marble and jade prints look remarkably like the real thing. Through careful work, pieces printed in crazy pink, green, and translucent filaments are made to resemble clay, stone, metal, and wood. How do they do that?
The desktop 3D printing community has a lot to learn from the sculptors, model railroad builders, and tabletop gamers now joining their ranks. And as my professors pointed out, these extra steps arent just cosmetic. Your capacity to transform your models into magical replicas is a crucial means of communicating your inventions.
Desktop 3D printing has yet to spawn third-party finishing services like commercial 3D printing did a decade ago. So, without access to acetone cloud chambers, multi-axis enamel jet robots, agitating chemical baths, and industrial tumblers and polishers, makers have rolled up their sleeves and discovered a host of finishing solutions using inexpensive tools and materials. These methods not only affect a print in post-production, but can often change the way we think about a digital model back in the initial design stages.
In researching my upcoming book Design for 3D Printing (Make: Books, Sept. 2013), Ive interviewed a wide range of members of the desktop 3D printer community. Id like to share some of their promising tools and techniques. In turn I hope that those of you refining new methods and sourcing better, safer, and cheaper products and techniques will also share. Post your ideas and thoughts in the comments section.
Friction welding involves the use of high-speed rotating tools and should not be attempted without ANSI-approved safety glasses. Welding and other operations that heat, soften, and melt plastic may release hazardous chemical vapors and should not be attempted without proper ventilation. Sanding and other dust-producing operations should not be attempted without a NIOSH N95-approved particulate respirator. Acetone and other volatile solvents should not be handled without proper ventilation, safety goggles, protective clothing, and latex or nitrile gloves.
The world may have forgotten the Spin Welder toy sold by Mattel in the mid-1970s, but Fran Blanche of Frantone Electronics did a great job of re-creating the experience in her 2012 video Build Your Own Friction Welder. Using an inexpensive rotary tool, Fran was able to spin a styrene rod fast enough to create a strong weld between two pieces of plastic that was difficult to break apart by hand. With the Spin Welder toy, children assembled the frames of helicopters, motorcycles, and other projects by fusing together beams and struts, then used plastic rivets to fasten the outer shell. Sure, it was potentially one of the most dangerous toys of all time, but I agree with Frans conclusion: why havent tools like these joined the makers toolbox?
Unlike adhesives or traditional welding, friction welding fuses metal or thermoplastic objects together by quickly spinning or vibrating one piece against another. Mechanical friction creates a melt zone shared by both parts, fusing them into one solid piece. In friction surfacing a variant of friction welding a piece rotated at high speeds is moved across an edge or surface under gentle pressure to weld seams, patch gaps, or smooth surfaces.
These techniques are common for plastics and aluminum in the automotive and aerospace industries, but the tools are expensive. Sophisticated spin welders can spin parts at hundreds of thousands of RPMs for short bursts of even single-digit rotations, parking the fused part at a precise orientation. Where are the cheap, hand-tool equivalents?
As it turns out, many of us already have the equipment to experiment with friction welding. Dremels and similar high-speed rotary tools spin fast enough to melt 3D printer plastics, and printer filament can be used as welding rod to solidly fuse parts or close seams. These tools can also spin-weld 3D-printed rivets. And while it takes them a second or two to spin down again, the melting points are comparatively low, allowing for some manipulation after the fact to reposition the joined part.
I think both approaches welding and riveting are killer tools for 3D print finishing, particularly for blind riveting into the side of objects, and for joining parts made of PLA, which is typically much harder to glue than ABS.
I spent some time with Chris Hackett from the Madagascar Institute learning how ideas from traditional metal welding might apply to friction-welding 3D-printed parts. We experimented with the rotary tools in his workshop and came up with the following approach for creating a nice welded seam in plastic, similar to a traditional metal weld. When two printed parts dont mate perfectly due to warp or poor planning, you can friction-weld them together as securely as if they were a single printed part. Here Ill demonstrate with ABS parts and ABS filament. It works with PLA too.
1c. Trim the filament about 1/2 from the collet. Short pieces are easier to control, and they spin on a tighter axis. (With experience you can use longer pieces, pressed gently at an angle, to make longer welds. You may need to straighten them by reforming them with a heat gun.)
