spirals or impact forces on shaking tables. Spirals consist of a vertical spiral channel with an oval cross section. As the pulp flows from the top to the bottom of the channel, heavier particles concentrate on the inner side of the stream, where they can be removed through special openings.
Chun-hua Gao, Xiao-bo Yuan, "Development of the Shaking Table and Array System Technology in China", Advances in Civil Engineering, vol. 2019, Article ID 8167684, 10 pages, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8167684
Shaking table is important experimental equipment to carry out antiseismic research. Research, conclusion, comparison, and analysis concerning the developmental history, constructional situation, performance index, control algorithm, and experimental technique of the internal shaking table were reviewed and compared. Such functional parameters as internal shaking tables table-board size, bearing capacity, working frequency, and maximum acceleration were given. Shaking tables constructional status quo and developmental trend were concluded. The advantages and disadvantages of different control algorithms were contrastively analyzed. Typical shaking table test, array system tests, and experimental simulation materials were induced and contrasted. Internal existing shaking table and array system tests structural type, reduced scale, and model-material selection were provided. Analysis and exposition about the developmental tendency of shaking tables enlargement, multiple shaking tables array, full digitalization, and network control were made. The developmental direction, comparison of technical features, and relevant research status quo of shaking table with high-performance were offered. The result can be reference for domestic or overseas shaking tables design and type selection, control technique, and research on experimental technique.
At present, the structural seismic research methods include the pseudostatic test, pseudodynamic test, and shaking table test. The test method of the shaking table test can recreate the structural response and seismic oscillation in the lab accurately and reproduce the whole process of seismic oscillation effect or artificial effect in real time. The development of shaking table provides an accurate and effective way to study structural elastic-plastic seismic response .
Japan and the United States are the first two countries to establish shaking tables in the world. And, China initially built a shaking table in 1960  when Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, built one-way horizontal vibration  with a specimen size of 12m3.3m. So far in China, there are a lot of shaking tables ; some were made in China, some were systematically remodeled from imported parts, and some were totally imported. In recent years, many scholars [8, 9] and Wang et al.  conducted abundant research on the development and control technology of Chinas shaking tables and also got some research achievements. However, such results are mostly summaries of the test technologies or control technologies of shaking table , while there are few summaries concerning the construction history and usage of domestic shaking tables. This paper makes a comprehensive summary of the development and application of domestic shaking tables and array test technologies in terms of the development, control technology, test application, and development trend of shaking table and array system based on current collected information, so as to provide some reference and basis for the construction and development of domestic shaking table.
The development of shaking table in China came relatively late [1, 3, 1114]. It can be roughly divided into four stages. In 1960s, the mechanical shaking table was the main stream with a working frequency of 1Hz40Hz, of which the characteristics of the specimens in low segment are difficult to be controlled [2, 10, 11]. Electrohydraulic shaking table was then rapidly developed with its high frequency. In 1966, departments of machinery and electronics collaborated with each other to build Chinas first exclusive shaking table for national system of defense in three years [2, 10, 13]. Thereafter, many domestic colleges and universities as well as scientific research institutes also begun to conduct researches. For example, Tongji University brought in the 4m4m two-horizontal dimensional identically dynamic electrohydraulic shaking table developed by American MTS, which has been transformed into three- to six-degree-of-freedom identically dynamic shaking table . At the beginning of the 70s, the research on shaking table in China was continuously carried out and quickly developed. Our country also started to develop one-way electrohydraulic servo shaking table but rarely hooked into multiaxis shaking table . And, foreign shaking tables were introduced only when the test was demanding, so the introduction quantity of shaking tables was sharply decreased. Domestic institutes that conduct researches on shaking table mainly include China Academy of Building Research, Xian Jiaotong University, HIT (Harbin Institute of Technology), Institute of Engineering Mechanics, and Tianshui Hongshan Testing Machine Co., Ltd. [21, 22]. The shaking table construction situation in China is shown in Table 1.
The work frequency of electrohydraulic shaking table in the early stage of our country was about 50Hz. At present, at home and abroad, the work frequency of high-thrust shaking table with over 50t can reach more than 1000Hz. For instance, the work frequency of Y2T.10c shaking table developed by 303 Research Institute of China Aviation Industry Corporation is as high as 1000Hz, and the wide band random vibration control precision is 2.0dB  within the frequency range of 20Hz1000Hz.
In 2006, Beijing University of Technology built a nine-sub-building block array system with a size of 1m1m, which along with the original 3m3m single-array system composed the 10-subarray system, which can be used to constitute testing systems with any several subarray systems and many optional positions; at the end of 2006, Institute of Electro-Hydraulic Servo Simulation and Test System of Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT) developed successfully the first domestic multiaxis independent intellectual property rights (the hydraulic vibration test system with shaking table system is shown in Figure 1) and got identification, which changed the history of depending on importing shaking tables . In 2012, Jiangsu Suzhou Dongling Vibration Test Instrument Co., Ltd. successfully developed the worlds largest single electromagnetic shaking table test system (http://www.cnki.net/kcms/detail/11.2068.TU.20130124.1608.001.html) with a thrust of 50 tons.
