small crusher production rates

rock crushing rule of thumb

Gyratory crusher: feed diameter 0.75 to 1.5m; reduction ratio 5:1 to 10:1, usually 8:1; capacity 140 to 1000 kg/s; Mohs hardness <9. More suitable for slabby feeds than jaw crusher. [reduction by compression].

somatxr modular daq system for harsh environments | hbm

The SomatXR data acquisition system enables extremely reliable and precise operation in harsh environments and is protected from humidity, dust, shock, and vibration. The modular DAQ system can be used in a variety of applications such as mobile vehicle testing, stationary measurements, and structural health monitoring. The modules are suitable for operation in a wide temperature range and can be easily and flexibly combined, in centralized or distributed configurations.SomatXR and the catman data acquisition software enable you to interactively perform testing and measuring tasks, and always have a complete overview and be in control. It is, however, also possible to select the autonomous black-box recording mode to ensure effective and reliable long-term tests.

The modular architecture of the SomatXR DAQ allows you to implement your own measurement system with a data recorder and catman DAQ software or with a connected PC and catman data acquisition software. In addition, SomatXR modules can be integrated into test bench applications or ECU optimization software in various ways and flexibly combined with QuantumX modules.

truckmetrics and the true costs of lost crusher production - international mining

The importance of optimising blast parameters to reduce the cost of comminution and cut back on energy use is often stressed across the industry, but effective blasting can also reduce the likelihood of crusher obstructions, Motion Metrics says.

Most unplanned plant downtime is crusher-related and primarily due to blockages caused by oversized feed. These events can cause mines to incur significant financial losses due to unplanned downtime, a decrease in throughput, or an increase in energy use, according to the company.

When boulders are larger than the opening of the primary jaw crusher, they can build up in and eventually block or obstruct the crusher. In this case, production must be temporarily stopped to break down or remove the boulder. But even boulders small enough to be processed by the primary jaw crusher can cause problems as breaking down large rocks requires a great deal of energy and can result in power spikes, slower production rates, and wear and tear of the crusher liner, Motion Metrics says.

For example, one of our customers is a large copper mine in Kazakhstan that experienced average crusher delays of approximately seven minutes per incident, the company said. Although these delays were short, they add up to an estimated total cost of $650,000 in lost production each year.

Another Motion Metrics customer, a Peruvian mine that is one of the largest copper producers in the world, experiences an average loss of $5.73 million/y, Motion Metrics says, while, at an iron ore mine in Brazil, production interruptions cost roughly $3.65 million/y.

Mines have traditionally taken a reactive approach to mitigating the problems associated with oversized material, Motion Metrics says. A boulder obstruction is typically identified by monitoring trends in crusher throughput a falling trend indicates that material is not able to pass through the crusher. At this point, the blockage or obstruction has already occurred. Mine personnel must halt production to dig out the boulders, or use rock breakers to clear the obstruction, creating a bottleneck and further decreasing production.

It is true that, with a grizzly in place, boulders are less likely to enter the primary crusher, however, a grizzly is still susceptible to blockages mine personnel need to remove oversized material or schedule rock breaking, it explained.

Mounted on a gantry above the mine road, TruckMetrics monitors each passing haul truck to detect boulders and analyse particle size in real time without interrupting production. Using artificial intelligence and stereo imaging, the system automatically analyses the truck bed, segments each visible rock, and identifies any oversized material. If a boulder is detected, the system automatically alerts dispatch so that trucks can be diverted.

TruckMetrics, therefore, provides a two-pronged approach to mitigating problems caused by oversized material, Motion Metrics said. First, it helps keep boulders out of the crusher by identifying trucks that contain oversized material and diverting them before they reach the plant. Secondly, the particle size data TruckMetrics captures can be used to optimise blasting parameters so that fewer boulders are produced in the first place.

jaw crusher - an overview | sciencedirect topics

The mechanism of movement of rocks down the crusher chamber determines the capacity of jaw crushers. The movement can be visualised as a succession of wedges (jaw angles) that reduce the size of particles progressively by compression until the smaller particles pass through the crusher in a continuous procession. The capacity of a jaw crusher per unit time will therefore depend on the time taken for a particle to be crushed and dropped through each successive wedge until they are discharged through the bottom. The frequency of opening and closing of the jaws, therefore, exerts a significant action on capacity.

Following the above concepts, several workers, such as Hersam [6]. Gaudin [7], Taggart [8], Rose and English [9], Lynch [3], Broman [10], have attempted to establish mathematical models determining the capacity.

Although it is not truly applicable to hard rocks, for soft rocks it is reasonably acceptable [1]. This expression, therefore, is of limited use. The expressions derived by others are more appropriate and therefore are discussed and summarised here.

Rose and English [9] determined the capacity of a jaw crusher by considering the time taken and the distance travelled by the particles between the two plates after being subjected to repeat crushing forces between the jaws. Therefore, dry particles wedged between level A and level B (Figure4.4) would leave the crusher at the next reverse movement of the jaw. The maximum size of particle dropping out of the crusher (dMAX) will be determined by the maximum distance set at the bottom between the two plates (LMAX). The rate at which the crushed particles pass between the jaws would depend on the frequency of reversal of the moving jaw.

The distance, h, between A and B is equal to the distance the particle would fall during half a cycle of the crusher eccentric, provided the cycle frequency allows sufficient time for the particle to do so. If is the number of cycles per minute, then the time for one complete cycle is [60/] seconds and the time for half a cycle is [60/2]. Thus, h, the greatest distance through which the fragments would fall freely during this period, will be

Then for a fragmented particle to fall a distance h in the crusher, the frequency must be less than that given by Equation (4.10). The distance h can be expressed in terms of LMIN and LMAX, provided the angle between the jaws, , is known. From Figure4.4, it can be seen that

Rose and English [9] observed that with increasing frequency of the toggle movement the production increased up to a certain value but decreased with a further increase in frequency. During comparatively slower jaw movements and frequency, Rose and English derived the capacity, QS, as

Equation (4.12) indicates that the capacity, QS, is directly proportional to frequency. At faster movement of the jaws where the particle cannot fall the complete distance, h, during the half cycle, QF was found to be inversely proportional to frequency and could be expressed by the relation

The relationship between the frequency of operation and capacity of the jaw crusher can be seen in Figure4.5. This figure is plotted for values of LT=0.228m, W=1.2m, LMIN=0.10m, R=10, G=1 and the value of varied between 50 and 300rpm.