2b. Use a deburring tool or razor blade to bevel the top edges of the seam where the parts meet, forming a narrow, V-shaped channel. Your goal is to create enough room for 3 welding layers, from the bottom of the bevel up to just above the surface of the 2 parts. This method gives a stronger bond than a weld that sits just on the surface.
3b. Moving the spinning filament in tight little circles, widen the melt zone slightly into the side of both parts, making a little forward progress with each circuit, until youve created a small spot weld.
4a. Gaps that are wider than half the width of your welding filament should be filled before welding a clean seam. Soften a short scrap of filament to use as filler, by using the low setting on a heat gun or by warming to 100C on your printers heated build platform.
PLA is prone to cracking and splitting, and its typically difficult to repair. Solvents such as acetone have little effect. ABS glue or super glue merely cement the parts by surface tension, rather than offering a chemical weld meaning that the seam can easily be rebroken.
A rotary tool can also be used to permanently fuse a spinning part to a fixed one, using a one-sided blind rivet. Blind rivets have one huge advantage over ordinary solid rivets: you dont need access to both sides of an assembly to rivet its parts in place.
This method works well for attaching plastic panels to the outside of objects when access to the interior is awkward or impossible. It also lets you construct massive objects from multiple panels, each panel printed close to the bed of the printer for optimal printing.
Shown here are two 3D-printed blind rivets, next to a brass solid rivet and 3 aluminum blind rivets. Notice that the printed rivets, like the aluminum ones, have a mandrel that extends well beyond the rivets head. This is the part thats gripped in the rotary tool. Youll clip it off after the rivet is firmly in place. I designed the printed rivets to be gripped by the 1/8 collet, the standard size for most Dremel accessory bits.
Plastic rivets need not be perfectly cylindrical for friction welding, so I designed them three-quarters round, for printing flat on the platform. This way, the horizontal grain of the printed rivet helps strengthen it.
2. Drill or design in mounting holes in your panel to provide clearance for the shaft of the rivet to pass through to the base part where it will be fixed. The hole should be narrow enough that the rivets head will pin the panel in place.
3. Spin up the rotary tool and gently insert the shaft of the rivet through the mounting hole until it contacts the mounting position. Continue spinning until the shaft of the rivet begins to melt and deform then press it gently down into place.
4. Stop the rotary tool and hold it steady in a fixed position at a right angle to the work, while applying a little downward pressure. It can help to use a piece of cardboard or foam as a friction brake to stop the rotation quickly. (Unlike a professional spin-welding tool, most rotary tools need a second or two to spin down.)
5. Loosen the collet nut and slip the mandrel of the blind rivet out of the rotary tool. If the rivet is still cooling, hold it in position until its fully cooled (at which point it should be entirely fused with its mounting point).
TIP: Its possible to fuse ABS rivets to PLA, and vice versa, but youll need to find the feel for the initial friction stage before pressing down the body of the rivet. Before mounting delicate parts, test-rivet the materials youll be using.
People have used rivets since the Bronze Age to fasten together tools, art, bridges, and buildings, so its no surprise that 3D printer users are experimenting with riveting techniques. Weve seen a number of projects using pieces of filament as pins to hold together large assemblies.
Just recently, 3D artist and instructor Jason Welsh demonstrated a method for building his DIY electronics cases that promises to become a new power technique. His Folding Arduino Lab (thingiverse.com/thing:32839, shown here) and Pi Command Center (thing:38965) each use filament spikes to create rivets and hinges.
Essentially, Welsh uses heat to reform pieces of filament into straight rivets, flattening one head before inserting the rivet and the other head after the rivet is firmly in place. As with any solid rivet, you need access to both sides of the assembly, but the advantage of this method is the creation of strong fastenings that can be completely removed later using a flush cutter.
While you can make spikes with any filament, I recommend 3mm PLA based on my experiences building Welshs project. PLA is easier to soften and work with a heat gun, and 3mm spikes remain straighter and more rigid than 1.75mm spikes after cooling. If you dont have 3mm filament, you can accomplish the same goal with 1.75mm filament by using more rivets to distribute the load.
1b. While the filament is still hot, straighten it by rolling it on a table, or better yet, on a piece of glass that will quickly cool it. Gently move both hands away from each other while rolling, to keep the filament straight as it cools.
