secondary crush and gold

secondary & tertiary crushing circuits

In this sectoron Secondary and Tertiary crushing, we will continue the practice of talkingabout different equipment, the work it does, and the effects of what I call operating variables. These variables are anything that affect the performance of the equipment.

Lets begin with an over view of these two crushing stages. Then describe various flow sheets, and discuss the variables that influenced their design. After the whys have been given we will discuss the equipment and the operating techniques required to operate a modern crushing plant. The two major variables that determine the size of the crusher and the design of the flow-sheet are the tonnage through put required and the hardness of the ore. The tonnage will be determined by economic factors, namely what tonnage is required to make the mine profitable? The hardness of the ore is determined by what is known as the WORK INDEX. This measurement is determined by the resistance of the ore to breakage. It is discovered by the energy output required to reduce the ore to a specific predetermined size. It is measured by the KILOWATT PER HOUR usage of electricity required. Lets start with a very simple flow sheet. This one is designed for very soft rock, or where the product size isnt important.

The feed comes from the primary crusher and will have a certain amount of rock that doesnt need further crushing. To run this ore through the crusher will be a waste of energy and crushing space. Ideally it should be removed.

To remove it requires a procedure called SCALPING. This is when the ore is allowed to flow over a set of SCREENS or GRIZZLIES. The large ore wont be able to pass through the mesh, but the fine material will, this effectively separates the two sizes.

The ore is a little harder and the sizing more critical however, this means the positioning of the equipment has to change a little. The ore is still discharged from the primary crusher to the scalping equipment. For this type of application this is usually a screen. Again the fine material is removed from the circuit while the course gets crushed. But now, instead of continuing, the crushed product is directed back to the screen for further sizing. Any rock that isnt small enough will have to go through the crusher once more. Designing the circuit this way insures that the crushed rock has a uniform size.

Just for interest sake, the first circuit we looked at is called an OPEN CIRCUIT. This is because of the constant forward movement of ore. The second one is referred to as a closed circuit. That is because the ore must meet the circuits objective, in this case the correct size, before it is allowed to escape the closed loop of the crushing circuit.

Our last schematic represents a CLOSED CIRCUIT. This one involves both SECONDARY and TERTIARY crushing. This circuit is employed where either the tonnage or the work index of the ore is high enough to require that the crushing be done in stages.

Again the ore will come from a Primary crusher and be scalped. The coarse material will be crushed by the secondary crusher. The fines will be taken out of the circuit. Once the secondary has finished with the ore it will be reclassified by a second set of screens with the oversize going to the tertiary crusher. The discharge of the tertiary is reintroduced to the screen deck to ensure that the ore size is uniform. These three schematics are samples of crushing circuits. There are many other varieties, each one dictated by the requirements of the ore, and the economics involved. Although each mine has its own individual problems, and the resulting unique design, they do usually have one thing in common. Almost all secondary and tertiary crushing circuits use the same type of crusher, the cone crusher.

what is the gold standard?

The gold standard is a currency measurement system that uses gold as a way to set the value of money. It ensures that currency under a gold-standard system can be exchanged for gold. The gold standard signifies an agreement between society and its monetary institutions that the currency they spend and earn is a stand-in for gold.

When you put $20 down on a blackjack table in Las Vegas or use your loose change to feed the parking meter downtown, you're using a currency that we all agree is valuable. When the gold standard is in play, the U.S. government agrees that if you want to trade in that $20 bill or those four quarters for gold, you can. That's how the gold standard works.

Gold has been used as the currency of choice throughout history. The earliest known use was in 600 B.C. in Lydia, which is in present-day Turkey. Some societies have used gold coins to trade for goods and services. Most of the time, paper and coin currency that are easy to move around have been the agreed-upon equivalent of gold in monetary systems where the gold standard is used.