It should be noted that while considering the volume rates, no consideration was made to the change of bulk density of the material or the fractional voidage. However, during the crushing operation the bulk density of the ore changes as it passes down the crusher. The extent of the change depends on

PK is considered a size distribution function and is related to capacity by some function (PK). As the particles decrease in size, while being repeatedly crushed between the jaws, the amount of material discharged for a given set increases. Rose and English related this to the set opening and the mean size of the particles that were discharged. Defining this relation as it can be written as

The capacity is then dependant on some function which may be written as (). Equations (4.16) and (4.17) must, therefore, be incorporated into the capacity equation. Expressing capacity as mass of crusher product produced per unit time, capacity can be written as

The bulk density of the packing will depend on the particle size distribution. The relation between PK and (PK) and and () is shown in Figure4.6. It is based on a maximum possible bulk density of 40%.

As the closed set size must be less than the feed size, () may be taken as equal to 1 for all practical purposes. The maximum capacity of production can be theoretically achieved at the critical speed of oscillation of the moving jaw. The method of determining the critical speed and maximum capacity is described in Section4.2.3

The capacity of a jaw crusher is given by the amount of crushed material passing the discharge opening per unit time. This is dependent on the area of the discharge opening, the properties of the rock, moisture, crusher throw, speed, nip angle, method of feeding and the amount of size reduction.

In order to calculate the capacity of crushers, Taggart [8] considered the size reduction, R80, as the reduction ratio of the 80% passing size of the feed, F80, and product, P80. This may be written as

Hersam [6] showed that at a fixed set and throw, a decrease in feed size reduced the reduction ratio and increased the tonnage capacity. A fraction of the crusher feed is usually smaller than the minimum crusher opening at the discharge end (undersize) and, therefore, passes through the crusher without any size reduction. Thus, as the feed size decreases, the amount actually crushed becomes significantly less than the total feed. The crusher feed rate can increase to maintain the same crushing rate. Taggart expressed the relationship between crusher capacity and reduction ratio in terms of a reduction ton or tonne, QR defined as

The reduction tonnage term is dependent on the properties of the material crushed so that for a given reduction ratio, the crusher capacity will vary for different materials. Taggart attempted to compensate for this by introducing the comparative reduction tonne, QRC, which is related to the reduction tonne by the expression

The comparative reduction tonne is a standard for comparison and applies for the crushing conditions of uniform full capacity feeding of dry thick bedded medium-hard limestone where K=1. The factor K is determined for different conditions and is a function of the material crushability (kC), moisture content (kM) and crusher feeding conditions (kF). K is expressed as

To evaluate K, the relative crushability factor, kC, of common rocks was considered and is given in Table4.2. In the table, the crushability of limestone is considered standard and taken as equal to 1.

The moisture factor, kM, has little effect on primary crushing capacities in jaw crushers and could be neglected. However when clay is present or the moisture content is high (up to 6%) sticking of fine ores on the operating faces of the jaws is promoted and will reduce the production rate. The moisture effect is more marked during secondary crushing, where a higher proportion of fines are present in the feed.

The feed factor kF, applies to the manner in which the crusher is fed, for example, manually fed intermittently or continuously by a conveyor belt system. In the latter case, the rate of feeding is more uniform. The following values for factor kF are generally accepted:

The reduction ratio of the operation is estimated from screen analysis of the feed and product. Where a screen analysis is not available, a rough estimate can be obtained if the relation between the cumulative mass percent passing (or retained) for different size fractions is assumed to be linear (Figure4.7).

Figure4.7 is a linear plot of the scalped and unscalped ores. The superimposed data points of a crusher product indicate the fair assumption of a linear representation. In the figure, a is the cumulative size distribution of the unscalped feed ore (assumed linear) and b is the cumulative size distribution of the scalped ore. xS is the aperture of the scalping screen and d1 and d2 are the corresponding sizes of the scalped and unscalped feed at x cumulative mass percentage. Taking x equal to 20% (as we are required to estimate 80% that is passing through), it can be seen by simple geometry that the ratio of the 80% passing size of the scalped feed to the 80% passing size of the unscalped feed is given by

Run of mine granite is passed through a grizzly (45.7cm) prior to crushing. The ore is to be broken down in a jaw crusher to pass through a 11.5cm screen. The undersize is scalped before feeding to the jaw crusher. Assuming the maximum feed rate is maintained at 30t/h and the shapes of feed and product are the same and the crusher set is 10cm, estimate the size of jaw crusher required and the production rate.

Substituting values, assuming cubic-shaped particles where the shape factor=1.7, we haveF80=0.81.745.7+0.210=64.15cmandP80=0.81.711.5=15.64cmR80=64.1515.64=4.10HenceQRC=22.744.100.64=145.4t/h

For a jaw crusher the thickness of the largest particle should not normally exceed 8085% of the gape. Assuming in this case the largest particle to be crushed is 85% of the gape, then the gape of the crusher should be=45.7/0.85=53.6cm and for a shape factor of 1.7, the width should be=45.7 1.7=78cm.

From the data given by Taggart (Figure4.8), a crusher of gape 53.6cm would have a comparative reduction tonnage of 436 t/h. The corresponding crushing capacity would beQT=4360.644.10=68.1t/hand is thus capable of handling the desired capacity of 22.74 t/h.

To determine the capacity of jaw and gyratory crushers, Broman [10] divided the crusher chamber into different sections and determined the volume of each section in terms of the angle that the moving jaw subtended with the vertical. Broman suggested that the capacity per stroke crushed in each section would be a function of the top surface and the height of the section. Referring to Figure4.9, if is the angle of nip between the crusher jaws and LT and LMAX are the throw and open side setting, respectively, then

Michaelson [8] expressed the jaw crusher capacity in terms of the gravity flow of a theoretical ribbon of rock through the open set of the crusher times a constant, k. For a rock of SG 2.65, Michaelsons equation is given as

For a set of crusher sizes and set openings, the calculations obtained from the work of Rose and English and others can be compared with data from equipment manufacturers. Figure4.10 shows a plot of the results. Assuming a value of SC of 1.0, the calculations show an overestimation of the capacity recommended by the manufacturers. As Rose and English pointed out, the calculation of throughput is very dependent on the value of SC for the ore being crushed. The diagram also indicates that the calculations drop to within the installed plant data for values of SC below 1.0. Most other calculation methods tend to estimate higher throughputs than the manufacturers recommend; hence, the crusher manufacturers should always be consulted.

The Values Used in the Calculation were 2.6 SG, (PK)=0.65, ()=1.0 and SC=0.51.0 (R&E); k=0.4 (Hersam); k=0.3 (Michaelson); k=1.5 (Broman) and =275rpm. The Max and Min Lines Represent the Crushers Nominal Operating Capacity Range.

Jaw crushers are heavy-duty machines and hence must be robustly constructed. The main frame is often made from cast iron or steel, connected with tie-bolts. It is commonly made in sections so that it can be transported underground for installation. Modern jaw crushers may have a main frame of welded mild steel plate.