1e. Your rivet should have a nice flat head, wide enough to rest firmly on the edge of the mounting hole. In rivet lingo, this is the factory head, as opposed to the second head or shop head youll create on the other end when installing the rivet.
2c. Use a flat, smooth surface to press down and deform (buck) the tail, creating the rivets shop head. I find that a large steel nail head works best its easy to handle and it cools the shop head quickly.
ABS and PLA plastics have very different physical properties. ABS is printed at a higher temperature (typically 215C235C), is more durable and flexible, and dissolves in industrial solvents like acetone. PLA can print at lower temperatures (starting at 180C), wears down faster, can be brittle or shatter, and wont dissolve in acetone. (The chemicals used to dissolve PLA are highly toxic.)
TIP: If youd rather use a soldering iron than a heat gun, find a brass tube that fits snugly over your iron. Use the brass tube to work the plastic, and keep your soldering tip clean. Make sure to clean your tube thoroughly so the plastic doesnt stick to the brass.
While super glue (cyanoacrylate) and plastic model glues do an excellent job of bonding ABS parts, many 3D-printed model builders have switched to using ABS slurry for both glue and filler material, because this substance can weld parts together more permanently, and can be exactly color-matched to the printed parts. ABS slurry is simply ground-up ABS filament dissolved in acetone.
Applied in the open air, acetone melts the surface of ABS plastic (and many similar styrene plastics), creates a goopy sludge, and then after some time evaporates, leaving behind just the reformed ABS plastic. By sealing up this process in an airtight container that the acetone cannot easily escape, you can prepare a thick, even acetone/ABS mix similar to acrylic gel medium.
There are a variety of methods for preparing ABS slurry. I like ProtoParadigms recipe (thing:14490) 1 part ABS to 2 parts acetone, mixed in fingernail polish containers or similar. Use a cheap coffee/spice grinder to shred ABS filament and scraps as needed. Smaller pieces dissolve faster and make it easier to gauge the mix ratio.
WARNING: Observe proper handling precautions when working with acetone and ABS slurry. Wear gloves and goggles and do not work without proper ventilation or in the presence of open flames. Besides being highly flammable, ABS slurry sticks to anything and burns with a foul-smelling smoke that is widely regarded as toxic. Be very careful or youll create a tiny batch of napalm that will need to be treated like a chemical fire.
Apply ABS slurry with an inexpensive natural-hair paintbrush (synthetic brushes will dissolve in acetone!) to either fill small cracks or glue 2 pieces together. Leave it to air-dry until the acetone completely evaporates, and your final part will have a joint or patch made only of ABS plastic.
Your exposure to acetone is greatest while applying ABS glue and immediately after, so pin your parts to a piece of cardboard or a tray that you can immediately move to a well-ventilated area away from your workspace. If you move them outside, protect them with a cardboard box to keep leaves, dust, and grime out of the still-goopy slurry.
TIP: While acetone can weld the edges of ABS parts to bond them, this joint lacks the shear resistance of parts printed together, because the melt zone doesnt extend deep into the surface. If an assembly needs mechanical strength, design an interlocking joint with lots of surface area or use hardware.
When I first learned the basics of woodworking, I proved a lazy, inept sander of splintery plywood toolboxes and lopsided Pinewood Derby cars. My father suggested I forget about sanded as a goal, and focus on sanding as an activity. You cycle from coarse-grit sizes down to finer-grit papers until the surface is as smooth as you intend.
Same goes for sanding 3D-printed plastics. With ABS and PLA, you can work your way down to very fine papers indeed 3M gem-polishing papers and Micro-Mesh sanding tools with single-digit micron grits that create scoring patterns invisible to the naked eye.
Still, well-sanded 3D-printed projects seem few and far between, for two good reasons. First, ABS and PLA are softer than the wood were used to sanding. Second, the tricky horizontal grain created by 3D printing reflects light differently than sanded surfaces or the glossy heated base (in ABS printing), and this grain cannot be tooled back into the surface easily encouraging an all-or-nothing approach to sanding the object.
The basic rule of thumb is to sand 3D-printed pieces like youd sand a gummy hardwood. Focus on sanding and dont rush toward sanded: start with 100- or 150-grit papers or Dremel wheels, then 220, then 320 fine, then 500 super fine, and then tackle the micron-grade grits to eliminate sanding marks. Many 3D makers tend to skimp on the earlier papers to their detriment: these coarser grits are capable of stripping away the peaks of the layer lines. Go too fine too fast and youll just round over the peaks without flattening them.