In 1861, the first U.S. paper currency was printed. The Gold Standard Act of 1900 established gold as the only metal for redeeming paper currency. It guaranteed that the government would redeem any amount of paper money for its value in gold, and meant transactions no longer had to be done with heavy gold bullion or coins since paper currency now had guaranteed valued tied to something real.

In 1913, Congress created theFederal Reserveto stabilize gold and currency values in the U.S. WhenWorld War Ibroke out, the U.S. and European countries suspended the gold standard so they could print enough money to pay for their military involvement.

After the war, countries realized they didn't need to tie their currency to gold, and that it may in fact be harming the world economy to do so. Countries began leaving the gold standard en masse by the 1930s.

Once the stock market crashed in 1929 and the Great Depression hit, investors began trading in currencies and commodities. As the price of gold rose, people exchanged their dollars for gold. It worsened when banks began failing, as people began hoarding gold because they didn't trust any financial institution.

On March 6, 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt closed the banks in response to a run on the gold reserves at the Federal Reserve. By the time banks re-opened on March 13, they had turned in all their gold to the Federal Reserve. They could no longer redeem dollars for gold, and no one could export gold.

On April 20, FDR ordered Americans to turn in their gold in exchange for dollars to prohibit the hoarding of gold and the redemption of gold by other countries. This created the gold reserves at Fort Knox. The U.S. soon held the world's largest supply of gold.

Because the U.S. held a majority of the world's gold, most countries pegged the value of their currency to the dollar instead of gold. As a result, most countries no longer needed to exchange their currency for gold, as the dollar had replaced it.

The longer has enough gold at current rates to pay off its debt owed to foreign investors. Even when gold hit its peak price of $1,896 an ounce in September 2011, there wasn't enough gold for the U.S. to pay off its debt.

As the U.S. economy prospered, Americans bought more imported goods and paid in dollars. This large balance of payments deficit worried foreign governments that the U.S. would no longer back up the dollar in gold.

Also, the Soviet Union had become a large oil producer. It was accumulating U.S. dollars in its foreign reserves since oil is priced in dollars. The Soviet Union deposited its dollar reserves in European banks, and these became known as eurodollars.

By the 1970s, the United States stockpile of gold declined. Double-digit inflation reduced the eurodollar's value, and more and more banks started redeeming their holdings for gold. The U.S. could no longer meet this growing obligation.

Once the gold standard was dropped, countries began printing more of their own currency, which resulted in inflation but also more economic growth. Although there are advocates for a return to the gold standard, it appears unlikely that those days will return. Economists regard the gold standard as necessary during its time, but no longer applicable in the modern world economy.

Discouragesinflation and debt: Inflation happens when too much money chases too few goods. The gold standard also discourages governmentbudget deficitsand debt, which can't exceed the supply of gold.

Rewards productive nations: If a country receives gold when theyexport, they have more gold in their reserves. This means they can print more money, in turn boosting investment in their profitable export businesses. The gold standard spurred exploration also prompted the Gold Rush in California and Alaska during the 1800s.

A country's economy is dependent upon its supply of gold: The economy isnot reliant on the resourcefulness of its people and businesses. Countries without any gold are at acompetitive disadvantage.The U.S. never had that problem. It was the world's second-largest gold mining country after Australia. Most gold mining in the U.S. occurs on federally owned lands in 12 western states.

Countriesfixate on keeping their gold: Countries worried about gold tend to ignore the more important task ofimproving the business climate. During theGreat Depression, theFederal Reserveraised interest rates. It wantedto make dollars more valuable and prevent people from demanding gold, but it should have been lowering rates to stimulate the economy.

rock crushers for commercial gold mining operations

Rock crushers usually hold the rocks to be crushed in between two solid surfaces and apply a force that forces the molecule of the materials to separate or change alignment. Rock crushers are extensively applied in the mining sector where rocks containing the ore are crushed before the mineral is extracted.

