silver element ore miningsilver element pictures

chemical element pictures - photo gallery

The elements are listed in the order in which they appear in the periodic table; the first elements have the lowest atomic number, which increases through the table. Toward the end of the periodic table, there aren't any images of elements. Some are so rare only a few atoms have ever been produced, plus they are highly radioactive, so they often vanish an instant after creation. Yet, many elements are stable. Here's your chance to get to know them.

Hydrogen is the first element on the periodic table, with 1 proton per atom. It's the most abundant element in the universe. If you look at the Sun, you're mostly looking at hydrogen. Its usual ionization color is sort of a purplish-blue. On Earth, it's a transparent gas, which isn't really worth a picture.

Helium is the second element on the periodic table and the second most abundant element in the universe. On Earth, it's normally a transparent gas. It can be cooled into a transparent liquid, sort of resembling water, except much, much colder. It ionizes into a reddish orange glowing gas.

Lithium is the third element on the periodic table. This lightweight metal would float on water, but then it would react and burn. The metal oxidizes black in the air. You aren't likely to encounter it in its pure form because it is so reactive.

Boron a shiny black metalloid, which means it possesses properties of both metals and nonmetals. Although it can be prepared in a lab, the element does not exist free in nature. It's found in compounds, such as borax.

Most elements can take many forms, called allotropes. Carbon is one of the few elements you can see in daily life as different allotropes. They look quite different from each other and they have distinct properties. Carbon is also important because it's the elemental basis of all organic compounds.

Pure oxygen is a transparent gas which makes up about 20% of the Earth's atmosphere. It forms a blue liquid. The solid form of the element is even more colorful. Depending on the conditions, it may be blue, red, yellow, orange, or even metallic black!

Sodium, like lithium, is a highly reactive metal that will burn in water. The element doesn't occur naturally in pure form, but it's fairly common in science labs. The soft, shiny metal is stored under oil to protect it from oxidation.

Silicon, like boron, is a metalloid. This element is found in nearly pure form in silicon chips. More commonly, you encounter this element as its oxide in quartz. Although it looks glossy and somewhat metallic, it's too brittle to work like true metals.

Pure chlorine gas is a noxious greenish-yellow color. The liquid is bright yellow. Like the other halogen elements, it readily reacts to form compounds. While the element can kill you in pure form, it's essential for life. Most of the body's chlorine is ingested as table salt, which is sodium chloride.

Vanadium is a shiny gray metal when it's fresh, but it oxidizes in air. The colorful oxidation layer protects the underlying metal from further attack. The element also forms different colored compounds.

Chromium is a hard, corrosion-resistant transition metal. One interesting fact about this element is that the 3+ oxidation state is essential for human nutrition, while the 6+ state (hexavalent chromium) is deadly toxic.

Copper is one of the elements you encounter in pure form in daily life in copper cookware and wire. This element also occurs in its native state in nature, meaning you can find copper crystals and chunks. More commonly, it's found with other elements in minerals.

Gallium is considered a basic metal. While mercury is the only liquid metal at room temperature, gallium will melt in the heat of your hand. Even though the element forms crystals, they tend to have a wet, partially melted appearance because of the metal's low melting point.

Arsenic is a poisonous metalloid. It sometimes occurs in the native state. Like other metalloids, it takes multiple forms. The pure element may be a gray, black, yellow, or metallic solid at room temperature.

You can find the element selenium in dandruff-control shampoos and some types of photographic toner, but it's not commonly encountered in pure form. Selenium is a solid at room temperature and takes red, gray, and metallic-looking black forms. They gray allotrope is most common.

Krypton is one of the noble gases. A picture of krypton gas would be pretty boring, because it basically looks like air (which is to say, it's colorless and transparent). Like other noble gases, it lights up colorfully when ionized. Solid krypton is white.

Rubidium is a silver-colored alkali metal. Its melting point is only slightly higher than room temperature, so it may be observed as a liquid or soft solid. However, it's not a pure element you'd want to handle, since it ignites in air and water, burning with a red flame.

Strontium is a soft, silver alkaline earth metal that develops a yellowish oxidation layer. You probably won't ever see this element in its pure form except in pictures, but it's used in fireworks and emergency flares for the bright red color it adds to flames.

Zirconium is a lustrous gray metal. It's known for its low neutron absorption cross-section, so it's an important element in nuclear reactors. The metal is also known for its high corrosion resistance.

Molybdenum is a silvery-white metal belonging to the chromium family. This element is not found free in nature. Only the elements tungsten and tantalum have higher melting points. The metal is hard and tough.

Ruthenium is another hard white transition metal. It belongs to the platinum family. Like other elements in this group, it resists corrosion. This is good, because its oxide has a tendency to explode in air!

Rhodium is a silvery transition metal. Its primary use is as a hardening agent for softer metals, such as platinum and palladium. This corrosion-resistant element is also considered a noble metal, like silver and gold.

Silver is a silver-colored metal (hence the name). It forms a black oxide layer called tarnish. While you may be familiar with the appearance of silver metal, you might not realize the element also forms beautiful crystals.

Indium is a post-transition metallic element that has more in common with the metalloids than with the transition metals. It is very soft with a silver metallic luster. One of its interesting properties is that the metal wets glass, making it an excellent material for making mirrors.

You are familiar with the shiny metallic form of tin from tin cans, but colder temperatures change the allotrope of the element into gray tin, which doesn't behave like a metal. Tin is commonly applied over other metals to help protect them from corrosion.

Europium is a silver metal with a slight yellow tint, but it oxidizes instantly in air or water. This rare earth element actually is rare, at least in the universe where it's estimated to have an abundance of 5 x 10-8 percent of matter. Its compounds are phosphorescent.

Thulium isthe rarest of the rare earths (which are actually fairly abundant overall). Because of this, there aren't many uses for this element. It's not toxic, but doesn't serve any known biological function.

Tantalum is a shiny blue-gray metal often found in association with the element niobium (located right above it on the periodic table). Tantalum is highly resistant to chemical attack, although it is affected by hydrofluoric acid. The element has an extremely high melting point.

Element 79 is the precious metal, gold. Gold is known by its distinctive color. This element, along with copper, are the only two non-silvery metals, although it is suspected some of the new elements may display colors (if enough is ever produced to see them).

Mercury also goes by the name quicksilver. This silver-colored metal that is a liquid at room temperature and pressure. You may be wondering what mercury looks like when it is solid. Well, if you place a bit of mercury in liquid nitrogen, it will solidify into a gray metal that resembles tin.

Uranium is a heavy, radioactive metal belonging to the actinide group. In pure form, it's a silver-gray metal, able to take a high polish, but it accumulates a dull oxidation layer after exposure to air.