After youve sanded a surface to your satisfaction, you can use a heat gun to gently warm the surface until it melts slightly, which will erase many of the smaller scratches and restore the original printed color. Practice on scrap until you get the feel of it.
MAKE Volume 34: Join the robot uprising! As MAKE's Volume 34 makes clear, theres never been a better time to delve into robotics, whether youre a tinkerer or a more serious explorer. With the powerful tools and expertise now available, the next great leap in robot evolution is just as likely to come from your garage as a research lab. The current issue of MAKE will get you started. Explore robot prototyping systems, ride along with the inventors of the OpenROV submersible, and learn how you can 3D-print your own cutting-edge humanoid robot for half the price. Plus, build a coffee-can Arduino robot, a lip balm linear actuator, a smartphone servo controller, and much more
7,193 industrial 3D models available for download - construction materials, Engineering tools, machinery and containers - will provide both details and interactive, rigged elements to create lively environments. This is a perfect category for simulations/VR/AR or developers building construction site level in the game. The 3D models will serve professionals building precise visualisations working with varied software as models in formats such as FBX, OBJ, MAX, 3DS, C4D are available.
HVI sand making machine is one of the most advanced sand making equipment, whose structure has been upgraded, working performance further improved. It is suitable for making and shaping sand, and both capacity and quality have been greatly improved in HVI series sand maker. And it is the new rising star in sand and stone equipment, which can be used to crush metal and non-metal ores, process building materials, make and shape sand.
It adopts a deep cavity which makes more throughput of materials and realizes two feeding methods of central feeding and sides feeding, to reduce the downtime effectively and improve the working efficiency greatly.
The combination of new upper and lower peripheral shields are designed to reduce the wear of the materials, and there are three throwing heads, which can be replaced after being worn, which greatly improves the service life of the wearing parts and reduces the frequency of replacement.
The energy-saving and environmental motor is equipped with reasonable coordination between the components. In the production process, the dust is less spilled and the noise is low, which meets the requirements of green production.
The motor drives the spindle of the bearing cylinder to rotate at a high speed, and the rotor rotates with the spindle at a high speed. The material entering the impeller is accelerated by the impeller and then sprayed into the crushing chamber, colliding and grinding with other materials in the crushing chamber, so as to achieve continuous crushing and shaping of the material. The processed material is discharged from the lower part of the body. The crushing method is "stone -hitting-stone principle", and the method is mainly applied to the shaping and crushing of stone.
In addition, the equipment is also equipped with a "stone-hitting-iron" crushing method. Unlike the stone -hitting-stone principle, the material is ejected from the rotor and collides with the counter-attack block installed in the crushing chamber to finish the sand making process. This crushing method is mainly suitable for crushing process
Introducing German and American innovative sand making machine production technology, and combining with years of sedimentation experience of the manufacturer, HVI sand making machine is created, which mainly consists of feeding port, rotor, frame, pulley, control device, liner, casing, motor, discharge port and other components.
The new structural design enables it to have a wider range of applications and broaden the value of market applications. It can process various stones such as limestone, pebbles, quartz stone, marble, dolomite, granite, iron ore, etc. The HVI sand making machine is good equipment for the sandstone material factory to establish a production line.
Since the end of 2017, the Vietnamese government has imposed restrictions on natural sand mining because the wild mining of natural sand in Vietnam has led to the exhaustion of sand and gravel in recent years, and Vietnamese experts estimate that natural sand in Vietnam will be exhausted within five years.
In April 2018, Mr. Phan of Vietnam posted a message on the website, saying that he would like to know about the river pebble sand production line of the HXJQ Mining Machinery. After receiving the message, our engineers immediately contacted Phan, and after learning about his project, the engineer introduced a 200 TPH river pebble sand production line to him.
Nowadays, this production line has been officially put into production for more than a year. Due to the lack of natural sand in Vietnam, the artificial sand market is at a rapid increase for a period of time.