In most cases, mining operations may have more than one crusher depending on the desired outcome of the crushing process. The primary crusher handles course rocks while the secondary, tertiary and sometimes the quaternary works on finer gradations that can allow for effective extraction of minerals.

Unlike the alluvial gold found in river beds, most of the gold mined underground is found in hard rocks that contain a lot of other materials. To get pure gold from these gold-bearing rocks has to be processed. The first stage is to crush the rocks to smaller fine gravels that will allow for gold molecules to be extracted.

The crushing of gold-bearing rocks is not as easy as it may seem. This is because the rocks have to be crushed to very fine gravels that can allow for gold molecules to be dissolved in mercury or any other chemical used to extract gold from the ore. What this means is that in large scale mining the mines may have more than one crusher (primary, secondary and tertiary crushers) in order to achieve the desired crushing levels.

This type of rock crusher employs the compressive force to break up larger rocks into smaller pieces. The crusher has two vertical jaws; a fixed jaw and a swing jaw. The rocks to be crushed are filled into the crushing chamber (the gap between the two jaws) and then a weighted flywheel is used to create an eccentric motion in the swing jaw to provide the required inertia to crush the rocks.

Jew crushers are designed to be heavy duty machines used as the primary crushers in many mining operations. Because of this, the crushers are robustly constructed. The outer shell of the crusher is made from strong steel or cast iron while the jaws are fashioned from hardened cast iron with a Ni-hard or manganese steel removable lining.

Dodge crushers are designed with the swing jaw fixed at the lower end enabling material to be crushed progressively as they move down the crushing chamber. Dodge crusher as more effective in crushing tough and abrasive rocks.

The gyratory crusher works on the same principle as the jaw crusher but has a conical head and a concave surface. The crushing chamber is lined with a hardened manganese steel material. The rock crushing is caused by a circular movement in the crushing surface and the materials are progressively crushed until they are of a smaller size that can fall off the narrow end of the chamber. The gyratory crusher is often used as either primary or secondary crusher in many mining operations as it delivers sufficient force to crush large ore bearing rocks.

The cone crusher is the most widely used crusher in mining operation across the world. The crusher is designed in a similar fashion as the gyratory crusher but the crushing chamber is less steep with the sides near parallel.

Crushing is done by a gyrating spindle as the rocks move from the wider upper section until they are small enough to fall off the lower narrow opening. Cone crushers are perfect for hard to mid hard ore bearing rocks and are highly productive making it perfect for use in crushing intensive mines. There four major types of Cone Crushers

The Symons cone crusher is widely used to crush medium harness to very hard rocks. Its size allows it to be used as a secondary or tertiary crusher in mining operations and as a mobile crusher in building and construction and chemical industries.

As the name suggests a single cylinder hydraulic cone is made up of a single crushing cone, a hydraulic control system, an eccentric shaft, bowl liner, adjusting sleeve and a hydraulic safety system. It is perfect as a secondary or a tertiary crusher in mining.

Impact crushers do not use pressure to crush rocks but rather employ impact. The material is placed in a cage where an impact is used to crush them. The cage has narrow openings to allow crushed rocks of the right size to escape. There are two major types of impact crushers:

historical gold prices: 30 bce to today

Gold has been considered precious throughout history, but it wasn't used for money until around 550 BCE. Atfirst, people carried around gold or silver coins. If they found gold, they could get their government to make tradable coins out of it. Because of its value and its usefulness as currency, the evolving value of gold can be traced back as far as 30 BCE.

The next re-evaluation occurredin the period of 211 to 217 CE, during the reign of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, whodebased the value to 50 coins for a pound of gold, reducing the value ofeach coin and making gold worth more. From 284 CE to 305 CE, Diocletianfurther debased gold to 60 coins per pound.

These emperors lowered the value of the currency so much that it created hyperinflation. To illustrate, in 301 CE, one pound of gold was worth 50,000 denarii, which is another coin based on silver. By 337 CE, it was worth 20milliondenarii.