Plutonium is a heavy radioactive metal. When fresh, the pure metal is shiny and silver. It develops a yellowish oxidation layer after exposure to air. It's unlikely you'll ever get a chance to view this element in person, but if you do, turn out the lights. The metal appears to glow red.

silver facts (atomic number 47 and element symbol ag)

Silver is a transition metal with element symbol Ag and atomic number 47. The element is found in jewelry and currency for its beauty and value and in electronics for its high conductivity and malleability.

Properties: The melting point of silver is 961.93C, boiling point is 2212C, specific gravity is 10.50 (20C), with a valence of 1 or 2. Pure silver has a brilliant white metallic luster. Silver is slightly harder than gold. It is very ductile and malleable, exceeded in these properties by gold and palladium. Pure silver has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity of all metals. Silver possesses the lowest contact resistance of all metals. Silver is stable in pure air and water, although it tarnishes upon exposure to ozone, hydrogen sulfide, or air containing sulfur.

Uses: The alloys of silver have many commercial uses. Sterling silver (92.5% silver, with copper or other metals) is used for silverware and jewelry. Silver is used in photography, dental compounds, solder, brazing, electrical contacts, batteries, mirrors, and printed circuits. Freshly deposited silver is is the best known reflector of visible light, but it rapidly tarnishes and loses its reflectance. Silver fulminate (Ag2C2N2O2) is a powerful explosive. Silver iodide is used in cloud seeding to produce rain. Silver chloride can be made transparent and is also used as a cement for glass. Silver nitrate, or lunar caustic, is used extensively in photography. Although silver itself is not considered toxic, most of its salts are poisonous, due to the anions involved. Exposure to silver (metal and soluble compounds) should not exceed 0.01 mg/M3 (8 hour time-weighted average for a 40 hour week). Silver compounds can be absorbed into the circulatory system, with deposition of reduced silver in body tissues. This may result in argyria, which is characterized by a greyish pigmentation of the skin and mucous membranes. Silver is germicidal and may be used to kill many lower organisms without harm to higher organisms. Silver is used as coinage in many countries.

Sources: Silver occurs native and in ores incuding argentite (Ag2S) and horn silver (AgCl). Lead, lead-zinc, copper, copper-nickel, and gold ores are other prinicipal sources of silver. Commercial fine silver is at least 99.9% pure. Commercial purities of 99.999+% are available.

silver (element) | article about silver (element) by the free dictionary

Silver is the metal of the Moon and, as such, it is favored and used a great deal in Witchcraft. The bracelet of a Wiccan High Priestess is usually made of silver, as is the crown and the buckles on the garter of a Witch Queen. Many modern Witches favor silver over gold for their rings, pendants, and other jewelry.

Silver has been considered a metal of divination; it's an excellent scrying tool if highly polished. In the Bible, Genesis 44:5 mentions a silver cup used for divination. An old superstition involved turning a silver coin when making a wish, which should be made to the Moon.

Considered very potent and also pure and impervious to magical influence, silver was ideal for magical work. Ceremonial Magicians preferred silver receptacles. The purity of the metal made it perfect to use for making bullets to kill werewolves, vampires, and their ilk.

In the opening chapters of her first vampire book, Dead until Dark (2001), author Charlaine Harris has her heroine waitress Sookie Stackhouse attracted to vampire Bill Compton. One evening after he has come to the restaurant where she works, she discovers him under attack from some people who would rob him of his blood. She has to save Bill after he has been immobilized under a chain of silver. The silver has the effect of burning the vampires flesh even as it drains his/her strength. Harriss introduction of silver into her vampire mythos is a contemporary borrowing from the modern werewolf mythos.

The use of silver bullets against werewolves, popularized in the many werewolf movies, may harken back to a single incident that occurred in rural southern France in 1764. A series of murders that included several sheep herders led to rumors of a loup-garou or werewolf. Soldiers searching for the creature shot and wounded it, and the murders ceased for several months. Then, they began to reoccur. One of the locals who hunted the creature, Jean Chastel, used silver bullets in his weapon. His shots brought it down. The dead beast was displayed in the town before its burial. Chastels gun remains on display and the locals still tell the story of the Beast of Le Gevaudan. In addition, Paul Barber found two instances, one in Serbia and one in Germany, in which silver as used against werewolves was also said to be effective against vampires. More generally the use of silver is traced to Scotland, however, where it was believed that silver should be used when shooting at Scottish witches who had transformed into an animal form.

Silver is almost never mentioned in vampire literature through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries up to the 1970s. There is a connection, however slight, in that many crucifixes, popularly used to repel vampires, were made of silver. In the secularized mid-twentieth century, it appears that some began to look to the crucifixs silver, rather than the sacredness of the symbol, as the effective element in its ability to repel vampires. Otherwise, silver was missing from Dracula and other classic vampire tales. As the werewolf was brought to the screen, beginning with The Werewolf of London in 1935, however, the major method proposed from killing a werewolf was a silver bullet. Simultaneously, the silver bullet was attaining additional fame as the weapon of choice by the Western hero, the Lone Ranger (introduced to radio in 1933, the movies in 1938, and television in 1949).

The introduction of silver into contemporary vampire lore appears to have been through the movies. In 1972, Hammer Films released Dracula 1972 A.D. By this time, Dracula had already been killed a number of times and each time by a different instrument. As the movie proceeded, the current vampire expert, Lawrence Van Helsing, noted the diversity of instruments able to destroy the vampirethe cross, the bible, the holy water, etc. As he completed his list, he suddenly injected a new agent into the discussionsilver, especially in the form of a knife with a silver blade. The films conclusion has Van Helsing stabbing Dracula with just such a knife. Two years later, the original Abraham van Helsing, now in China, tells his new cohorts that among the ways that a vampire can be destroyed is driving a silver shaft through the heart. In the end, most of the vampires including Dracula are killed by staking, but alas, not with silver.

Silver will reemerge as a tool to fight vampires in the stories of Blade the Vampire Slayer, one of the characters created by Marv Wolfman for Marvel comics Tomb of Dracula series. Blade had an early mentor by the name of Jamal Afari (a character created by Chris Claremont) who trained him to fight vampires. When they met, Afari was dispatching vampires with a silver cane. Blade later developed ebony throwing knives as his main weapon, but gradually added a set of silver-based products as his character was later remolded in superhero fashion. Of course, when Blade jumped to the screen (1998), he was armed with the knowledge that vampires were quite vulnerable to silver and thus stakes, swords, and knives, and even a mace-like spray of silver and garlic were viable weapons. The silver theme was also prominent throughout the two sequels.