With the 9-subarray system of Beijing University of Technology as an example, this paper introduces the construction situation of shaking table array system. In 2003, The State University of New York built the first set of two-subarray systems. In the same year, the University of Nevada-Reno built the three-subarray system with three movable two-direction shaking tables. The size of the table and the maximum bearing capacity of the shaking table are introduced. The array system (shown in Figure 3) is suitable for experimental research on spindly space structure.
In 2004, Chongqing Jiaotong Institute of our country completed the constitution of the two-subarray system with a specimen size of 6m3m, of which one is fixed and the other is movable (shown in Figure 4). And, in 2008, National Key Laboratory of Bridge Dynamics was established.
In 2011, Beijing University of Technology began to prepare to construct nine-subarray system (shown in Figure 5) and has built 12 sets of actuator building block array systems till 2006, which was increased to 16 sets in 2009 and is now the array system with the largest number of single-array system in the world. Each single shaking table is composed by mesa, 5 connecting rods, a vibrator, and a base. The array system can be made into various combinations by 16 sets of vibrators and connecting rods to conduct varied shaking table array tests with different layouts and forms. The performance indicators of nine-subarray system are shown in Table 2. The system uses four piston pumps to offer oil. The rated oil supply pressure of the seismic simulated shaking table system is the same as the maximum oil supply pressure. In addition to 4 oil pumps, the system also has energy storage to supplement the oil supply when the oil supply of the oil supply pump is insufficient.
There are two main types of traditional shaking table control technology: one is PID control based on displacement control and the other is three-parameter feedback control (also known as the three-state feedback control) synthesized by the displacement, velocity, and acceleration . It is essential for feedback theory to adjust the system after making the right measurement and comparison. In 1950, the PID control method mainly composed of unit P proportion, integral unit I, and differential unit D was developed. The traditional PID control method is simple in control algorithm, good in stability, and high in reliability and thus has been widely applied in the practical engineering. The PID control method is especially suitable for deterministic control system. Yet, as the target signal of shaking table is acceleration signal, high-frequency control performance is poorer when the displacement PID control is adopted, while the mesa cannot be located if acceleration PID is used. Meanwhile, in the process of control, nonlinear behavior exists in every specimen; thus, the effect of traditional PID control is not ideal due to the large waveform distortion [24, 2629]. As the structure sets higher requirement for control accuracy, three-parameter feedback control synthesized by the displacement, velocity, and acceleration was put forward in 1970s (the control principle is shown in Figure 6), which makes up for the narrow frequency band and the inability to realize acceleration control of single displacement control. Acceleration feedback can improve the system damping, and velocity feedback can improve the oil column resonance frequency. Adopting the displacement to control low frequency, speed to control midfrequency, and acceleration to control high frequency plays an important role in improving the dynamic behavior and bandwidth of the system. The introduction of three-parameter control technology greatly improved the playback accuracy of seismic time history, but due to the complexity of transfer function in the system, the correlation of input and output waveform is still not high. Power spectrum emersion control algorithm modifies drive spectrum utilizing system impedance and the deviation of the reference spectrum and the control spectrum, so as to get a relative high consistency of response spectrum and reference spectrum of the system [30, 31]. Power spectrum retrieval principle diagram is shown in Figure 7. This method belongs to the nonparametric method, which has nothing to do with any model parameters. But the matching degree of estimated power spectral density and real power spectral density is very low, so it is an estimation method with low resolution.
Another kind of the parametric estimation method, using the parameterized model, can give a much higher frequency resolution than period gram methods. The power spectrum control method based on the parameter model has high resolution and can improve the system control convergence speed and power spectrum estimation precision, yet it is sensitive to noise with higher computation requirements. Therefore, in the vibration test control, it has not reached practical stage .
The traditional control algorithm is based on the linear model of vibration table and specimen , and the parameters in the process of test are assumed unchanged, but the actual test object is very complex. The components experience elastic-plastic phase and then the failure stage in the process of the test, and the parameters that were assumed to be unchanged turn out to have been changed in the process of test. The change of the parameters influences the accuracy of the input seismic signal, which is the biggest defect in the traditional control technology. From the 1970s to 80s, intelligent control is a new theory and technology with strong control ability and great fault tolerance. The introduction of the adaptive control improved the robustness and control precision of the system, such as adaptive harmonic control theory (AHC), adaptive inverse function control theory (AIC), and the minimum control algorithm (MCS) . At present, the fuzzy control algorithm of the structure control attracted the attention of more and more scholars with its advantages of powerful knowledge expression ability, simple operational method, and the adoption of fuzzy language to describe the dynamic characteristics of the system. As early as 1996, some scholars abroad has carried out the induction and comparison of structural seismic control methods and summarized the advantages and disadvantages of various control methods, particularly expounding that the fuzzy control and neural network control algorithm could better solve the problem of nonlinear. The application of domestic intelligent control algorithm in the engineering structure control is relatively late. In 2000, Ou  and other scholars proposed the control algorithm which can realize fuzzy control according to the control rules and fuzzy subset, which greatly improved the practicability and efficiency of fuzzy control algorithm.
Most of the fuzzy control rules are established based on experience, leading to great difficulty in structure control. In view of this, Wang and Ou , in 2001, put forward the method of extraction, optimization, and generation of fuzzy control rules with the basis of structural vibration fuzzy modeling and genetic algorithm. Qu and Qiu  came up with a kind of active feed forward control method based on adaptive fuzzy logic system method, which better solved the nonlinear control problems of reference signal and external interference in the feedforward control. Wang  for flexible structure completed the application of the fuzzy PID control method in the structural vibration and conducted the active control experimental verification of beam vibration.