The history of the gold standardin the United States began in 1900. The Gold Standard Act established gold as the only metal for redeeming paper currency. It set the value of gold at $20.67 per ounce.

Great Britain kept gold at 4.25 pounds per ounce until the1944 Bretton-Woods Agreement. That's when mostdeveloped countriesagreed to fix their currencies against theU.S. dollar,because the United Statesowned 75% of the world's gold.

Before theGold Standard Act, the United States used the British gold standard. In 1791, it set the price of gold at $19.49 per ounce but also used silver to redeem currency. In 1834, it raised the price of gold to $20.69 per ounce.

Defense of the gold standardhelped cause theGreat Depression. A recession began in August 1929 after theFederal Reservehad raisedinterest ratesin 1928.After the1929 stock market crash, many investors started redeeming paper currency for its value in gold.

TheU.S. Treasuryworriedthat the United States might run out of gold. It asked the Federal Reserveto raise rates again. The rise in rates increased thevalue of the dollarand made it more valuable than gold. This approach worked in 1931.

Higher interest rates made loans too expensive, which forced many companies out of business. They also causeddeflation, since a stronger dollar could buy more with less. Companies cut costs to keep prices low and remain competitive. That further worsenedunemployment,which turned therecessioninto adepression.

In 1937, FDR cut government spending to reduce thedeficit, which reignited the Depression. By that time, the government stockpile of gold had tripled to $12 billion. It was held at the U.S. Bullion Reserves atFort Knox, Kentucky, and at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

In 1971,President Nixontold the Fed to stop honoring the dollar's value in gold. That meant foreign central banks no longer could exchange their dollars for U.S. gold, essentially taking the dollar off the gold standard. Nixon was trying to endstagflation, a combination ofinflationand recession. However, inflation was caused by the risingpower of the dollar, as it had replaced theBritish sterlingas a global currency by then.

By 1980, traders had bid the price of gold up to $594.92 as ahedgeagainst double-digit inflation. The Fed ended inflation with double-digit interest rates but caused a recession. Gold dropped to $410 per ounce and remained in that general trading range until 1996, when it dropped to $288 per ounce in response to steady economic growth.

secondary crushing equipment

The term secondary crushing has become well established and familiar through long usage; it applies to the crushing stage, either single or multiple, which follows immediately after the primary crusher, taking all or a portion of the product of the primary crushing stage as its feed. The term should not be used, as it sometimes is, to designate a particular type or size of crusher because any type and size might conceivably be used for secondary crushing. A very large number of secondary crushers in our present-day plants were originally primary crushers in those same plants. Secondary and second-stage are synonymous, and are equally good and descriptive definitions.

The termtertiary has been used rather extensively in recent years to cover not only third-stage crushers, but in a more general sense to delineate any and all crushers in the reduction and fine-reduction classes; a use which certainly takes liberties with the intent of the word. It is a legitimate term as applied strictly to a third stage of reduction, just as quaternary may be used to designate a fourth stage. Our own preference is to designate these successive reductions as third-stage, fourth-stage, and so on, and to identify the crushers themselves by the titles which usage has conferred upon them.

Reduction-crushers and reduction-crushing, through the same authority of common usage, have been narrowed from the broad scope of their definitions to delineate reductions in the intermediate sizes of product, loosely in the range between 3 and 1 screen sizes. Fine-reduction, in the same fashion, has come to cover the production of sizes in the range below 1, approximately. More recently still, the fine crusher has been introduced to extend the application of the gyratory type down into that borderland between crushing and grinding formerly monopolized by the crushing rolls and the hammermill.