In the 1996 movie, From Dusk to Dawn, the characters discuss using silver against vampires, but lacking any to use, discarded the idea. In Dracula 2000 (2000), Dracula manifests a seemingly irrational dislike to silver, which at the end of the movie is shown to be derived from Draculas true identity as Judas Iscariot who betrayed Jesus for thirty pieces of silver.

Relating silver to vampires was also facilitated by the development of movies/novels in which vampires and werewolves both appeared. As early as 1979, jokes would be made about the ineffectiveness of silver bullets shot into vampires, in the George Hamilton movie, Love at First Bite. In 1993, Laurell K. Hamilton introduced her vampire hunter character Anita Blake into a modern St. Louis where both vampires and werewolves are coming into the open. In Hamiltons first novel, Guilty Pleasures, the assassin Edward showed Anita a new way to kill vampires, involving injections of silver nitrate while they sleep.

Through the 1990s, the use of silver was integral to the World of Darkness games from White Wolf, especially the Werewolf: The Apocalypse game launched in 1992. Silver nitrate bullets become a popular weapon that a vampire can use against werewolves. This theme is carried forward in the first of the Underworld (2003) movies in which the vampires are at war with werewolves and carry guns with silver nitrate bullets. The silver theme is also an element in a variety of romance novels that feature both vampires and werewolves, most notably those of Carrie Vaughn, but remains primarily an anti-werewolf substance. Almost all of these novels have been written in the first decade of the new century.

Silver does not play a role in the vampire worlds created by Anne Rice, Joss Whedon (Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Angel), or Stephenie Meyer. Apart from these very popular vampire realms, however, it may be stated that since the mid-1990s, vampires have been increasingly viewed as vulnerable to silver, while silver has taken its place as another element in the vampire profile with which authors can play. Silver is also a popular substance for making jewelry, and since the 1990s, silver anti-vampire jewelry, especially necklaces, has enjoyed a new popularity.

Ag, a chemical element in group I of Mendeleevs periodic system. Atomic number, 47; atomic weight, 107.868; a white, ductile metal that can be polished to a brilliant luster. Silver occurs naturally as a mixture of the two stable isotopes 107Ag and 109Ag. Of the radioisotopes, 110Ag has the most practical value (T = 253 days). Silver was known as early as the fourth millennium B.C. in Egypt, Persia, and China.

Distribution in nature. The average silver content in the earths crust (clarke) is 7 10-6 percent by weight. It occurs primarily in medium- and low-temperature hydrothermal deposits, in the enrichment zone of sulfide deposits, and, occasionally, in sedimentary rocks (in sandstones containing carbonaceous matter) and placer deposits. More than 50 silver minerals are known. In the biosphere silver is for the most part dispersed; in seawater the silver content is 3 l0-8 percent. Silver is one of the scarcest elements.

Physical and chemical properties. Silver has a face-centered cubic lattice (a = 4.0772 angstroms [] at 20C). The atomic radius is 1.44 , and the ionic radius of Ag+ is 1.13 . Silver has a density at 20C of 10.5 g/cm3, a melting point of 960.8C, a boiling point of 2212C, and a heat of fusion of 105 kilo-joules/kg (25.1 calories/g). Of all metals, silver displays the highest electrical conductivity (6,297 siemens/m [62.97 ohm-1 cm-1] at 25C), highest thermal conductivity (407.79 watts/m-K [0.974 calorie/cm-C-sec] at 18C), and highest reflectivity (90-99 percent for wavelengths of 5,000-100,000 ). It has a specific heat of 234.46 joules/kg-K (0.056 calorie/gC) and an electrical resistivity of 15.9 nanoohm-m (1.59 -cm) at 20C. Silver is diamagnetic, with an atomic magnetic susceptibility of - 21.56 106 at room temperature. Its elastic modulus is 76,480 meganewtons/m2 (7,648 kilograms-force/mm2), ultimate strength is 100 meganewtons/m2 (10 kilograms-force/mm2), and Brinell hardness is 250 meganewtons/m2 (25 kilograms-force/mm2). The electronic configuration of the outer shells of the Ag atom is 4d105s .

Silver does not react with O2, N2, or H2 at normal temperatures. A protective film of sparingly soluble halides and the sulfide Ag2S (gray-black crystals) is formed on the surface of silver when acted upon by free halogens and sulfur. Under the effect of the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the atmosphere, a thin film of Ag2S is formed on the surface of silver items, thereby causing them to tarnish. The sulfide can be obtained by the action of hydrogen sulfide on soluble silver salts or on aqueous suspensions of silver salts. The solubility of Ag2S in water is 2.48 10-5 mole/liter (25C). Examples of analogous compounds are the selenide Ag2Se and telluride Ag2Te.

Ag2O is obtained by the action of KOH on a solution of AgNO3. The solubility of Ag2O in water is 0.0174 g/liter. An Ag2O suspension possesses antiseptic properties. Ag2O decomposes at 200C. Hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and many metals reduce Ag2O to metallic Ag. Ozone oxidizes Ag2O to form AgO. At 100C, AgO decomposes into its separate elements with an explosion. Silver dissolves in nitric acid at room temperature to yield AgNO3. Hot concentrated sulfuric acid dissolves silver to give the sulfate Ag2SO4 (the solubility of the sulfate in water is 0.79 percent by weight at 20C). Silver does not dissolve in aqua regia because of the formation of a protective AgCl film. In the absence of oxidizing agents, HCl, HBr, and HI do not react with silver at ordinary temperatures because of the formation on the metal surface of a protective film of sparingly soluble halides. Most silver salts, with the exception of AgNO3, AgF, and AgClO4, have poor solubility. Silver forms complex compounds, most of which are soluble in water and many of which have practical uses in chemical technology and analytical chemistry. Examples are the complex ions [Ag(CN)2]-, [Ag(NH3)2]+, and [Ag(SCN)2]-.

Production. Most silver (approximately 80 percent) is extracted as a by-product from complex ores, as well as from gold and copper ores. The extraction of silver from silver and gold ores requires cyanidationthe dissolution of silver in an alkaline solution of sodium cyanide with an inlet for air:

Silver is smelted from copper ores together with blister copper and is then extracted from the anode mud formed during the electrolytic refining of copper. In processing lead-zinc ores, silver is concentrated in the lead-crude lead, from which it is extracted by adding metallic zinc. The zinc combines with silver to form the refractory compound Ag2Zn3, which, being insoluble in lead, rises to the surface of the lead melt as a foam that can be easily skimmed off. The zinc is then distilled from the silver at 1250C. The silver extracted from copper or lead-zinc ores is alloyed (dor) and subjected to electrolytic refining.