The efficiency of fuzzy control depends on the selection of function parameters and the establishment of the fuzzy control rules. Therefore, the adaptive fuzzy control is of great research significance for the nonlinear structure system. Because of the functions of self-adaptation and self-study of artificial neural network, the application of neural network in seismic control in civil engineering began in the 60s, which adopts a simple neural network controller to control the movement of the inverted pendulum, and achieved good effect. In 2003, Mo and Sun  implemented numerical simulation of active vibration control on the beam vibration control model by using genetic algorithm with the minimum energy storage structure as the goal, compared with the exhaustive method, and achieved good control effect. Chen and Gu  carried out simulation research on the application of frequency adaptive control algorithm based on the least square method in the domain of vibration control, and the simulation got the damping effect of about 50db. Li and Mao  achieved evolutionary adaptive filtering algorithm with strong instantaneity and applied it into the vibration control of structures to conduct simulation calculation based on genetic algorithm and moving least mean square algorithm of transient step, and the simulation obtained the damping effect of about 30db.
To solve the limit bearing capacity of shaking table for large structure test, scholars from all over the world conducted a wide variety of researches. The combination of substructure technique and shaking table test is an effective way to solve this problem . Hybrid vibration test divides the structure into test substructure and numerical substructure. Test substructure is the complex part in experiment on shaking table, while numerical substructure is the simple part to carry out numerically simulation. Test substructure can carry out full-scale or large-scale model test, avoiding the influence of the size limit of shaking table with large-scale structure, and thus was widely used in the study of the engineering seismic test. The domestic researchers Chen and Bai  implemented preliminary exploration into structural seismic hybrid test technique on account of the condensation technology. In 2008, Chen and Bai  also embarked on the hybrid vibration test on the hybrid structural system of commercial and residential buildings, of which the bottom commercial district was put into a full-scale experiment on shaking table and other parts were involved in numerical simulation.
In 2007, Mr. Wu Bin from Harbin Institute of Technology applied the center difference method into the change of the acceleration calculation formula in hybrid real-time test which takes consideration of the quality of test substructure and analyzed the stability of the algorithm. The test results show that the stability of the center difference method in real-time substructure application is poorer than that of the standardized center difference method. Such scholars as Yang  in the same year made the numerical simulation analysis on the shaking test substructure test, and the analysis results show that the integral step change is sensitive to the influence of experimental stability. At the same time, he verified the validity of the theoretical research results.
In recent years, the structural styles of shaking table test research were developed from masonry structure, frame structure, tube structure to bridge structure, structures with the consideration of some isolation and damping measures, and structural foundation interaction experiment. The application of shaking table tests on the structure seismic resistance made it possible to establish structure nonlinear model with various structural styles . Many shaking table tests have been carried out in recent years in China, which, according to the testing purpose, can be roughly divided into three categories: the first type is to determine structural earthquake-resistance performance as the test purpose; the second type is to determine the dynamic characteristics of structure, obtain such dynamic parameters as the natural vibration period and damping of structure, seek for weak parts of the structure damage, and provide the basis for super high-rise and supergage designs; the third type is to verify the applicability of certain measure or design theory in the structure. This paper drew a conclusion of typical shaking table tests in recent years in terms of building types, model dimensions, and so on (shown in Table 3).
Shaking table experiment diversifies the structural styles in experiment, makes it possible to establish the nonlinear damage model, and provides a reliable basis for all kinds of structures to establish the corresponding destruction specification. But large span structure tests on bridges, pipes, aqueduct, transmission lines, and so on may produce traveling wave effect under the action of earthquake due to large span, and a single shaking table will not be able to simulate the real response of the whole structure under seismic action. Array system can better solve these problems. For example, the State University of New York-Buffalo did damper damping effect research on Greek Antiliweng Bridge using 2-subarray system; conducted shaking table array test research on two continuous steel plate girder bridge and concrete girder bridge by using the 3-subarray system of University of Nevada. Many domestic scholars also carried out shaking table array test research on different structures of array systems. For instance, in 2008, Gao Wenjun made shaking table array test research of organic glass model on Chongqing Chaotianmen Bridge with the 2-subarray system of Chongqing Traffic Academy; conducted a multipoint shaking table array test research on concrete-filled steel tubes arch bridge with the 9-subarray system in Beijing University of Technology.
According to the size of mesa, shaking tables can be divided into large, medium, and small ones; in general, specimen size less than 2m2m for the small, 6m6m for the medium, and over 10m10m for the large. Due to the size limitation of a small seismic simulation vibration table, it can only do small-scale tests, and there is a certain gap with the prototype test. In the seismic simulation vibration table test of scale model, all parameters are required to meet the similarity principle, but it is difficult to do in practical engineering. For some important structures, especially the important parts of large structures, to accurately reflect the dynamic characteristics of the structure, within the permitted scope of the condition of capital, it is necessary to increase the specimen size and the maximum load as much as possible to eliminate the size effect of the model, so the large full-scale test must be the development trend of shaking table. China Academy of Building Research developed a shaking table with a mesa dimension of 6.1m6.1m and the maximum model load of 80t.