The jaws are usually constructed from cast steel and fitted with replaceable liners, made from manganese steel, or Ni-hard, a Ni-Cr alloyed cast iron. Apart from reducing wear, hard liners are essential to minimize crushing energy consumption by reducing the deformation of the surface at each contact point. The jaw plates are bolted in sections for simple removal or periodic reversal to equalize wear. Cheek plates are fitted to the sides of the crushing chamber to protect the main frame from wear. These are also made from hard alloy steel and have similar lives to the jaw plates. The jaw plates may be smooth, but are often corrugated, the latter being preferred for hard, abrasive ores. Patterns on the working surface of the crushing members also influence capacity, especially at small settings. The corrugated profile is claimed to perform compound crushing by compression, tension, and shearing. Conventional smooth crushing plates tend to perform crushing by compression only, though irregular particles under compression loading might still break in tension. Since rocks are around 10 times weaker in tension than compression, power consumption and wear costs should be lower with corrugated profiles. Regardless, some type of pattern is desirable for the jaw plate surface in a jaw crusher, partly to reduce the risk of undesired large flakes easily slipping through the straight opening, and partly to reduce the contact surface when crushing flaky blocks. In several installations, a slight wave shape has proved successful. The angle between the jaws is usually less than 26, as the use of a larger angle causes particle to slip (i.e., not be nipped), which reduces capacity and increases wear.

In order to overcome problems of choking near the discharge of the crusher, which is possible if fines are present in the feed, curved plates are sometimes used. The lower end of the swing jaw is concave, whereas the opposite lower half of the fixed jaw is convex. This allows a more gradual reduction in size as the material nears the exit, minimizing the chance of packing. Less wear is also reported on the jaw plates, since the material is distributed over a larger area.

The speed of jaw crushers varies inversely with the size, and usually lies in the range of 100350rpm. The main criterion in determining the optimum speed is that particles must be given sufficient time to move down the crusher throat into a new position before being nipped again.

The throw (maximum amplitude of swing of the jaw) is determined by the type of material being crushed and is usually adjusted by changing the eccentric. It varies from 1 to 7cm depending on the machine size, and is highest for tough, plastic material and lowest for hard, brittle ore. The greater the throw the less danger of choking, as material is removed more quickly. This is offset by the fact that a large throw tends to produce more fines, which inhibits arrested crushing. Large throws also impart higher working stresses to the machine.

In all crushers, provision must be made for avoiding damage that could result from uncrushable material entering the chamber. Many jaw crushers are protected from such tramp material (often metal objects) by a weak line of rivets on one of the toggle plates, although automatic trip-out devices are now common. Certain designs incorporate automatic overload protection based on hydraulic cylinders between the fixed jaw and the frame. In the event of excessive pressure caused by an overload, the jaw is allowed to open, normal gap conditions being reasserted after clearance of the blockage. This allows a full crusher to be started under load (Anon., 1981). The use of guard magnets to remove tramp metal ahead of the crusher is also common (Chapters 2 and 13Chapter 2Chapter 13).

Jaw crushers are supplied in sizes up to 1,600mm (gape)1,900mm (width). For coarse crushing application (closed set~300mm), capacities range up to ca. 1,200th1. However, Lewis et al. (1976) estimated that the economic advantage of using a jaw crusher over a gyratory diminishes at crushing rates above 545th1, and above 725th1 jaw crushers cannot compete.

In hardening and martempering conditions austenitic manganese steel was free from carbides both at the grain boundaries and in the grains. Hence, the crusher jaws produced with austenitic manganese in these conditions eradicated brittle failure experienced in locally produced crusher jaws.

Hardening followed by tempering precipitated carbide at the grain boundaries and in the grains instead of reducing the residual stress associated with hardening. The volume fraction of these carbides, however, increased with tempering temperature.

In martempering conditions austenitic manganese steel had better plastic flows due to a decrease in overall thermal gradient and reduction in residual stresses associated with heat-treatment operations. This gave a better combination of hardness and toughness than austenitic manganese steel in hardening conditions used for the production of imported crusher jaws.

Srikanth [7] used a jaw crusher to create37m coal dust particles. Coal samples were obtained from coal mines in addition to some samples from the same source as Thakur's samples. They used a Microtrac Standard Range Analyzer (SRA) and Small Particle Analyser (SPA), which measured projected area (and hence diameter) using laser scattering and diffraction, respectively. The data were combined and plotted on a RosinRammler graph (discussed in Chapter 8). Their main findings were as follows:

Higher rank coals produced more total dust (<15m) and respirable dust (<7m). Semianthracite coal produced 3.7 times more total dust and 4.2 times more respirable dust compared with high-volatile bituminous coal.

The RosinRammler graph distribution parameter, n, was also rank dependent. The value for n was 0.68, 0.84, 0.90, and 0.95 for semianthracite, low-volatile coal, high-volatile bituminous coal, and subbituminous coals, respectively. This is similar to findings by Thakur (refer to Chapter 8 in the book).

A material is crushed in a Blake jaw crusher such that the average size of particle is reduced from 50 mm to 10 mm with the consumption of energy of 13.0 kW/(kg/s). What would be the consumption of energy needed to crush the same material of average size 75 mm to an average size of 25 mm:

The size range involved by be considered as that for coarse crushing and, because Kick's law more closely relates the energy required to effect elastic deformation before fracture occurs, this would be taken as given the more reliable result.

In an investigation by the U.S. Bureau of Mines(14), in which a drop weight type of crusher was used, it was found that the increase in surface was directly proportional to the input of energy and that the rate of application of the load was an important factor.

This conclusion was substantiated in a more recent investigation of the power consumption in a size reduction process which is reported in three papers by Kwong et al.(15), Adams et al.(16) and Johnson etal.(17). A sample of material was crushed by placing it in a cavity in a steel mortar, placing a steel plunger over the sample and dropping a steel ball of known weight on the plunger over the sample from a measured height. Any bouncing of the ball was prevented by three soft aluminium cushion wires under the mortar, and these wires were calibrated so that the energy absorbed by the system could be determined from their deformation. Losses in the plunger and ball were assumed to be proportional to the energy absorbed by the wires, and the energy actually used for size reduction was then obtained as the difference between the energy of the ball on striking the plunger and the energy absorbed. Surfaces were measured by a water or air permeability method or by gas adsorption. The latter method gave a value approximately double that obtained from the former indicating that, in these experiments, the internal surface was approximately the same as the external surface. The experimental results showed that, provided the new surface did not exceed about 40 m2/kg, the new surface produced was directly proportional to the energy input. For a given energy input the new surface produced was independent of:

Between 30 and 50 per cent of the energy of the ball on impact was absorbed by the material, although no indication was obtained of how this was utilised. An extension of the range of the experiments, in which up to 120 m2 of new surface was produced per kilogram of material, showed that the linear relationship between energy and new surface no longer held rigidly. In further tests in which the crushing was effected slowly, using a hydraulic press, it was found, however, that the linear relationship still held for the larger increases in surface.