Use. Silver is used primarily in alloy form for minting coins and manufacturing household items, laboratory ware, and din-nerware. Silver is used to coat radio components to improve electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance; silver contacts are used in the electrical-engineering industry. Silver solders are used in soldering titanium and titanium alloys. In vacuum technology, silver serves as a structural material. Metallic silver is used to manufacture electrodes for silver-zinc and silver-cadmium batteries. It serves as a catalyst in inorganic and organic synthesis, for example, in the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes and acids and of ethylene to ethylene oxide. In the food-processing industry, silver apparatus are used for the preparation of fruit juices. Small concentrations of silver ions sterilize water. Large quantities of silver compounds (AgBr, AgCl, AgI) are used in the manufacture of motion-picture and photographic materials.

Silver in art. Because of its attractive white color and workability, silver has been widely used in decorative art since ancient times. However, since pure silver is very soft, nonferrous metalsusually copperare added when minting coins and producing various silver items. The processes involved in working silver and decorating silver articles include stamping, casting, filigree techniques, and embossing. Enamels, niello, engraving, and gilding are also used with silver articles.

A high standard of artistic silver work characterizes the decorative art of the Hellenistic world and of ancient Rome, Persia (vessels from the Sassanid era, third through seventh centuries A.D), and Medieval Europe. Silver articles produced by master craftsmen during the Renaissance and baroque periods (B. Cellini in Italy, jewelers of the Jamnitzer, Lenker, and Lambrecht families in Germany) are noted for their variety of form and striking silhouettes, as well as for the mastery displayed in ornamentation and the representation of figures through stamping and casting. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, France assumed the leading role in the crafting of silver articles (C. Ballin, F. T. Germain, R. J. Auguste). In the decorative art of the 19th and 20th centuries, ungilded silver has been favored, and casting and mechanical methods of working the silver have been the dominant processes. In Russian decorative art of the 19th and early 20th centuries, outstanding silver articles were produced by the firms of the Grachevs, P. A. Ovchinnikov, P. F. Sazikov, P. C. Faberg, and I. P. Khlebnikov. A continuing, creative development of traditions in decorative arts and a desire to reveal more fully the ornamental qualities of silver are characteristic of Soviet silver articles, among which the works of native craftsmen deserve a special place.

In the organism. Silver is always present in plants and animals. Its average content in marine plants is 0.025 mg per 100 g of dry matter; in terrestrial plants the average is 0.006 mg. Marine animals have between 0.3 and 1.1 mg, while terrestrial animals have only trace amounts (10-2-10-4 mg). Animals accumulate silver in certain endocrine glands, in the iris, and in erythrocytes; silver is excreted mainly with feces. Silver forms complexes with proteins (globulins in blood, hemoglobin) in the organism. It inhibits enzymes by blocking mercapto groups, which participate in the formation of the active sites in enzymes. In particular, it deprives the adenosine triphosphatase activity of myosine. The biological role of silver has not been sufficiently studied. Silver becomes fixed in inflammation zones upon parenteral injection; in the blood, it combines chiefly with serum globulins.

Preparations. Silver preparations exhibit an antibacterial, astringent, and caustic effect, which is associated with their ability to destroy enzyme systems in microorganisms and precipitate proteins. In medicine, the most commonly used preparations are silver nitrate, collargolum, and Protargol (used in the same cases as collargolum). Also included is bactericidal paper, a porous paper impregnated with silver nitrate and silver chloride, which is used for treating minor wounds, abrasions, and burns.

Economic importance. In commercial dealings, silver, together with gold, has provided a universal standard and, like gold, has acquired a special use value; that is, silver has been used as money. Gold and silver are not by nature money, but money by nature is gold and silver (K. Marx, in K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd. ed., vol. 13, p. 137). The commercial world chose silver as a monetary metal because of silvers uniformity, divisibility, durability, and workability and because silver is portable (high value with low weight and volume).

Silver was originally circulated in bullion form. In countries of the ancient Middle East (Assyria, Babylonia, Egypt), as well as in Greece and Rome, silver was widely used as a monetary metal, along with gold and copper. In ancient Rome, silver coins were first minted between the fourth and third centuries B.C. The first Russian coins were minted from silver in the ninth and tenth centuries A.D.

The minting of gold coins predominated in the early Middle Ages. In the 16th century, a lack of gold supplies, coupled with the development of silver mining in Europe and the influx of silver from America (Peru and Mexico), caused silver to become the basic monetary metal of Europe. Silver monometallism and bimetallism existed in nearly every country during the initial accumulation of capital.

Since gold and silver coins were circulated according to the actual value of the content of precious metal, the relative value of the metals was established spontaneously, under the influence of market factors. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, this system of parallel standards was replaced by a bimetallic system, wherein the state employed legislative means to set the ratio of the value of gold to silver. However, this system proved extremely unstable since the workings of the law of value led inevitably to a disparity between the market value and fixed value of gold and silver. The value of silver decreased sharply at the end of the 19th century because of improvements in methods for extracting silver from complex ores (in the 1870s and 1880s the value ratio of gold to silver was 1:15-1:16; by the early 20th century, it had fallen to 1:381:39). The growth of the world gold output accelerated the displacement of depreciated silver. Gold monometallism became widespread throughout the capitalist world in the last quarter of the 19th century. In most countries the displacement of silver currency by gold was completed by the beginning of the 20th century. Silver currency was retained in many Eastern countries (China, Iran, Afghanistan) until about the mid-1930s. With the departure of these countries from silver monometallism, silver finally lost its value as a currency metal. In the industrially developed capitalist countries, silver is used only in the minting of coins of small denomination.

The increased use of silver in technology, dentistry, medicine, and jewelry manufacture after World War II coincided with a lag in silver output and created a shortage. Before the war, approximately 75 percent of the yearly silver output was used for monetary purposes. In the years 1950-65 this figure fell to an average of 50 percent and continued to decline in subsequent years, reaching 5 percent in 1971. Many countries have resorted to using copper-nickel alloys as monetary material. Although silver coins are still in circulation, many countries have prohibited the minting of new silver coins, and some have substantially reduced the coins silver content. For example, in the United Statesaccording to a law on coin minting passed in 1965approximately 90 percent of the silver previously used for the minting of coins was allocated to other purposes. The silver content in a 50-cent piece has been reduced from 90 to 40 percent; coins worth 10 and 25 cents, which previously contained 90 percent silver, are now minted without silver admixtures. New silver coins are minted to commemorate certain events (Olympic Games, jubilees, memorials).