Due to the great investment, high maintenance cost, and test fees as well as long production cycle of large-scale shaking table, infinite increase in size of shaking table is obviously unreasonable, and likewise, it is not possible to fully meet the actual requirements only by increasing the size of shaking table. For large-span structure tests on bridges, pipes, aqueduct, transmission line, and so on array systems composed of many sets of small shaking table can be adopted. Shaking table array can either conduct a single test or make seismic resistance test on the structure of large-scale, multidimensional, multipoint ground motion input with varied combinations according to various needs. Therefore, the array system composed of many sets of small shaking tables must be the development trend of shaking table.
In terms of control mode, power spectral density control was mostly adopted before 1975. After 1975, Huang Haohua and other scholars used the time-history playback control to finish the seismic wave control research in a broad band. In the mid-1990s, digital control and analog control are widely used in the shaking table control, of which digital control is mainly applied in the system signal and compensation and the analog control is the basis for the control, whose control mode is complicated in operation with too much manual adjustment. After 1990s, Fang Zhong and other scholars developed a full digital control technology which has been widely used in the hydraulic servo control system with the rapid development of digital technology. Other than the valve control device and feedback sensor which adopt analog circuits, the rest utilize digital software to fulfill implementation. This control method can make up for some flaws in the analog control with simple test operation, being able to improve the accuracy, reliability, and stability of the system. Full digital control is the inevitable development trend of hydraulic servo system control.
With the appearance of slender and shaped structures and the application of new materials in building engineering, the seismic test methods of structures are put forward with higher and higher requirements. To meet the requirements of actual engineering and seismic research, scholars from all over the world are active in exploration and attempt and put forward some new testing methods. In recent years, countries around the world greatly invest in seismic research. From 2000 to 2004, the United States Science Foundation Committee spent eighty million dollars of research funding on the NEES plan; Europe established a collaborative research system European Network to Reduce Earthquake Risk (ENSRM); South Korea established a virtual structure laboratory using grid technology, which includes the wind tunnel, the shaking table, and other scientific research equipment. Furthermore, Internet ISEE Earthquake Engineering Simulation System in Taiwan of China was the earthquake engineering research platform developed by National Earthquake Engineering Research Center of Taiwan, China, with the Internet. The platform not only allows several laboratories to interconnect each other to implement large-scale shaking table test but also permits different laboratory researchers around the world to observe the test simultaneously and synchronously.
In China, Hunan University firstly put forward the structure network synergy test research and cooperated with Vision Technology Co., Ltd in 2000 to develop the network structure laboratory (NetSLab is shown in Figure 8). The main module and interface are shown in Figure 8. Thereafter, Hunan University cooperated with Harbin Institute of Technology to accomplish secondary development to establish the network collaborative hybrid test system and conducted a structure remote collaborative test along with Tsinghua University, Harbin Institute of Technology. Three domestic universities firstly completed remote collaboration pseudodynamic test, which is shown in Figure 9.
This paper drew a conclusion of the construction, history, and status quo as well as application and research of shaking table and array. The main conclusions are as follows:(i)On account of factors of actual application demand and economy, the size of the shaking table is between 1m and Xm, among which 3m6m are the majority. For large span structures such as bridges and pipes many sets of small array mode of vibration table can be used.(ii)Shaking table mesa acceleration and speed are about and 80cm/s, respectively. Through statistics, the remarkable frequency of previous ground motion records is mainly within 0.1Hz30Hz, and the frequency range of medium shaking table should be in 0Hz50Hz according to the requirements of the similar rule. Moreover, tests with special requirements need to be above 100Hz.(iii)With the appearance of slender and shaped structures and the application of new materials in building engineering, the seismic test methods of structures are put forward with higher and higher requirements.
The authors acknowledge the support from the Science and Technology Breakthrough Project of the Science and Technology Department of Henan Province ( 9), the Key Scientific Research Projects in He Nan Province (No. 18B560009), and Nanhu Scholars Program for Young Scholars of XYNU in China. The authors thank Xin Yang Normal University School of Architecture and Civil Engineering Laboratory and would also like to thank teachers and students of the team for collecting data.
Copyright 2019 Chun-hua Gao and Xiao-bo Yuan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The shaking table is a gravity beneficiation equipment for selecting fine materials, such as the tin, tungsten, gold and silver, lead, zinc, antimony, bismuth, iron, manganese, ferrotitanium and coal, etc.
The shaking table is a gravity beneficiation equipment for selecting fine materials. When the gold shaking table in action, the effective particle size range of metal ore is 3~O. 019 mm. While it processes the coal, the upper limit granularity is 10mm. The outstanding advantage of the shaker is that the sorting precision is high, and high-grade concentrate or waste tailings can be obtained by one sorting, and multiple products can be taken out at the same time. Besides, the shaking table is easy to adjust.
Mining gold shaking table is a common mineral processing equipment for sorting fine ore. When the metal ore is processed, the effective particle size range is 3~O. 019 mm, the upper limit particle size can be up to 10 mm when coal is selected. The outstanding advantage of 6-S shaker is the high precision of sorting. High-grade concentrate or waste tailings can be obtained by one selection, and multiple products can be taken at the same time. The flat 6-S shaker is easy to handle and easy to adjust. The main disadvantage is that the equipment covers a large area and the processing capacity per unit of the factory area is low.