In order to determine the efficiency of the surface production process, tests were carried out with sodium chloride and it was found that 90 J was required to produce 1 m2 of new surface. As the theoretical value of the surface energy of sodium chloride is only 0.08 J/m2, the efficiency of the process is about 0.1 per cent. Zeleny and Piret(18) have reported calorimetric studies on the crushing of glass and quartz. It was found that a fairly constant energy was required of 77 J/m2 of new surface created, compared with a surface-energy value of less than 5 J/m2. In some cases over 50 per cent of the energy supplied was used to produce plastic deformation of the steel crusher surfaces.

The apparent efficiency of the size reduction operation depends on the type of equipment used. Thus, for instance, a ball mill is rather less efficient than a drop weight type of crusher because of the ineffective collisions that take place in the ball mill.

Further work(5) on the crushing of quartz showed that more surface was created per unit of energy with single particles than with a collection of particles. This appears to be attributable to the fact that the crushing strength of apparently identical particles may vary by a factor as large as 20, and it is necessary to provide a sufficient energy concentration to crush the strongest particle. Some recent developments, including research and mathematical modelling, are described by Prasher(6).

The main sources of RA are either from construction and ready mixed concrete sites, demolition sites or from roads. The demolition sites produce a heterogeneous material, whereas ready mixed concrete or prefabricated concrete plants produce a more homogeneous material. RAs are mainly produced in fixed crushing plant around big cities where CDWs are available. However, for roads and to reduce transportation cost, mobile crushing installations are used.

The materiel for RA manufacturing does not differ from that of producing NA in quarries. However, it should be more robust to resist wear, and it handles large blocks of up to 1m. The main difference is that RAs need the elimination of contaminants such as wood, joint sealants, plastics, and steel which should be removed with blast of air for light materials and electro-magnets for steel. The materials are first separated from other undesired materials then treated by washing and air to take out contamination. The quality and grading of aggregates depend on the choice of the crusher type.

Jaw crusher: The material is crushed between a fixed jaw and a mobile jaw. The feed is subjected to repeated pressure as it passes downwards and is progressively reduced in size until it is small enough to pass out of the crushing chamber. This crusher produces less fines but the aggregates have a more elongated form.

Hammer (impact) crusher: The feed is fragmented by kinetic energy introduced by a rotating mass (the rotor) which projects the material against a fixed surface causing it to shatter causing further particle size reduction. This crusher produces more rounded shape.

However, the gyratory crusher is sensitive to jamming if it is fed with a sticky or moist product loaded with fines. This inconvenience is less sensitive with a single-effect jaw crusher because mutual sliding of grinding surfaces promotes the release of a product that adheres to surfaces.

The profile of active surfaces could be curved and studied as a function of the product in a way to allow for work performed at a constant volume and, as a result, a higher reduction ratio that could reach 20. Inversely, at a given reduction ratio, effective streamlining could increase the capacity by 30%.

The theoretical work of Rose and English [11] to determine the capacity of jaw crushers is also applicable to gyratory crushers. According to Rose and English, Equation (5.4) can be used to determine the capacity, Q, of gyratory crushers:

Capacities of gyratory crushers of different sizes and operation variables are published by various manufacturers. The suppliers have their own specifications which should be consulted. As a typical example, gyratory crusher capacities of some crushers are shown in Tables5.5 and 5.6.

About 100g heavy metal contaminated construction and demolition (C&D) waste is weighed and preliminarily crushed by a jaw crusher. Then the crushed C&D waste is mixed well and reduced by quartering twice. After that, the sample is dried at 100C for 1h. An electromagnetic crusher is used as a fine crushing for about 46min. Crushed sample is placed in a polypropylene screw-cap plastic bottles for storage.

Teflon crucibles used for digestion should be soaked in 1:1 nitric acid for 12h, wash with distilled water, and dry for later use. Volumetric flasks should be soaked in 1:1 nitric acid for 12h and washed with distilled water.

Before digestion, 0.10000.3000g of C&D waste powder is accurately weighed and evenly spread on the bottom of Teflon crucibles. Then they are placed in oven and dried for 2h at 120C together till constant weight. Aqua regia (18mL) (hydrochloric acid:nitric acid=3:1) is added, and 2mL 40% hydrofluoric acid is added 10min later. The crucibles with lids on are placed on an electric heating plate at 180C and heated till the solid waste is dissolved. Then, 30mL deionized water is added and the heating should be continuously maintained till the solution is vaporized to 23mL. Transfer the liquid to a 25mL plastic volumetric flask after it is cooled down, in which the volumetric flask should be washed with 1% nitric acid solution three times. Add deionized water to a certain volume and filter through 0.22m membrane. Place the solution at 4C for analysis.

Various types of rock fracture occur at different loading rates. For example, rock destruction by a boring machine, a jaw or cone crusher, and a grinding roll machine are within the extent of low loading rates, often called quasistatic loading condition. On the contrary, rock fracture in percussive drilling and blasting happens under high loading rates, usually named dynamic loading condition. This chapter presents loading rate effects on rock strengths, rock fracture toughness, rock fragmentation, energy partitioning, and energy efficiency. Finally, some of engineering applications of loading rate effects are discussed.

p&q university lesson 7- crushing & secondary breaking : pit & quarry

In the quarry, crushing is handled in four potential stages: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. The reduction of aggregate is spread over these stages to better control the product size and quality, while minimizing waste.

The primary stage was once viewed merely as a means to further reduce stone following the blast or excavation prior to secondary crushing. Today, primary crushing is viewed as more important within the balance of production and proper sizing needs. The size and type of the primary crusher should be coordinated with the type of stone, drilling and blasting patterns, and the size of the loading machine. Most operations will use a gyratory, jaw or impact crusher for primary crushing.

In the secondary and subsequent stages, the stone is further reduced and refined for proper size and shape, mostly based on specifications to produce concrete and asphalt. Between stages, screens with two or three decks separate the material that already is the proper size. Most secondary crushers are cone crushers or horizontal-shaft impact crushers. Tertiary and quaternary crushers are usually cone crushers, although some applications can call for vertical-shaft impact crushers in these stages.

A gyratory crusher uses a mantle that gyrates, or rotates, within a concave bowl. As the mantle makes contact with the bowl during gyration, it creates compressive force, which fractures the rock. The gyratory crusher is mainly used in rock that is abrasive and/or has high compressive strength. Gyratory crushers often are built into a cavity in the ground to aid in the loading process, as large haul trucks can access the hopper directly.