In January of this year, Mr. Phan gave feedback to our after-sale service department. He said: "Thanks to the engineers of the HXJQ Mining Machinery for the production line. This production line has run smoothly in the past year, the failure rate has been extremely low, and the operation and daily maintenance have been very simple. At present, the artificial sand market is a very good industry in Vietnam. I will invest more projects in the future, hoping to have more and more cooperation with HXJQ." We are very happy to receive such good news, also hope that Mr. Phan will develop better and better.
HXJQ Mining Machinery as the mining machine manufacturer has committed to research HVI sand making machine for a long time and already understood the techniques of HVI sand machines. HXJQ can supply excellent equipment with cheap price and perfect after-sale service to ensure smooth production.
Vacuum forming is a manufacturing process by which a sheet of plastic is heated and pressed over a form to create a part. This process is used to create many of the products in your home such as plastic containers, tubs, sink units, and electrical enclosures.
When designing a mold for vacuum forming consider drafting angles. Drafting angles allow your molded part to be removed from the mold. They should typically be anywhere from 3-5 degrees from 90 on any vertical surface.
Because we used an industrial vacuum forming machine we needed to secure the mold to an additional fixture. This holds the mold in place against the various forces that occur when operating the machine.
When choosing plastic sheets for vacuum forming, consider the thickness of the plastic and the size of the sheet as well. Thicker sheets will need to be heated to higher temperatures and will require a higher power vacuum.
Moldmaking is used across industries by people like product designers, entrepreneurs, and teachers to create short production runs, prototype complex molds, test production in end-use plastics, and generally aid in any situation where its necessary to create multiple copies of a part both affordably and easily. It enables production of short-run batches of 150 to 600 parts or testing of mold designs before committing to expensive tooling.
Combining moldmaking withdesktop 3D printingallows engineers and designers to expand the realm of materials theyre using and bring the capabilities of their3D printerbeyondrapid rototypingand into the realm ofproduction. Using 3D printed molds, dies, and patternsto supplement the molding process tends to be both faster and less expensive than CNC milling, and easier than working with silicone molds.
In this post, well walk through three moldmaking techniques easily supplemented by 3D printing: injection molding, casting, and thermoforming. For a more in-depth look at these techniques, as well as design guidelines for moldmaking and 3D printing,watch our recent webinar.
Injection molding was invented in 1872 by John Wesley Hyatt, and originally operated much like a hypodermic needle. The modern injection molding machine was fully realized in 1956 with the invention of the reciprocating screw.
In the modern injection molding process, a reciprocating screw drives plastic polymer pellets through a hopper into a heated barrel. As the pellets get closer to the heater, they melt and are pushed into the mold cavity, where pressure is applied. After the part forms and cools within the mold, the part is ejected and the mold can be re-used.
The polymers used by injection molding processes are relatively cheap and can be used to achieve a wide variety of properties, so injection molding is popular for creating packaging and consumer products (fun fact: LEGO bricks, which need to be both strong and precise, are injection molded).
With affordable desktop 3D printers, temperature resistant 3D printing materials, andinjection molding machines, it is possible to create 3D printed injection molds in-house to produce functional prototypes and small, functional parts in production plastics. For low-volume production (approximately 10-100 parts), 3D printed injection molds save time and money compared to expensive metal molds. They also enable a more agile manufacturing approach, allowing engineers and designers to prototype injection molds and test mold configurations orto easily modify molds and continue to iterate on their designs with low lead times and cost.
Molds can be directly 3D printed in a variety of materials, such as Formlabs Rigid 10KResinor High Temp Resin. The testing for ourwhite paper on injection moldingwas done using theGalomb Model-B100 Injection Molder, which runs at around $3,500.
Download our white paper for guidelines for using 3D printed molds in the injection molding process to lower costs and lead time and see real-life case studies with Braskem, Holimaker, and Novus Applications.
Casting is a popular technique in many industries, jewelry, dentistry, and engineering in particular. It can be used for small and large parts in a wide variety of metals. Originating over 5,000 years ago, casting enables creators to work with a wide variety of materials and is one of the easiest ways to make metal parts.
In casting, a hollow mold is created from a master, which could be hand-sculpted or 3D printed (as seen in a video tutorial from BJB Enterprises onhow to make silicone molds with a Formlabs SLA 3D printer). The master is immersed in a casting material like sand, clay, concrete, epoxy, plaster, or silicone. The casting material hardens, plastic or metal is poured into the mold, and the master is either removed or burnt out to create the final part.