In the early 1970s, the principal consumers of silver were, in addition to the industry producing jewelry, table silver, and an-odized articles, the electrical-engineering, electronics, and motion-picture industries.

The silver market in the 1960s and early 1970s has been characterized by an increase in silver prices and by a consistent excess in demand for silver over the production of fresh metal. The deficiency has been made up largely by used metal, particularly the silver obtained from the remelting of coins.

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how to identify silver ore | our pastimes

Silver is a precious metal located throughout the world in geological deposits. Colorado's state nickname is the "Silver State" due to the large deposits of silver ore found there. Silver is extracted from the ore by a smelting or leaching procedure. Here's how to identify silver ore.

Watch for areas of quartz deposits. Quartz is considered the host rock for many silver deposits. Quartz is a crystalline structure that has a white to clear appearance. Bright white quartz with streaks of gray are a good indicator of the presence of silver ore.

Inspect each rock carefully since some silver deposits will be barely visible. Some silver runs through its host rock as "spider veins" that streak the interior of the rock and terminate just at the surface.

This article was written by a professional writer, copy edited and fact checked through a multi-point auditing system, in efforts to ensure our readers only receive the best information. To submit your questions or ideas, or to simply learn more, see our about us page: link below.

silver element extraction methods open pit, underground mining techniques

Silver- a soft, white lustrous transition metal that possesses the highest electrical conductivity of any element, most silver is produced as a spin-off of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining. The metal emerges naturally in its untainted, free form (native silver), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. This long been valued metal is not only used as an accessory, industrially, they are used in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings and in catalysis of chemical reactions. The compounds of silver are also used in photographic film and X-rays.

In general, silver is extorted from ore by smelting or by means of modernized technique of chemical leaching. Europeans spotted a vast quantity of silver in the New World in the present Mexican State of Zacatecas (exposed in 1546) and Potosi (Bolivia, also discovered in 1546), which activated an period of price increases in Europe. The conquistador Francisco Pizarro was told to have routed to having his horses shod with silver horseshoes owing to the metal's large quantity, in difference to the comparative need of iron in Peru. Silver, which was extremely valuable in China, became a worldwide article of trade, causative to the climb of the Spanish Empire. The ascension and descend of its worth exaggerated the world market. MINING AND PROCESSING : The Silver bearing ores are mined by either open-pit or underground mining methods after which they are crushed and ground. Despite of the existence of other technologies, this metal is mined through a process that uses gravity to break and extract its ores from large deposits. This extraction method of removing the ore varies depending on the physical characteristics of the rock which surrounds the metal and also the shape of the deposits in which the metal is contained. The deposits are often long and cylindrical and hence they are known as veins. The silver ores are strong and made of solid substances and can also be found in sand, gravel and other mineral deposits in the form of flakes. Silver is often mined along with the metal gold, found together in the form of an alloy called electrum. It is also mined along with other elements on a regular basis which includes argentite, pyrargyrite and cerargyrite, forming the end product to be known as Horn Silver. Silver mostly occurs as a secondary element along with lead, copper and zinc ores, the reason because of which nearly 50 percent of the silver mined today is obtained when processing other kinds of ore. It is separated from other ores through the smelting process. When a new silver mine is worked on, a system of multi-layered crosscuts are made where each cut connects to a central shaft but is kept at a safe vertical distance to avoid collapses. Certain openings called raises are dug for the purpose of connecting each level. These raises divide the body of the ore into blocks. It is at this point, the silver mine is ready to begin extraction. Most often, the overhand stoping method is executed where the ore is removed starting at the bottom and working up one layer at a time. Generally mines include a network of tunnels and chambers designed to safely raise the pulverized ore up and out in mine cars. The oldest Silver mines still in operation are located in Peru and Norway. SILVER ORES : Even though certain silver bearing ores contain silver, none of them contain silver as their major constituent. A distinct ore might contain 0.085 percent silver, 0.5 percent lead, 0.5 percent copper, and 0.3 percent antimony and after flotation separation, the concentrate would contain 1.7 percent silver, 10 to 15 percent lead, 10 to 15 percent copper, and 6 percent antimony. It is known that accuately 25 percent of the silver produced comes from ores actually mined for their silver value whereas the other 75 percent comes from ores that have silver as their major metal value which can be either lead, copper, or zinc. All these mineral ores are generally sulfides; where lead is present as galena (PbS), zinc as sphalerite (ZnS), and copper as chalcopyrite (CuFeS2). The mineralization of silver usually includes large amounts of pyrite (FeS2) and arsenopyrite (FeAsS). The major silver ores are considered to be argentite (Ag2S), proustite (Ag3AsS3), and polybasite [(Ag,Cu)16Sb2S11]. More than half of the worlds reserve base of silver mineralization is held by the United States, Canada, Mexico, Peru, Kazakhstan and Russia. EXTRACTING AND REFINING : The metallurgy processes applied to a silver-bearing mineral concentrate depend on whether the major metal is copper, zinc, or lead. In most cases the ore is mined and then treated by either mechanical or gravitational means to concentrate the ore minerals and separate them from the mass of the non-ore material. The chief ore of silver is argentite and silver is extracted from argentite by the hydrometallurgy process. Firstly, the silver ore is dissolved in cyanide solution to produce a soluble argento cyanide complex from which the metal can be obtained by the reduction method. The different steps involved in the extraction of silver are as follows: a. Ore Concentration : The ore Argentite is a sulfide ore and is thus concentrated by the froth floatation process. After the ore is crushed and reduced to fine particles, it is kept in a large tank which contains water and pine oil as ingredients. This mixture is then interrupted by passing compressed air where the ore forms a froth with the pine oil and rises to the surface and the other impurities are remained in the water below. b. Treatment with sodium cyanide : The concentrated ore obtained from the above process is treated with 0.4% to 0.7% aqueous solution of sodium cyanide and a current of air is passed through it. As a result, the argentite ore gets dissolved in the sodium cyanide solution to form Sodium Argento Cyanide. The reaction is as follows: Ag2S + 2NaCN 2Na [Ag(CN)2] + NO2S The reaction is a reversible one and so, oxygen is passed to oxidize Na2S to Na2SO4 such that the equilibrium shifts towards the product. Na2S + O2 Na2SO4 The entire solution is filtered and the filtrate containing Sodium Argento Cyanide undergoes precipitation to recover the silver metal. c. Precipitation of Silver : The filtered solution of Sodium Argento Cyanide obtained is treated with zinc scrap where zinc displaces silver from its complex. Thus, Sodium Zinc Cyanide is produced and silver gets precipitated. Zn + 2Na [Ag (CN)2] NO2[Zn (CN)4] + 2Ag This silver precipitate is then collected, washed and fused to get a compact mass of silver. d. Refining : The ore containing silver needs to be refined to obtain pure silver as an end product. The silver precipitate obtained previously may contain some impurities and so the impure silver is purified by the electrolytic method. The process requires a block of impure metal to be the anode while a thin strip of pure silver is fetched as cathode. A mixture of silver nitrate solution is taken as the electrolyte. On passing current through the electrolytic tank, the impure silver gets dissolved and an equivalent amount of pure silver is deposited at the cathode. AgNO3(aq) Ag+ + NO3 At cathode: Ag+ + e Ag At anode: Ag Ag+ +e TOP SILVER PRODUCING COUNTRIES : USES OF SILVER : It is used in making ornaments, coins, decorative articles etc. It is used in electroplating of silver, making silver mirror etc. Silver halides are used in conventional x-ray film as an image receptor. Silver sulfadiazine is used as a topical cream to treat burns, which is an anti-infective medicine. Silver is used in bandages and dressings to prevent the spread of infections, as well as in gels and ointments for minor scrapes and cuts. Silver nitrate is used from a long time as drops for newborn babies to prevent pink eye. Colloidal silver is used to treat ceramic water filters to aid in killing bacteria and pathogens and also to help bring clean water to developing nations. Silver Coat technology is used in Foley catheters in urology to prevent urinary tract infections from catheter use. ANNUAL SILVER USAGE :