Shaking table is widely used in many industries, and can be used for rough selection and sweeping of materials. Its main materials are various metals and heavy metal materials such as gold, silver, zinc, tungsten, iron, manganese, lead, coal, etc. The size of coarse sand is 2-0.5mm, and the fine sand is 0.5-0.074mm. The effective recycling range of shaking table is 2-0.22mm when processing the tungsten, tin and other metal ore materials.
The gold shaking table is made up of table surface, main frame, transmission device and motor. Moreover, the gold shaking table will be armed with the water filling chute, feeding chute and engine base.
The motor of the shaking table drives the crankshaft to rotate the rocker through the belt and then moves up and down. When the rocker moves downward, the mineral material enters through the mining channel on the inclined surface. Shaker sink provides lateral impact water.
The material with different specific gravity, particle size, and density flushed with rinsing and will be selected and output from the concentrate mouth of shaking table, and the tailings mouth. Thus, the processed ore is the high-quality concentrate. However, because of the replacement of mining gold shaking table, FTM Machinery, as the gold shaking table supplier, had improved a lot in term of its throughput and accuracy.
4.After checking the installation connections, the empty shaking table runs for 1-2 hours to check whether the bed surface is running smoothly, whether the connection is loose, shaking or sliding, whether the lubrication is good, and 2whether the lateral slope adjustment is flexible and stable.
6.If there is no problem with empty shaking table, you can put the ore there. according to the ore transportation and zoning on the shanking table surface, adjusting the ore concentration and concentration, stroke, cross slope and flushing water volume, etc.
A Gold Shaking Table are basically low-capacity machines used as last step in the gold upgrading process. Theshakingtable is a thin film, shear flow process equipment, that separatesparticlegrains of its feed material based on thedifferences in their specific gravity, density, size and shape. Mineral rich particles, from light to heavy and fine to coarse will be sorted by net effective weight. Finely crushed or ground ore material goes as feed mixed with water to form a pulp (mud) andfed as slurry of an average about 2025% of solids by weight onto the highest point of the table deck. The gold tables deck hasa reciprocal movement along its main axis that is given using a vibrator or an eccentric head motion. The table surface is manufactured and fitted with several tapered strips called riffles or grooves, often made with of yellow pine (way back in time that is), low-density polythene or aluminum surfacing.Shaking tables and other thin film separating plant recover finely divided gold under conditions of subcritical laminar and supercritical laminar regimes of flow, which may occur only where there is a very thin depth of fluid.
Agold shaking tables riffles taper downwards in elevation in the direction the gold (and all heavies), precious metals concentrate discharge end of the table. This facilitates the ease with which mineral particles can move transversal to the tables axis or shaker-line, therefore helpingseparation over the complete tablelength. Riffle heights and pattern designs are selected based on the desired and required duty/function expected.
Preparing several size fractions for tabling is usually achieved in a hydrosizer. Ifgold is present in both coarse and finely divided sizings at least three, or perhapsfour separate size fractions must be treated, each under a different set of operatingconditions. Tables operate most efficiently with a closely sized feed. The slurry fansout across a smooth section of the surface until it reaches the riffles. The lighterand very fine particles are washed over the riffles and moved along the riffles by thereciprocating motion imparted to the deck while the heavier particles are held back. The concentrates of heavy mineral and gold are discharged over the end of thedeck. Tailings are washed over the lower edge and a middlings fraction is taken offbetween the lower edge of the concentrate strip and the higher edge of the tailingstrip.
Wash water usage is dependent upon the particle diameter and varies from aslow as 0.7 m/t/h of solids for slime decks, up to 56 m/t/h for coarse solidsseparation. Coarse fractions are usually treated at feed rates of up to 1 t/h using approximately 15 to 20 mm stroke lengths at around 280 rpm (Wilfley table data). Thestroke lengths of finer fractions are reduced to 915 mm with increased speeds ofup to 325 rpm but, because of the corresponding lower film, thickness capacitiesmay fall to around 0.25 t/h. The inclination of the deck is adjusted during operationusing a hand-operated tilting device. It is important following each adjustment toallow the table operation to settle down before making a fresh adjustment. The correct inclination is reached when the ribbon of concentrates is clearly defined andremains steady.
The extreme sensitivity of water depths and corresponding current depths to obtain F = 1, and the use of stationary tables as primary concentrating units, was probably the main reason for the consistently low (R.E. 6065%) gold recoveries of early dredgers. For such table types, the fluid forces are applied to the stream-beds as a whole and ripples form, which keep the sand in orbital motion and provide for the denser particles to sink to the bed. Deposition is most favoured by anti-dune conditions produced by free-surface flow at or near the supercritical state. Such bed forms are in phase with the water surface and are produced in the rapid flow conditions of Froude Number F = 1. In this state of flow, the bed forms of the upper flow regime are stable. Below F = 1 the flow is tranquil and shear forces are reduced. In reviewing recovery distributions of certaindredgers it wasnoted that some coarse gold reported with the tailing after passing through two stages of tabling and that fine gold did not concentrate noticeably down the line.