Jaw crushers are also compression crushers that allow stone into an opening at the top of the crusher, between two jaws. One jaw is stationary while the other is moveable. The gap between the jaws becomes narrower farther down into the crusher. As the moveable jaw pushes against the stone in the chamber, the stone is fractured and reduced, moving down the chamber to the opening at the bottom.

The reduction ratio for a jaw crusher is typically 6-to-1, although it can be as high as 8-to-1. Jaw crushers can process shot rock and gravel. They can work with a range of stone from softer rock, such as limestone, to harder granite or basalt.

As the name implies, the horizontal-shaft impact (HSI) crusher has a shaft that runs horizontally through the crushing chamber, with a rotor that turns hammers or blow bars. It uses the high-speed impacting force of the turning blow bars hitting and throwing the stone to break the rock. It also uses the secondary force of the stone hitting the aprons (liners) in the chamber, as well as stone hitting stone.

With impact crushing, the stone breaks along its natural cleavage lines, resulting in a more cubical product, which is desirable for many of todays specifications. HSI crushers can be primary or secondary crushers. In the primary stage, HSIs are better suited for softer rock, such as limestone, and less abrasive stone. In the secondary stage, the HSI can process more abrasive and harder stone.

Cone crushers are similar to gyratory crushers in that they have a mantle that rotates within a bowl, but the chamber is not as steep. They are compression crushers that generally provide reduction ratios of 6-to-1 to 4-to-1. Cone crushers are used in secondary, tertiary and quaternary stages.

With proper choke-feed, cone-speed and reduction-ratio settings, cone crushers will efficiently produce material that is high quality and cubical in nature. In secondary stages, a standard-head cone is usually specified. A short-head cone is typically used in tertiary and quaternary stages. Cone crushers can crush stone of medium to very hard compressive strength as well as abrasive stone.

The vertical shaft impact crusher (or VSI) has a rotating shaft that runs vertically through the crushing chamber. In a standard configuration, the VSIs shaft is outfitted with wear-resistant shoes that catch and throw the feed stone against anvils that line the outside of the crushing chamber. The force of the impact, from the stone striking the shoes and anvils, fractures it along its natural fault lines.

VSIs also can be configured to use the rotor as a means of throwing the rock against other rock lining the outside of the chamber through centrifugal force. Known as autogenous crushing, the action of stone striking stone fractures the material. In shoe-and-anvil configurations, VSIs are suitable for medium to very hard stone that is not very abrasive. Autogenous VSIs are suitable for stone of any hardness and abrasion factor.

Roll crushers are a compression-type reduction crusher with a long history of success in a broad range of applications. The crushing chamber is formed by massive drums, revolving toward one another. The gap between the drums is adjustable, and the outer surface of the drum is composed of heavy manganese steel castings known as roll shells that are available with either a smooth or corrugated crushing surface.

Double roll crushers offer up to a 3-to-1 reduction ratio in some applications depending on the characteristics of the material. Triple roll crushers offer up to a 6-to-1 reduction. As a compressive crusher, the roll crusher is well suited for extremely hard and abrasive materials. Automatic welders are available to maintain the roll shell surface and minimize labor expense and wear costs.

These are rugged, dependable crushers, but not as productive as cone crushers with respect to volume. However, roll crushers provide very close product distribution and are excellent for chip stone, particularly when avoiding fines.

Hammermills are similar to impact crushers in the upper chamber where the hammer impacts the in-feed of material. The difference is that the rotor of a hammermill carries a number of swing type or pivoting hammers. Hammermills also incorporate a grate circle in the lower chamber of the crusher. Grates are available in a variety of configurations. The product must pass through the grate circle as it exits the machine, insuring controlled product sizing.

Hammermills crush or pulverize materials that have low abrasion. The rotor speed, hammer type and grate configuration can be converted for different applications. They can be used in a variety of applications, including primary and secondary reduction of aggregates, as well as numerous industrial applications.

Virgin or natural stone processing uses a multi-stage crushing and screening process for producing defined aggregate sizes from large lumps of rock. Such classified final fractions are used as aggregates for concrete, asphalt base, binder and surface course layers in road construction, as well as in building construction. The rock is quarried by means of drilling and blasting. There are then two options for processing the bulk material after it has been reduced to feeding size of the crushing plant: mobile or stationary plants.

When stone is processed in mobile primary crushing plants, excavators or wheel loaders feed the rock into the crusher that is set up at the quarry face, gravel pit or in a recycling yard or demolition site. The crushed material is then either sent to the secondary/tertiary processing stage via stacking conveyors or transported by trucks. Some mobile crushers have an independent secondary screen mounted on the unit, effectively replacing a standalone screen.

The higher the compressive strength of rock, the higher also is its quality, which plays an important role particularly in road construction. A materials compressive strength is delineated into hard, medium-hard or soft rock, which also determines the crushing techniques used for processing to obtain the desired particle sizes.

The materials quality is influenced significantly by particle shape. The more cubic-shaped the individual aggregate particles are, the better the resulting particle interlock. Final grains of pronounced cubic shape are achieved by using several crushing stages. A cubicity showing an edge ratio of better than 1-to-3 is typical of high-quality final aggregate.

As the earths natural resources are becoming ever more scarce, recycling is becoming ever more important. In the building industry, recycling and reuse of demolition concrete or reclaimed asphalt pavement help to reduce the requirements for primary raw materials. Mobile impact and jaw plants are uniquely positioned to produce high-quality reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) for reuse in pavements, road bases, fill and foundations.

Use of RAP and RCA is growing dramatically as road agencies accept them more and more in their specs. But because RAP and RCA come from a variety of sources, to be specified for use by most departments of transportation they must be processed or fractionated and characterized into an engineered, value-added product. RCA or RAP are very commonly crushed and screened to usable sizes often by impact crushers and stored in blended stockpiles that can be characterized by lab testing for use in engineered applications.

Impact crushers are increasingly used for crushing recycling material. Impact crushers are capable of producing mineral aggregate mixes in one single crushing stage in a closed-cycle operation, making them particularly cost-effective. Different crusher units can alternatively be combined to process recycling material. A highly efficient method of processing recycling material combines crushing, screening and separation of metals. To produce an end product of even higher quality, the additional steps of washing to remove light materials such as plastics or paper by air classification and via electromagnetic metal separator are incorporated into the recycling process.