The conquistador Francisco Pizarro was told to have routed to having his horses shod with silver horseshoes owing to the metal's large quantity, in difference to the comparative need of iron in Peru. Silver, which was extremely valuable in China, became a worldwide article of trade, causative to the climb of the Spanish Empire. The ascension and descend of its worth exaggerated the world market.

The Silver bearing ores are mined by either open-pit or underground mining methods after which they are crushed and ground. Despite of the existence of other technologies, this metal is mined through a process that uses gravity to break and extract its ores from large deposits. This extraction method of removing the ore varies depending on the physical characteristics of the rock which surrounds the metal and also the shape of the deposits in which the metal is contained. The deposits are often long and cylindrical and hence they are known as veins. The silver ores are strong and made of solid substances and can also be found in sand, gravel and other mineral deposits in the form of flakes.

Silver is often mined along with the metal gold, found together in the form of an alloy called electrum. It is also mined along with other elements on a regular basis which includes argentite, pyrargyrite and cerargyrite, forming the end product to be known as Horn Silver. Silver mostly occurs as a secondary element along with lead, copper and zinc ores, the reason because of which nearly 50 percent of the silver mined today is obtained when processing other kinds of ore. It is separated from other ores through the smelting process. When a new silver mine is worked on, a system of multi-layered crosscuts are made where each cut connects to a central shaft but is kept at a safe vertical distance to avoid collapses. Certain openings called raises are dug for the purpose of connecting each level. These raises divide the body of the ore into blocks. It is at this point, the silver mine is ready to begin extraction. Most often, the overhand stoping method is executed where the ore is removed starting at the bottom and working up one layer at a time. Generally mines include a network of tunnels and chambers designed to safely raise the pulverized ore up and out in mine cars. The oldest Silver mines still in operation are located in Peru and Norway.

Even though certain silver bearing ores contain silver, none of them contain silver as their major constituent. A distinct ore might contain 0.085 percent silver, 0.5 percent lead, 0.5 percent copper, and 0.3 percent antimony and after flotation separation, the concentrate would contain 1.7 percent silver, 10 to 15 percent lead, 10 to 15 percent copper, and 6 percent antimony. It is known that accuately 25 percent of the silver produced comes from ores actually mined for their silver value whereas the other 75 percent comes from ores that have silver as their major metal value which can be either lead, copper, or zinc. All these mineral ores are generally sulfides; where lead is present as galena (PbS), zinc as sphalerite (ZnS), and copper as chalcopyrite (CuFeS2). The mineralization of silver usually includes large amounts of pyrite (FeS2) and arsenopyrite (FeAsS). The major silver ores are considered to be argentite (Ag2S), proustite (Ag3AsS3), and polybasite [(Ag,Cu)16Sb2S11]. More than half of the worlds reserve base of silver mineralization is held by the United States, Canada, Mexico, Peru, Kazakhstan and Russia.

EXTRACTING AND REFINING : The metallurgy processes applied to a silver-bearing mineral concentrate depend on whether the major metal is copper, zinc, or lead. In most cases the ore is mined and then treated by either mechanical or gravitational means to concentrate the ore minerals and separate them from the mass of the non-ore material. The chief ore of silver is argentite and silver is extracted from argentite by the hydrometallurgy process. Firstly, the silver ore is dissolved in cyanide solution to produce a soluble argento cyanide complex from which the metal can be obtained by the reduction method. The different steps involved in the extraction of silver are as follows: a. Ore Concentration : The ore Argentite is a sulfide ore and is thus concentrated by the froth floatation process. After the ore is crushed and reduced to fine particles, it is kept in a large tank which contains water and pine oil as ingredients. This mixture is then interrupted by passing compressed air where the ore forms a froth with the pine oil and rises to the surface and the other impurities are remained in the water below. b. Treatment with sodium cyanide : The concentrated ore obtained from the above process is treated with 0.4% to 0.7% aqueous solution of sodium cyanide and a current of air is passed through it. As a result, the argentite ore gets dissolved in the sodium cyanide solution to form Sodium Argento Cyanide. The reaction is as follows: Ag2S + 2NaCN 2Na [Ag(CN)2] + NO2S The reaction is a reversible one and so, oxygen is passed to oxidize Na2S to Na2SO4 such that the equilibrium shifts towards the product. Na2S + O2 Na2SO4 The entire solution is filtered and the filtrate containing Sodium Argento Cyanide undergoes precipitation to recover the silver metal. c. Precipitation of Silver : The filtered solution of Sodium Argento Cyanide obtained is treated with zinc scrap where zinc displaces silver from its complex. Thus, Sodium Zinc Cyanide is produced and silver gets precipitated. Zn + 2Na [Ag (CN)2] NO2[Zn (CN)4] + 2Ag This silver precipitate is then collected, washed and fused to get a compact mass of silver. d. Refining : The ore containing silver needs to be refined to obtain pure silver as an end product. The silver precipitate obtained previously may contain some impurities and so the impure silver is purified by the electrolytic method. The process requires a block of impure metal to be the anode while a thin strip of pure silver is fetched as cathode. A mixture of silver nitrate solution is taken as the electrolyte. On passing current through the electrolytic tank, the impure silver gets dissolved and an equivalent amount of pure silver is deposited at the cathode. AgNO3(aq) Ag+ + NO3 At cathode: Ag+ + e Ag At anode: Ag Ag+ +e TOP SILVER PRODUCING COUNTRIES : USES OF SILVER : It is used in making ornaments, coins, decorative articles etc. It is used in electroplating of silver, making silver mirror etc. Silver halides are used in conventional x-ray film as an image receptor. Silver sulfadiazine is used as a topical cream to treat burns, which is an anti-infective medicine. Silver is used in bandages and dressings to prevent the spread of infections, as well as in gels and ointments for minor scrapes and cuts. Silver nitrate is used from a long time as drops for newborn babies to prevent pink eye. Colloidal silver is used to treat ceramic water filters to aid in killing bacteria and pathogens and also to help bring clean water to developing nations. Silver Coat technology is used in Foley catheters in urology to prevent urinary tract infections from catheter use. ANNUAL SILVER USAGE :