I consider the gold shaker table to be a shaking sluice box OR self cleaning sluice as they both essentially are classifiers used as heavy gold concentrating devices. Apart from nuggets; generally the valuable minerals like heavy precious metals like platinumandpalladium thatcan berecovered by tables and sluices, are found in one size range (generally the finest) and the waste minerals in another. On agold sluice, large particles (gravel) travel by sliding and rolling over the riffles, with finer particles travelling by saltation. Sand travels by a combination of modes described earlier with some saltation over the riffles.Very fine particles are maintained in suspension by turbulent and inter-particle collision.
Riffles function properly only if in the space between them and the slurry is sufficiently live (turbulent) to reject the lighter particles, but not so lively that the gold cannot settle. On a gold shaker table, those particles are allowed to settle as they will get transported to the other end by the vibrating/shaking back-and-forth motion. Lower grade, light pieces, will be able to escape the table a the riffles becomes shorter along the tables length.Once the particle has started to move, the coefficient of friction changes to a dynamic coefficient of friction. In fact, because the fluid push on the particles is larger at the top of the particle than at the bottom, the particle rolls, largely according to the shape of the particle and according to the speed. At low speeds, the effective friction is the relatively large coefficient of dynamic sliding friction, and at high speeds it is the lower coefficient of rolling friction. The change probably takes place partly continuously and partly discontinuously. As a first approximation, the dynamic coefficient of friction may, however, be regarded as constant.
In a sluice box, the settling of heavy minerals between the riffles requires frequent stirring to prevent the riffle spaces from blinding. This also disturbs the gold, which then moves progressively down-sluice. Frequent clean-ups are needed to avoid excessive loss. Boxes may be used in parallel to avoid loss of production time. One box is kept in operation while cleaning up in the other.
Effect of Deck Roughness: The foregoing analysis is based on the postulate that the deck is perfectly smooth. If the deck is rough, i.e., if it has at its surface some recesses capable of partly shielding fine particles from the rub of the fluid, the slope required to move the particles by either rolling or sliding will be increased. At the same time such an effect, while present also for large particles, may be so much smaller for them as to be imperceptible. The relationship of critical angle to size obtained above will therefore not hold for rough surfaces. The problem is analytically complex and it is nevertheless a problem that might well be explored further if a full insight is desired into the mechanism of flowing-film concentration.
Adjustments are provided in all tables for the amount of wash water, the cross tilt, the speed, and the length of the stroke. The speed of the table ranges usually from 180 to 270 strokes per minute, and the strokes are from 1/2 to 1 1/2 long.
Variations in character of feed require variations in operation. The operators duty is to take care of them by adjusting the tilt, the wash water, and the position of the splitters that control discharge of table into concentrate, middling, and tailing launders. One man may look after 10 to 100 tables, depending upon the regularity of the feed and the difficulty of the task assigned to the table.
A coarse feed can be treated in larger amounts than a fine feed. It would seem that the treatable tonnage increases at least as the square of the average size (theory indicates that it increases as the cube of the particle size).
A roughing operation is preferably conducted on a fully riffled deck. These decks have a greater capacity because the particles are treated throughout the deck in the form of a teetering suspension many particles deep instead of as a restive layer one particle deep. Such decks do not provide flowing-film concentration but some sort of jigging. On the other hand, a cleaning operation is preferably performed on a partly riffled deck.
It is clear that minerals of different specific gravity must be present the greater the spread in specific gravity between minerals, the greater the capacity since that sort of condition permits crowding without considerable penalty.
The effect of locked particles on capacity of tables should also be recognized. These particles behave in a fashion intermediate between that of pure particles of their constituent minerals. It is as if a three-product separation were sought in which one of the products would guide-in specific gravity between the two other.
Table capacity may be as high as 200 tons per 24 hr. on a fully riffled deck 4 by 12 ft. treating minus 3-mm. sulphide ore having a specific gravity of about 3.0 (roughing duty), or 500 tons per 24 hr. But table capacity may be as low as 5 tons per 24 hr., or even less, for fine ore (minus 0.3 mm.) if there is only a small specific-gravity differential between minerals.
Operating a shaking table is cheap as power requirement per table are typically low. Most of the energy is expended to move the deck, which must therefore be as light as is consistent with rigidity. Laboratory gold shaking table testingreport.
There are a few steps that need to be taken in order to get yourgold shaker table to work efficiently. The first step that aspiring gold miners must take would be to make sure that all four corners of the table are level from forward to back. It is very important to anchor the bolts so that the shaking of the gold goes to the table and not through the frame. After you begin running your table, you may need to adjust your table from side to side to maintain an even flow of materials on both sides of the table.
A gold shaker table contains a water access point where you can fill it with clean water, which can be seen right under the control area. Alternatively you can directly fill the tank of the shaker table with clean water. The water access point allows you to connect a clean water system through a garden hose. The valve that is right behind the tank is then turned off and the pump system is not running during the process of running fresh water. When clean washing water is distributed at the top of the table at right angles, particles are moved diagonally across the deck and separate from each other according to their size and density. During the fast shaking process, you will gradually begin to see the separation of materials. For example, when you have dirt and rocks that contain materials like lead, sulfides and gold, because of the varying weights of these different materials, you will see these materials venture off in different directions on the shaker table. The lead and the sulfides will be carried over to the right side of the table while the pure gold will be carried over to the far left side of the table.