Mobile impact crushers with integrated secondary screens or without integrated screen used in conjunction with an independent mobile screen are ideal for producing large volumes of processed, fractionated RAP or RCA on a relatively small footprint in the plant. Mobile impactors are especially suited for RAP because they break up chunks of asphalt pavement or agglomerations of RAP, rather than downsize the aggregate gradation. Compression-type crushers such as jaws and cones can clog due to packing (caking) of RAP when the RAP is warm or wet.

Contaminants such as soil are part of processing demolition concrete. Mobile impact and jaw crushers when possessing integrated, independent prescreens removing dirt and fines before they ever enter the crushing circuit reduce equipment wear, save fuel, and with some customers, create a salable fill byproduct. A lined, heavy-duty vibrating feeder below the crusher can eliminate belt wear from rebar or dowel or tie bar damage. If present beneath the crusher, this deflector plate can keep tramp metal from degrading the conveyor belt. That way, the feeder below the crusher not the belt absorbs impact of rebar dropping through the crusher.

These mobile jaw and impact crushers may feature a diesel and electric-drive option. In this configuration, the crusher is directly diesel-driven, with the conveyor troughs, belts and prescreen electric-driven via power from the diesel generator. This concept not only reduces diesel fuel consumption, but also results in significantly reduced exhaust emissions and noise levels. This permits extremely efficient operation with low fuel consumption, allowing optimal loading of the crusher.

Jaw crushers operate according to the principle of pressure crushing. The raw feed is crushed in the wedge-shaped pit created between the fixed crusher jaw, and the crusher jaw articulated on an eccentric shaft. The feed material is crushed by the elliptic course of movement and transported downwards. This occurs until the material is smaller than the set crushing size.

Jaw crushers can be used in a wide range of applications. In the weight class up to 77 tons (70 metric tons), they can be used for both virgin stone and recycled concrete and asphalt aggregates processing as a classic primary crusher for natural stone with an active double-deck grizzly, or as a recycling crusher with vibrating discharge chute and the crusher outlet and magnetic separator.

Output for mobile jaw crushers ranges from 100 to 1,500 tph depending on the model size and consistency of the feed material. While larger mobile crushers produce more aggregate faster, transport weights and dimensions may limit how easily the crusher can be shipped long distances. Mobile jaw crushers can have either a vibratory feeder with integrated grizzly, or a vibrating feeder with an independent, double-deck, heavy-duty prescreen. Either way, wear in the system is reduced because medium and smaller gradations bypass the crusher, with an increase in end-product quality because a side-discharge conveyor removes fines. A bypass flap may provide easy diversion of the material flow, eliminating the need for a blind deck.

Jaw crusher units with extra-long, articulated crusher jaws prevent coarse material from blocking while moving all mounting elements of the crusher jaw from the wear area. A more even material flow may be affected if the transfer from the prescreen or the feeder trough is designed so material simply tilts into the crushing jaw.

Mobile jaw and impact crushers alike can be controlled by one operator using a handheld remote. The remote also can be used to move or relocate the crusher within a plant. In other words, the crusher can be run by one worker in the cab of an excavator or loader as he feeds material into the crusher. If he sees something deleterious going into the hopper, he can stop the crusher.

Impact crushing is totally different from pressure crushing. In impact crushing, feed material is picked up by a fast moving rotor, greatly accelerated and smashed against an impact plate (impact toggle). From there, it falls back within range of the rotor. The crushed material is broken again and again until it can pass through the gap between the rotor and impact toggle.

A correctly configured mobile jaw or impact crusher will enhance material flow through the plant and optimize productivity. New-design mobile jaw and impact crushers incorporate a highly efficient flow concept, which eliminates all restriction to the flow of the material throughout the entire plant. With this continuous-feed system, each step the material goes through in the plant is wider than the width of the one before it, eliminating choke or wear points.

For example, a grizzly feeder can be wider than the hopper, and the crusher inlet wider than the feeder. The discharge chute under the crusher is 4 inches wider than the inner width of the crusher, and the subsequent discharge belt is another 4 inches wider than the discharge chute. This configuration permits rapid flow of crushed material through the crusher. Also, performance can be significantly increased if the conveying frequencies of the feeder trough and the prescreen are adapted independently to the level of the crusher, permitting a more equal loading of the crushing area. This flow concept keeps a choke feed to the crusher, eliminating stops/starts of the feed system, which improves production, material shape and wear.

Users are focused on cost, the environment, availability, versatility and, above all, the quality of the end product. Simple crushing is a relatively easy process. But crushing material so that the particle size, distribution and cleanliness meet the high standards for concrete and asphalt requires effective primary screening, intelligent control for optimal loading, an adjustable crusher with high drive output, and a screening unit with oversize return feed.

This starts with continuous flow of material to the crusher through a variable-speed control feeder. Having hopper walls that hydraulically fold integrated into the chassis makes for quick erection of hopper sides on mobile units. If available, a fully independent prescreen for either jaw or impact models offers the ability to effectively prescreen material prior to crushing this allows for product to be sized prior to crushing, as opposed to using a conventional vibrating grizzly. This has the added value of increasing production, reducing wear costs and decreasing fuel consumption.

This independent double-deck vibrating screen affects primary screening of fines and contaminated material via a top-deck interchangeable punched sheet or grizzly, bottom-deck wire mesh or rubber blank. Discharged material might be conveyed either to the left or to the right for ease of positioning. The independent double-deck vibrating prescreen improves flow of material to the crusher, reducing blockages and feed surges.

Modern electrical systems will include effective guards against dust and moisture through double-protective housings, vibration isolation and an overpressure system in which higher air pressure in the electrical box keeps dust out. Simple and logical control of all functions via touch panel, simple error diagnostics by text indicator and remote maintenance system all are things to look for. For crushing demolition concrete, look for a high-performance electro- or permanent magnet with maximum discharge capacity, and hydraulic lifting and lowering function by means of radio remote control.

For impact crushers, a fully hydraulic crusher gap setting with automatic zero-point calculation can speed daily set-up. Featured only on certain mobile impact crushers, a fully hydraulic adjustment capability of the crushing gap permits greater plant uptime, while improving quality of end product.

Not only can the crushing gap be completely adjusted via the touch panel electronic control unit, but the zero point can be calculated while the rotor is running. This ability to accurately set the crusher aprons from the control panel with automatic detection of zero-point and target-value setting saves time, and improves the overall efficiency and handling of the crusher. On these mobile impact crushers, the zero point is the distance between the ledges of the rotor and the impact plates of the lower impact toggle, plus a defined safety distance. The desired crushing gap is approached from this zero point.

While the upper impact toggle is adjusted via simple hydraulic cylinders, the lower impact toggle has a hydraulic crushing gap adjustment device, which is secured electronically and mechanically against collision with the rotor. The crushing gap is set via the touch screen and approached hydraulically. Prior to setting of the crushing gap, the zero point is determined automatically.