The metallurgy processes applied to a silver-bearing mineral concentrate depend on whether the major metal is copper, zinc, or lead. In most cases the ore is mined and then treated by either mechanical or gravitational means to concentrate the ore minerals and separate them from the mass of the non-ore material.

The chief ore of silver is argentite and silver is extracted from argentite by the hydrometallurgy process. Firstly, the silver ore is dissolved in cyanide solution to produce a soluble argento cyanide complex from which the metal can be obtained by the reduction method. The different steps involved in the extraction of silver are as follows:

The ore Argentite is a sulfide ore and is thus concentrated by the froth floatation process. After the ore is crushed and reduced to fine particles, it is kept in a large tank which contains water and pine oil as ingredients. This mixture is then interrupted by passing compressed air where the ore forms a froth with the pine oil and rises to the surface and the other impurities are remained in the water below.

The concentrated ore obtained from the above process is treated with 0.4% to 0.7% aqueous solution of sodium cyanide and a current of air is passed through it. As a result, the argentite ore gets dissolved in the sodium cyanide solution to form Sodium Argento Cyanide. The reaction is as follows: Ag2S + 2NaCN 2Na [Ag(CN)2] + NO2S

The filtered solution of Sodium Argento Cyanide obtained is treated with zinc scrap where zinc displaces silver from its complex. Thus, Sodium Zinc Cyanide is produced and silver gets precipitated. Zn + 2Na [Ag (CN)2] NO2[Zn (CN)4] + 2Ag

The ore containing silver needs to be refined to obtain pure silver as an end product. The silver precipitate obtained previously may contain some impurities and so the impure silver is purified by the electrolytic method. The process requires a block of impure metal to be the anode while a thin strip of pure silver is fetched as cathode. A mixture of silver nitrate solution is taken as the electrolyte. On passing current through the electrolytic tank, the impure silver gets dissolved and an equivalent amount of pure silver is deposited at the cathode. AgNO3(aq) Ag+ + NO3 At cathode: Ag+ + e Ag At anode: Ag Ag+ +e

Countries like Peru, Poland, Norway, Canada and the U.S. are world leaders in Silver mining, with Mexico serving as the country with the largest annual silver production. Silver is also mined in Bolivia. In Europe, all the silver mined is known to be extracted in the form of lead sulfide ore, also known as Galena. In Australia, the Cannington mine is one of the worlds largest mines in terms of silver reserves. A very few mines in North America extract Silver alone while the U.S. mines primarily dig for zinc, lead and copper. The United States that lead in Silver mining are Arizona, Montana, Nevada and Idaho. The topmost five countries are as follows:

Looking at what the nature has to offer, it conveys a lot of information when it comes to things that it holds in it, within it and on it. With need for minerals and its wide spread application getting widened each day, the stint of its very existence is getting blink and its depreciation in its source which is its over usage is on the high.

literally means extraction .Our Mother Earth has lots of resources deep within her and mining is the method of extracting all these valuable resources from the earth through different means.There are different methods to extract these resources which are found in different forms beneath the earth's surface.

The metal mining was one of the traditions that have been passed on meritoriously over the past years so that we meet our day-to-day needs of the desired material usage starting from the equipments that are ornamental as well as purposeful coordination of information's.

Jadeite is a pyroxene mineral and is one of the two types of pure jade. The other is known as nephrite jade. Jadeite is the rarer of the two jades, and as a result, it is considered to be more precious and valuable. Due to its striking and emerald green color it is also known as "imperial jadeite".

Surface mining is basically employed when deposits of commercially viable minerals or rock are found closer to the surface; that is, where overstrain (surface material covering the valuable deposit) is relatively very less or the material of interest is structurally unsuitable for heavy handling or tunneling.

Underground mining is carried out when the rocks, minerals, or precious stones are located at a distance far beneath the ground to be extracted with surface mining. To facilitate the minerals to be taken out of the mine, the miners construct underground rooms to work in.

Gold is a chemical component with the symbol Au that springs up from the Latin derivative aurum that means shining dawn and with the atomic number 79. It is a very sought-after valuable metal which, for many centuries, has been utilized as wealth. The metal resembles as nuggets or grain like structures in rocks, subversive "veins" and in alluvial deposits. It is one of the currency metals.

Platinum, is a heavy, malleable,ductile, highly inactive, silverish-white transition metal. Platinum is a member of group 10 elements of the periodic table.It is one among the scarce elements found in Earth's crust and has six naturally occurring isotopes. It is also achemical element.

Diamonds and supplementary valuable and semi-precious gemstones are excavated from the earth level via 4 main types on mining. These diamond withdrawal methods vary depending on how the minerals are situated within the earth, the steadiness of the material neighboring the preferred mineral, and the nonessential damage done to the surrounding environment.

silver ore - the mining processes that transform ore into bullion

Silver is quite different from gold because it is nearly always found within ores that require specialized mining techniques to extract. Silver ore is one of the most important resources on Earth. After processing and refining silver is used for countless industrial uses today.

Silver is one of the most valued precious metals in the world. It is a key player in the worlds monetary systems mainly being used to create bullion coins. Other than its use in currencies, silver also finds wide application in the creation of solar panels, jewelry, utensils, electrical conductors, water filtration, window coatings and mirrors among other things. Silver is also used the medical filed as disinfectants, in x-ray machines and other medical instruments.

Silver is a soft white metallic element represented by the symbol Ag and atomic number 47. The element is known to exhibit the highest reflectivity, thermal and electrical conductivity of any known metal. Silver is usually found in the crust of the earth either as a free element (native silver) or more commonly as an alloy of gold or other metallic elements.