There is one term to remember when professional gold miners describe the actions of a gold shaker table. When professional gold miners say that small particles of gold are being carried through the grooves, they are referring to the ripples that you can plainly see on the shaker table. When they say that there is an overflow of materials like Black Pyrrhotite, White Quartz, silver and gold on the grooves, then this is a good thing.
When materials are washed by the clean water they are supposed to drop into 3 hoppers/launders underneath the table. There is a centre launderthat will gather the purest portions of gold while the two outside launders will gather some gold, though not as much.
It is crucial to remember to plug the cable of your shaker table into a GFCI (Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter) outlet. Most shaker tables will not work if they are plugged into any other kind of outlet.
In aPercussion Gold Shaker Table,the work of keeping the pulp in a state of agitation, done by the rakes or brushes in the German and Cornish buddies described above, is affected by sudden blows or bumps imparted sideways or endways to the table. The table is made of wood or sheet metal, the surface being either smooth or riffled.
End-bump tables are hung by chains or in some similar manner, so as to be capable of limited movement, and receive a number of blows delivered on the upper end. These blows are given by cams acting through rods, or else the table is pushed forward against the action of strong springs by cams on a revolving shaft, and then being suddenly released is thrown back violently by the springs against a fixed horizontal beam. The movement of the pulp depends on the inertia of the particles, which are thrown backward up the inclined table by the blow given to the table, the amount of movement varying with their mass, and depending, therefore, both on their size and density. The vibrations produced by the percussion also perform the work of the rakes in destroying the cohesion between the particles, and a stream of water washes them down. The result is that the larger and heavier particles may be made to travel up the table in the direction in which theyare thrown by the blow, by regulating the quantity of water, while the smaller and lighter particles are carried down. These machines yield only two classes of material, headings and tailings. One such machine, the Gilpin County Gilt Edge Concentrator was devised in Colorado, and has displaced the blanket sluices atalmost all the mills at Blackhawk. It consists (Fig. 46) essentially of a cast-iron or copper table, 7 feet long and 3 feet wide, divided into two equal sections by a 4-inch square bumping-beam. The table has raised edges, and its inclination is about 4 inches in 5 feet at its lower end, the remaining 1 feet at the head having a somewhat steeper grade. The table is hung by iron rods to an iron frame, the length of the rods being altered by screw threads, so as to regulate the inclination to the required amount. A shaft with double cams, A, making 65 revolutions per minute, enables 130 blows per minute to be given to the table in the following manner; onbeing released by the cam, the table is forced forward by the strong spring, B, so that its head strikes against the solid beam,C, which is firmly united to the rest of the frame.
The pulp coming from the copper plates is fed on to the table near its upper end by a distributing box, D, and is spread out and kept in agitation by the rapid blows. Thesulphides settle to the bottom of the pulp, and are thrown forward by the shock, and eventually discharged over the head of the table at the left hand of the figure, while the gangue is carried down by the water and discharged at the other end. One machine is enough to concentrate the pulp from five stamps. If the table consists of amalgamated copper plates, it is of some use for catching free gold also, treating about 8 cwts. of ore per hour. This machine is not so effective in saving slimed pyrites as the Wilfley table or the vanners.
Gold shaker tables are environmentally friendly (chemical free) for recovering pure gold as they can play an important part in reducing the use of mercury by gold miners. With gold shaker tables miners dont need to resort to mercury amalgamation or cyanide to recover gold. The filter will constantly need to be removed and cleaned as it will get dirty even after using the table a few times.
Miners can design and construct a basic shaking table out of cheap materials that are affordable in local stores, including a drive mechanism that contains bicycle gears, chains and rubber bands that are made from car tire inner tubes. The drive mechanism for a gold shaker table can be a hand crank or it can contain parts of a motorcycle frame and engine. If one prefers to use a motor for his or her table, either an electric motor or a motor that runs on diesel fuel would be the ideal options.
It is important to keep in mind that there is no one specific way to create your own gold shaker table system. Many professional gold mining organizations will create tables of different shapes and sizes to cater to the needs of their customers. Some shaker table systems will feature machines that can crush hard rocks, which are referred to as jaw crushers. The speeds of shaker table systems will vary as they can shake from hundreds to thousands of pounds of materials per hour.
Applied material: tin, tungsten, gold, silver, lead, zinc, tantalum, niobium, titanium, manganese, iron ore, coal, etc. Advantages: high concentration ratio of dressing, convenient adjustment and easy to get obvious separation.
The shaking table beneficiation can not only be used as an independent beneficiation method, but also is often combined with methods such as jigging, flotation, magnetic separation by centrifugal concentrator, spiral classifier, spiral chute and other beneficiation equipment.
The shaking table is mainly used for the separation of copper, tungsten, tin, tantalum, niobium, chromium, gold and other rare metal and precious metal ores. In addition, it is widely used in the separation of iron, manganese ore and coal. Before flotation, it was also used in the dressing of nonferrous ores.
It can be used for different operations such as roughing, concentration, sweeping, etc., to separate coarse sand (2-0.5 mm), fine sand (0.5-0.074 mm), sludge (-0.074 mm) and sand with other different particle sizes. It is very effective equipment for selecting fine-grained materials below 1 mm, especially below 0.1 mm.