For automatic zero-point determination with the rotor running, the impact toggle moves slowly onto the rotor ledges until it makes contact, which is detected by a sensor. The impact toggle then retracts to the defined safe distance. During this procedure, a stop ring slides on the piston rod. When the zero point is reached, the locking chamber is locked hydraulically and the stop ring is thus fixed in position. The stop ring now serves as a mechanical detent for the piston rod. During the stop ring check, which is carried out for every crusher restart, the saved zero point is compared to the actual value via the electronic limit switch. If the value deviates, a zero-point determination is carried out once again.

These impact crushers may feature a new inlet geometry that allows even better penetration of the material into the range of the rotor. Also, the wear behavior of the new C-form impact ledges has been improved to such an extent that the edges remain sharper longer, leading to improved material shape.

The machines come equipped with an efficient direct drive that improves performance. A latest-generation diesel engine transmits its power almost loss-free directly to the crushers flywheel, via a fluid coupling and V-belts. This drive concept enables versatility, as the rotor speed can be adjusted in four stages to suit different processing applications.

Secondary impact crushers and cone crushers are used to further process primary-crushed aggregate, and can be operated with or without attached screening units. These crushers can be used as either secondary or tertiary crushers depending on the application. When interlinked to other mobile units such as a primary or screen, complicated technical processing can be achieved.

Mobile cone crushers have been on the market for many years. These machines can be specially designed for secondary and tertiary crushing in hard-stone applications. They are extraordinarily efficient, diverse in application and very economical to use. To meet the diverse requirements in processing technology, mobile cone crushing plants are available in different sizes and configurations. Whether its a solo cone crusher, one used in addition to a triple-deck screen for closed-loop operation, or various-size cone crushers with a double-deck screen and oversize return conveyor, a suitable plant will be available for almost every task.

Mobile cone crushers may be available with or without integrated screen units. With the latter, an extremely efficient triple-deck screen unit may be used, which allows for closed-loop operation and produces three final products. Here the screen areas must be large so material quantities can be screened efficiently and ensure that the cone crusher always has the correct fill level, which is particularly important for the quality of the end product.

Mobile, tracked crushers and screen plants are advancing into output ranges that were recently only possible using stationary plants. Previously, only stationary plants were used for complicated aggregate processing applications. But thanks to the advancements made in machine technology, it is becoming increasingly possible to employ mobile technology for traditional stationary applications.

Mobile crushers are used in quarries, in mining, on jobsites, and in the recycling industry. These plants are mounted on crawler tracks and can process rock and recycling material, producing mineral aggregate and recycled building materials respectively for the construction industry. A major advantage of mobile crushers is their flexibility to move from one location to the next. They are suitable for transport, but can also cover short distances within the boundaries of their operating site, whether in a quarry or on the jobsite. When operating in quarries, they usually follow the quarry face, processing the stone directly on site.

For transport over long distances to a new location or different quarry, mobile crushers are loaded on low trailers. No more than 20 minutes to an hour is needed for setting the plant up for operation. Their flexibility enables the mobile crushers to process even small quantities of material with economic efficiency.

Mobile plants allow the combination of prescreening that prepares the rock for the crushing process and grading, which precisely separates defined aggregate particle sizes into different end products to be integrated with the crushing unit into one single machine. In the first stage, the material is screened using an active prescreen. After prescreening, it is transferred to the crusher, from where it is either stockpiled via a discharge conveyor or forwarded to a final screen or a secondary crushing stage. Depending on the specified end product, particles are then either graded by screening units or transported to additional crushing stages by secondary or tertiary impact crushers or cone crushers. Further downstream screening units are used for grading the final aggregate fractions.

The process of prescreening, crushing and grading is a common operation in mobile materials processing and can be varied in a number of ways. Mobile crushers with up to three crushing stages are increasingly used in modern quarries. Different mobile crushing and screening plants can be combined for managing more complex crushing and screening jobs that would previously have required a stationary crushing and screening plant.

Interlinked mobile plants incorporate crushers and screens that work in conjunction with each other, and are coordinated in terms of performance and function. Mining permits are under time constraints and mobile plants provide faster setup times. They provide better resale value and reusability, as mobile plants can also be used individually. They also reduce operating costs in terms of fewer haul trucks and less personnel.

With a so-equipped mobile crusher, the feed operator can shut the machine down or change the size of the material, all using the remote control, or use it to walk the crusher from one part of the site to the other, or onto a flat bed trailer for relocation to a different quarry or recycling yard. This reduces personnel and hauling costs compared to a stationary plant. With the mobile jaw or impact primary crusher, the only additional personnel needed would be a skid-steer operator to remove scrap steel, and someone to move the stockpiles.

Thanks to better technology, mobile plants can achieve final aggregate fractions, which previously only were possible with stationary plants. Production availability is on par with stationary plants. Theyre applicable in all quarries, but can be used for small deposits if the owner has several quarries or various operation sites. For example, an operator of several stone quarries can use the plants in changing market situations at different excavation sites. In addition, they also can be used as individual machines. A further factor is that mobile plants, in general, require simpler and shorter licensing procedures.

The high cost of labor keeps going up. A stationary crusher might be able to produce multiple times the amount of product, but also would require about seven or eight workers. Aggregate producers can benefit when producing material with the minimized crew used for mobile jaw and impact crushers.

Using correct maintenance practices, mobile crushers will remain dependable throughout their working life. Crushing and processing material can result in excessive wear on certain components, excessive vibration throughout the plant, and excessive dust in the working environment. Some applications are more aggressive than others. A hard rock application is going to require more maintenance on top of standard maintenance, as there will be more vibration, more dust and more wear than from a softer aggregate.

Due to the nature of its purpose, from the moment a mobile crusher starts, the machine is wearing itself out and breaking itself down. Without routine, regular maintenance and repair, a mobile crusher will not be reliable nor provide the material customers demand.

The first area of wear on any machine is the feed system. Whether its a feeder with an integrated grizzly, or a feeder with an independent prescreen, how the machine is fed contributes to wear. When setting up and maintaining a machine, the machine must be level. A machine that is unlevel left to right will experience increased wear on all components, including the feeder, the screens, the crushing chambers and the conveyor belts. In addition, it reduces production and screening efficiency, as the whole area of the machine is not being effectively used. Also, having the machine sit high at the discharge end will have the effect of feeding the material uphill in the feeder and reducing its efficiency, thus reducing production.

Another area for consideration is the equipment used to feed the machine. The operator using a loader to feed the crusher will have no control over the feed size, as he cannot see whats in the bucket. Whereas with an excavator, the operator can see whats inside and has more control over the feed into the hopper. That is, the operator is not feeding so much material all at once and is controlling the size of the feed. This reduces wear in the feed hoppers impact zones and eliminates material blockages due to feed size being too large to enter the chamber.