The simplest form of secondary crushing stage involves a single crusher, taking its feed by gravity flow direct from the primary with no interposed scalping separation. This is tantamount to making the over-all reduction in one machine, except of course that there will always be a certain amount of surge capacity between the two crushers. This type of installation has been used in a number of plants, starting with the advent of the power shovel and the large primary crusher, many of which were tacked on to existing plants during the conversion from hand-loading to shovel-loading operation. Probably the most notable of such installations were those of the first jaw crushers of the 84 class. These big machines were designed to operate at rather coarse discharge settings, usually from 10 to 12, and the usual practice was to follow them with gyratory crushers such as the No. 9 (21) or No. 10 (24), the over-all ratio-of-reduction for the two machines being 14 or 15 to 1.

The simple two-crusher, screenless arrangement works out fairly well for the large sizes of primary jaw crushers if the quarry-run rock is reasonably clean, or if any fine material which may be present in the feed is free flowing. The arrangement is not advisable under any circumstances if the setting of the secondary crusher is to be less than about 5 in.; for finer settings than this the fines produced through the two stages are apt to promote a sluggish action in the secondary machine, which might under certain conditions build up to a complete choke in this stage.

So far as the commercial crushed stone plant is concerned the method violates the well established and very desirable principle of scalping off fines between all crushing stages in order to minimize further production of fines by attrition. The safest practice in all cases is to scalp between the primary and secondary stages regardless of the sizes of crushers used or their discharge settings. A plain grizzly is better than nothing; a modern heavy- duty vibrating screen is the ideal heavy-duty scalper.

The capacity of the secondary crushing stage need not necessarily match that of the primary crusher; more often than not it can be substantially less, for reasons outlined in the preceding section. It must of course be adequate to handle its share of the total plant capacity. How much its capacity should exceed the average plant capacity will depend upon how the job is engineered. If the installation is of the simple one-two variety we have just described, and very little surge capacity is provided between the two stages, the capacity of the secondary stage should at least equal that of the primary; otherwise the quarry equipment may be held up at times, waiting on the secondary crushing stage to clear itself. If, on the other hand, an adequate surge is provided to take care of the inevitable fluctuations in feed-rate to the primary, the capacity of the secondary stage may he predicated on requirements of the succeeding stages. This presupposes that the secondary machine or machines will be large enough to eliminate delays due to bridging or blocking of the feed from the primary.

If scalping between the two stages .is resorted to, the rating of the secondary stage may be reduced by whatever amount of undersize material is to be removed from the product of the primary. This can be determined within reasonably close limits by means of the product-gradation curves we have presented. In making this calculation it should be remembered that the scalping screen, regardless of type or size, will not remove all of the undersize. From 85 to 90% efficiency is the usual range, therefore the 10 or 15% undersize which will be carried over must be added to the theoretical tonnage, as figured from the curves, in arriving at the estimated feed to the secondary stage.

Once the required capacity for the secondary stage has been determined, it may be checked against tabulated ratings, at the desired discharge setting, for the type of crusher being considered for the stage. In making this check it should be remembered that capacity tables, while they are prepared on a conservative basis, are predicated upon a uniform rate of feed; and upon the assumption that the crusher is in first-class condition.

If for any reason it is expected that the feed rate will not be uniform, adequate allowance should be made for whatever degree of fluctuation is anticipated, just as was suggested for the primary crusher. Also, inasmuch as it is to be expected that some drop in efficiency of the crushers will occur from time to time because of mechanical conditions, some allowanceshould be made for this, regardless of whether or not the feed rate will be uniform. From 10 to 15% will be sufficient for this in a properly maintained plant.

Surge storage between the primary and secondary stages, while always theoretically desirable, may not always be practicable or economical. The product of the very large sizes of jaw crusher, for example, may be so coarse and slabby that it would be exceedingly difficult to handle through a surge bin or on mechanical feeders of reasonable size and cost. Therefore, where these large jaw crushers comprise the primary stage, it is generally best to consider the two stages as a unit and to match their capacities closely enough so that the material can be kept on the move; providing only a small open surge space between them. Then, if surge storage is desired it may be incorporated in the flow line after the secondary stage. The product of the largest sizes of gyratory crushers can be handled satisfactorily through storage.

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