The bed surface can be made of wood, FRP (glass fiber reinforced plastic), metals (such as aluminum, cast iron) and other materials. Common shapes of the bed surface are rectangle, trapezoid and diamond.
There is a feeding chute on the upper right of the bed surface, the length of which is about 1/3~1/4 of the total length. There are many small holes on one side of the feeding chute, so that the slurry can be evenly distributed on the bed surface.
Connected to the feeding chute is the flushing tank, which accounts for 2/3~3/4 of the total length of the bed surface. Many small holes are made on the side of the tank so that the flushing water can be evenly fed along the longitudinal direction of the bed.
The light mineral particles in the upper layer are subject to great impact force, and most of them move downwardly along the bed surface to become tailings. Accordingly, this side of the bed surface is called the tailings side.
The heavy mineral particles at the bottom of the bed move longitudinally by differential movement of the bed surface, and are discharged from the opposite of the transmission end to become concentrate. The corresponding position of the bed surface is called the concentrate end.
The horizontal and longitudinal effects of mineral particles of different densities and particle sizes on the bed surface are different. The materials finally spread out in a fan shape on the bed surface, and a variety of products of different quality can be obtained.
The amount of feeding ore is related to the granularity of the feed. If the ore grains are relatively coarse, the required amount of feeding ore is large. However, if it is too large, it will cause zoning problems. In this case, it is necessary to move the concentrate intercepting plate to increase the flushing water and the horizontal slope of shaking table surface.
The Cr2O3 content in a certain lean chromite ore in Zimbabwe is only 8.19%. Fote has conducted research on the beneficiation technology and equipment of the lean chromite ore, finally decided to adopt the beneficiation method: tail discharging by the strong magnetic separationfull-grain separation by shaking table. The indicators are relatively good.
Step 2 Then use Fote magnetic separator for strong magnetic separation to remove qualified tailings with a yield of 50.21%, and the tailing grade is only 2.19%. As a result, the amount of ore entering the shaking table is reduced by half, and the number of shaking tables is greatly reduced. At the same time, after throwing the tail, it creates favorable conditions for the sorting of the shaking table and further improves the sorting index.
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Shaking table is one of the main gravity concentration equipment, in some aspect it is the most important gravity ore dressing machine, which is widely used to separate tungsten, tin, tantalum, niobium, rare metals ore and precious metal ores, as well as iron, manganese ore and coal.
Our company, is one of the most professional factories of shaking table manufacturer, produced various kinds of shaking table which were started producing in the 70s, has a high reputation from our users, with superior quality, and reliable performance.
Shaking table of beneficiation is a kind of gravity concentration equipment, we separate it into: 6S shaking table and Yunxi shaking table, 6S shaking table is separate into common type, small steel channel type, big steel channel type. The material of 6S table used of glass fiber reinforced plastics, Yunxi table used of wood. The common shape of the shaking table is trapezoid.
Shaking tables are one of the oldest gravity separators in the mineral processing industry, capable of handling minerals and coal of 0-2mm.Shaking tables are rectangular-shaped tables with riffled decks across which a film of water flows. The mechanical drive imparts motion along the long axis of the table, perpendicular to the flow of the water. The water carries the particles of the feed in slurry across the riffles in a fluid film. This causes the fine, high density particles to fall into beds behind the riffles as the coarse, low-density particles are carried in the quickly-moving film. The action of the table is such that particles move with the bed towards the discharge end until the end of the table stroke, at which point the table rapidly moves backwards and the particles momentum propels them still forward.
The capacity of the shaking table is about 0.5 t/h. 1.5-2TPH depending on the particle size of the process. In chromite processing and dressing industry, it is usually dozens of shaking table series or parallel installation to deal with excess tons. Therefore, the required installation space, equipment control difficulties due to the increased number of installations and the need for more automated processes have brought new challenges to the process design.
1. Big channel frame, very strong steel base structure( other companies use small channel frame)2. Polypropylene materials feeding chute and collection chute.(other companies dont have )3. Heighten steel stand,making it more convenient when feeding materials.4. Add cover for belt wheel5. Use top quality fiberglass deck,more wear-resisting6. Has various grooves on the table for your choice. We will recommend the best grooves to you according to your gold size.
For gold operations we design and manufacture the MD Gemeni range of Shaking Tables. Specifically designed to produce a gold concentrate that can be directly smelted to bullion, the Gemeni Shaking Tables are a cost effective solution.
The Mk2 features a direct, fixed speed drive system and can be operated in batch or continuous mode. The MD Gemeni Shaking Table range is almost invariably used for retreating concentrate from sluices, spirals, conventional shaking tables and centrifugal separators
Mineral Technologies supplies Holman Wilfley wet shaking tables for recovery of precious metals, copper wire, synthetic diamonds, chromite, heavy mineral sands and gold. The different models process feed streams of between 5 and 2,500kg per hour. Holman models are available for all fine minerals concentration (e.g. mineral sands, tin, tungsten, chromite, gold). Wilfley model 7000 is available for metal recycling and reprocessing of WEEE materials (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment).
Mineral Technologies designs and manufactures the MD Knudsen Bowl. Specifically designed to recover gold from alluvial or hard rock deposits, upgrading and recovery of gold from concentrates from other gravity separation stages, exploration and evaluation of gold deposits ,and other mineral applications including cassiterite and scheelite.