Silver is a somewhat inert metal. This is on account of its filled 4d shell is not extremely powerful in protecting the electrostatic powers of attraction from the core to the outermost 5s electron. Among all the group 11 elements, silver has the most minimal first ionization energy, yet has higher second and third ionization energies than copper and gold.

It must be noted in spite of the above characteristics most silver compounds have more covalent character because of the high first ionization vitality (730.8 kJ/mol) and the small size of silver. Furthermore, silvers Pauling electronegativity of 1.93 is higher than that of lead (1.87), and its electron proclivity of 125.6 kJ/mol is much higher than that of hydrogen (72.8 kJ/mol) and very little not as much as that of oxygen (141.0 kJ/mol).[24] Due to its full d-subshell, silver in its principle +1 oxidation state displays a few of properties of the transition metals appropriate from groups 4 to 10, forming rather unstable organometallic compounds.

Silver just like gold and copper is soft malleable and extremely ductile. Silver characteristically crystallizes into a face-centered cubic lattice with mass coordination number 12, where just the single 5s electron is delocalized, just like the case of copper and gold. Metallic bonds in silver are inadequate with regards to a covalent character and are moderately weak. This helps explain the ductility and high malleability of silver.

Silver has very high electrical conductivity even when compared to copper and that is why it is widely applied in radio frequency engineering where high electrical conductivity is desired. Copper is widely used for most other application because the higher cost of silver often limits its use. Silver also has the highest thermal conductivity and the lowest resistance of any given metal.

Silver is mined using a number of processes. One of the most common processes of extracting silver metal for the ore is the heap leach or cyanide process. The process is most popular with many miners because it is low cost, especially when processing low-grade ores.

To use the cyanide process the silver being in the ore should have smaller particles, should be able to react with the cyanide solution, the silver should be free from sulfide minerals and other foreign substances. The following are the major steps involved in silver mining using this method:

The first stage of mining silver involves the crushing the silver ore to about 1-1.5in diameter so as to make the ore porous for the extraction process. Once the ore is crushed it is then mixed with lime (about 3-5 lb. per ton) to create a conducive alkaline conditions for the extractions. The ore is then stacked onto impermeable pads made of asphalt, rubber or plastic to ensure that there is a minimum loss of the silver cyanide solution once the extraction begins. Usually, the pads are arranged in a slanting position to allow for the drainage and the collection of the silver cyanide solution.

The next step is to add a solution of sodium cyanide and water to the prepared silver ore. Usually, this may be done using a number of methods such as sprinkler systems or ponding method that involves seepage from capillaries, ditches or injection.

Once the curing is done the silver cyanide solution has to be collected so that the silver can be extracted from the solution. The most commonly used method of recovering silver from the solution is by Crowe Precipitation. This method employs zinc dust to help precipitate silver from the solution. The silver collected is then filtered off then melted and then made into bullion bars.

The other method used to recover silver from the silver cyanide solution is the activated carbon absorption method in which the solution has to be pumped through towers with activated carbon to form a silver precipitate. The precipitate is then collected by filtration and melted before it is made into bars.

In many places, silver ore is often found in combination with other ores containing other commercially viable minerals such as copper, lead or gold. When silver is a byproduct of processing these other minerals then a different method has to be used to extract the silver ore. For example is silver is found in ore containing zinc a method known as the Parkes Process is used to mine the minerals. When using this method the ore is first heated until it melts. When the ore is the cooled down a crust containing silver and zinc forms on the surface. The crust is then collected and then distilled to extract silver from the zinc.

When silver is found in ores containing copper then the electrolytic refining method is used to extract the silver. The ore is placed in an electrolyte solution with a cathode and an anode. Electricity is then passed through the solution forcing the silver to accumulate around the anode while copper attaches itself on the cathode. This is then collected and leached to remove impurities.

The major sources of silver are lead ores, copper ores, lead-zinc ores and copper-nickel ores found mostly in Mexico, Australia, Bolivia, Serbia, Peru, Chile, China, and Poland. Silver is produced mainly as a byproduct of the electrolytic refining of gold, nickel, copper and zinc in the ores. In some places it is produced by the Parkes Process used to refine lead bullion. Silver meant for commercial purposes must be at least 99.9% pure.

The highest silver producing mines as of 2015 included the Rudna Mine in Poland, the Antamina Mine in Peru, the San Cristbal Mine in Bolivia, the Penasquito Mine in Mexico, the Cannington Mine in Australia and the Fresnillo Mine in Mexico.

Some of the major mine development in the world expected to become top producers of silver ore include Malku Khota in Bolivia, Hackett River in Canada, Jaunicipio in Mexico, Pascua Lama in Chile and Navidad in Argentina.

Silver mining became a major commercial activity in 1858 following the discovery of silver deposit in the Comstock Lode in Nevada. Silver became a major mineral in the United States in 1873 when it was demonetized by the Coinage Act of 1873. Silver continued to play an important role in the United States especially during both the first and the second World Wars.

In 2014 about 1,170 tons of silver were produced in the United States. This constituted to just about 17% of the silver used in the same year in the country. The deficit was filled by imports from Mexico, Peru, Chile, and Canada. Silver is mined in several states across the United States.

Alaska was the top silver producer in the United States in 2015. The major silver producing mines in the state include the Hecla Minings Greens Creek mine which produced about 8,452,150 troy ounces of silver minerals in 2015 and the Red Dog Mine owned by Tech Resources and which is the worlds top zinc producer which produced about 7.6 million troy ounces of silver in the same year.

Idaho is another great silver-producing state in the U.S. The Silver Valley (Coeur dAlene District) is the highest silver producing district in the United States and one of the three in the world. The two largest silver producing mines in 2015 in the state were the Lucky Friday Mine which produced about 3 million troy ounces of silver and the Galena Mine which produced about 1.54 million troy ounces of silver.

Montana is another renowned silver state in the United States. The Butte district is only second to Coeur dAlene when it comes to historical gold production. Silver was first discovered in Montana in 1864 and the state has contributed greatly to the metal production in the United States over the years.

Nevada is where silver was first discovered in the United States in 1858 at the Comstock Lode. Silver was then discovered in several other areas within the state such as the Pioche (1869), Eureka (1864), El Dorado Canyon (1861), and Austin (1862) among others. Today, Nevada is home to the second largest and most productive silver mine in the United States. The Rochester Mine produced about 4.6 million ounces of silver in 2015 down from 6.7 ounces of silver 2014.

Silver in Utah was discovered in the late 1960s with the first discovery being within the Park City District. Some of the most famous mines in the state include the Ontarios Mine, the Silver King Mine, and the Flagstadd Mine. Today silver in the state is mainly a byproduct of copper and zinc mining. The highest silver mine in the state currently is the Bingham Canyon Mine.