In engineering and manufacturing, metal castingis a cost-effective and highly capable manufacturing process for producing parts with fine features or complex geometries. Manufacturers and engineers use casting for critical components in aerospace, automotive, and healthcare applications.
Stereolithography (SLA) 3D printers are well-suited for casting workflows to produce metal parts at a lower cost, with greater design freedom, and in less time than traditional methods and without the expense of direct metal 3D printers.
In this white paper, learn how engineers can leverage the speed and flexibility of 3D printing without the expense of direct metal printers by using metal casting workflows, including detailed walkthroughs of sand casting and investment casting processes with Formlabs 3D printers and resins.
The two processes of thermoforming and vacuum forming are similar to injection molding in that they use heat and pressure to create final plastic parts. These methods first originated in the 1940s to produce aircraft canopies without blemishes and army relief maps.
In thermoforming, a heated sheet of plastic is pressed between two mold halves to create a part. In vacuum forming, only one half of the mold is used, with suction used to pull the plastic down over the mold. The machinery used for these methods is very cheap, and its even possible to build them yourself.
3D printing thermoform dies with SLA 3D printingis a fast and effective method to create high quality vacuum-formed parts for small batch production. Printed thermoform dies can be used to make packaging prototypes, clear orthodontic retainers, and food-safe molds for chocolate confections.
Sand making machine which is also called crushing machine has the wide application, which is used for crushing medium and excessive hardness material such as granite, basalt, limestone, quartz, gneiss, cement clinker, concrete aggregate, ceramic raw materials, iron ore, gold, copper, corundum, bauxite, silica and so on. Sand making machine also can apply to the crushing operations of the great artificial sand material, pre-grinding cement, mining, refractories and so on.
Sand making machine is used to crush and reshape the material of softness, hardness and excessive hardness in the industries of all kinds of mining stone, cement, refractories, Aluminum where the soil clinker, emery, glass raw materials, mechanisms built stone gold slag, especially for silicon carbide, silicon carbide, sintered bauxite, sand US high-hard, special hard and corrosion-resistant materials, whose output is much higher than other mining sand maker.
The material from feeding hopper enters into sand making machine, which can be divided into two parts by sub-feeder, one part enters the high-speed rotating impeller from the middle place of impact crusher, and then the impeller can be rapidly accelerated whose speed can reach up to hundreds of times of the gravitational acceleration, and the material must be far away from channel of the impeller in a speed of 60-70m/s. those materials which is being crushed in the cabinet so many times can reach the purpose of fine crushing at last. And those crushed material is discharged from discharging part. In this crushing operation, the material is crushed by each other, which is not connecting with the metal, which can decrease the pollution and then prolong the service life of mining machine.
Model specification Max.feeding size mm Power kw Rotation speedof impeller r/min Capacity t/h Overall dimension LWH mm HX-06 35 2P 37-55KW 2000-3000 12-30 250016202600 HX-07 45 4P 55-75KW 1500-2500 25-55 270017602800 HX-09 50 4P 110-150KW 1200-2000 55-100 390020003070 HX-10 60 4P 150-180KW 1000-1700 100-160 460023503450 Model HXVSI-7611 HXVSI-8518 HXVSI-9526 HXVSI-1140 HXVSI-1145 HXVSI-1150 Capacity (t/h) Feedboth atcenter andsides 120-180 200-260 300-380 450-520 500-610 520-650 Feedat center 60-90 100-130 150-190 225-260 245-355 255-365 Max.feeding sizemm Soft material 35 40 45 50 50 50 Hard material 30 35 40 40 45 45 Rotation speed r/min 1700-1890 1520-1690 1360-1510 1180-1310 1150-1300 1150-1300 DoubleMotor powerkw 4P 110 4P 180 4P 264 4P 400 4P 400 4P 500 Overalldimension LWHmm 370021502100 414022802425 456024472778 510027003300 550027003300 550027003300 Powersupply 380V50HZ Lubrication station Double motor powerof oilpump 20.31Kw Safety assuance Doubleoilpumpsassureenoughoilsupply:automatic switchoffwithnooilstreamorpressure,watercooling insummer,motorheatingstare-upinwinter. Overall dimension LWH mm 8205201270 Powerofoil tankheater 2KW
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