Dust is a problem in its own right, especially for the power plant of the mobile crusher. In a very dusty application, it is easy to plug the radiator and have engine-overheating problems. High dust levels cause increased maintenance intervals on air filters, and if not controlled properly, can enter the diesel tank and cause problems with the fuel system. Also, dust that gets inside the crusher increases wear. But if systems are put in place to remove the dust, it should keep it from going into the machine in the first place.

Dust also is a hazard on walkways and a problem for conveyors. If maintained, side-skirting and sealing the conveyors keeps dust from spilling out, building up underneath the conveyor, or building up in rollers, pulleys, bearings, and causing wear on shafts. Its important to maintain the sealing rubbers on the conveyor belts to avoid those issues. Routine maintenance calls for removing accumulated dust from inside and under the machine.

Dust also is a problem for circuit boards and programmable controllers. Dust causes electrical switches to malfunction because it stops the contacts from correctly seating. Electrical systems under positive air pressure dont permit dust to penetrate the control system. In control panels with a correctly maintained positive pressure system, filters remove dust from air that is being pumped into the cabinets. If the filters are plugged, the system will not pull as much air through, allowing dust, moisture and heat to build in the cabinet.

There are also impact aprons against which the rock is thrown, which also see high wear. There are side plates or wear sheets on the sides of the machine. The highest wear area is around the impact crusher itself, around the circumference of the rotor. If not maintained, the wear items will wear through and compromise the structure of the crusher box.

Conduct a daily visual check of the machine. The jaw is simple; just stand up on the walkway and take a look down inside. A crushers jaw plate can be flipped so there are two sides of wear on them. Once half the jaw is worn out, flip it; once that side is worn, change it.

The impact crusher will have an inspection hatch to see inside. Check to see how much material is left on the blow bars and how much is left on the wear sheets on the side of the crusher box. If half the bar is worn out after one week, change the blow bars in another week.The frequency of changes depends entirely on the application and the rock that is being crushed.

They have to be user serviceable, user friendly, and able to be changed in a short time. The best way to change these parts is a service truck with a crane; some use excavators but thats not recommended by any means.

After initial blasting, breakers are used to break down aggregate that typically is not only too large to be hauled in dump trucks, but also too large for crushers that size rock to meet asphalt, drainage system, concrete and landscaping specifications. Breakers can be mounted to a mobile carrier, such as an excavator, or to stationary boom systems that can be attached to a crusher. The total number of hydraulic breakers can vary from site to site depending on production levels, the type of aggregate materials and the entire scope of the operation.

Without hydraulic breakers, workers rely on alternative practices that can quickly affect production rates. For instance, blasting mandates shutting down operations and moving workers to a safe location. And when you consider how many times oversize aggregate might need to be reduced, this can lead to a significant amount of downtime and substantially lower production rates.

Aggregate operations can use hydraulic breakers to attack oversize without having to clear the quarry. But with an ever-growing variety of manufacturers, sizes and models to choose from, narrowing the decision to one hydraulic breaker can be overwhelming with all of the stats and speculation. Thats why its important to know what factors to consider before investing in a new hydraulic breaker.

In most cases, heavy equipment dealers are very knowledgeable about quarry equipment, including breakers, so they are a good resource for finding the best model for a carrier, usually an excavator or stationary boom system. More than likely, they will have specifications and information about various breaker sizes to help gauge what model is best. But being familiar with what to look for in a breaker can streamline the selection process.

The best places to look for breaker information are in the manufacturers brochure, website, owners manual or catalogue. First, carefully review the carrier weight ranges. A breaker that is too big for the carrier can create unsafe working conditions and cause excessive wear to the carrier. An oversized breaker also transmits energy in two directions, toward the aggregate and through the equipment. This produces wasted energy and can damage the carrier. But using a breaker thats too small puts excessive force on the tool steel, which transmits percussive energy from the breaker to the material. Using breakers that are too small also can damage mounting adapters and internal components, which considerably decreases their life.

Once you find a breaker that meets the carriers capacity, check its output power, which is typically measured in foot-pounds. Foot-pound classes are generalizations and are not based on any physical test. Often the breakers output will be documented in one of two ways: as the manufacturers calculated foot-pound class or as an Association of Equipment Manufacturers measured foot-pound rating. Foot-pound class ratings can be deceiving since they are loosely based on the breakers service weight and not the result of any physical test. The AEM rating, on the other hand, measures the force a breaker exerts in a single blow through repeatable and certified testing methods. The AEM rating, which was developed by the Mounted Breaker Manufacturers Bureau, makes it easier to compare breaker models by reviewing true figures collected during an actual test procedure.

For instance, three breaker manufacturers might claim their breakers belong in a 1,000-lb. breaker class. But AEM testing standards could reveal all three actually have less foot-pound impact. You can tell if a breaker has been AEM tested if a manufacturer provides a disclosure statement or if the breaker is labeled with an AEM Tool Energy seal. If you cannot find this information, contact the manufacturer. In addition to output energy specifications, manufacturers often supply estimates for production rates on different types of aggregate material. Make sure to get the right measurements to make the best decision.

In addition to weight and output power, look at the breakers mounting package. Two things are crucial for mounting a breaker to a carrier: a hydraulic installation kit and mounting components. Breakers need hydraulic plumbing with unidirectional flow to move oil from the carrier to the breaker and back again. A one-way flow hydraulic kit is sufficient to power the breaker as long as the components are sized to properly handle the required flows and pressures. But, consider a bidirectional flow hydraulic kit if you plan to use the same carrier with other attachments that require two-way flow. Check with the dealer or breaker manufacturer to determine which hydraulic package best fits current and future needs.

Hydraulic flow and pressure specifications also need to be considered when pairing a breaker to a hydraulic system. If the carrier cannot provide enough flow at the right pressure, the breaker wont perform with maximum output, which lowers productivity and can damage the breaker. Additionally, a breaker receiving too much flow can wear quickly, which reduces its service life. For the best results, follow the hydraulic breaker specifications found in owners manuals, catalogs and brochures. Youll find out if a breaker has additional systems that might require additional servicing. For instance, some breakers feature nitrogen gas-assist systems that work with the hydraulic oil to accelerate the breakers piston. The nitrogen systems specifications need to be followed for consistent breaker power output.

Brackets or pin and bushing kits are commonly required to attach the breaker to the carrier. Typically they are bolted to the top of a breaker and are configured to match a specific carrier. Some manufacturers make universal mounting brackets that can accommodate two or three different sizes of carriers. With the adjustable pins, bushings or other components inside these universal brackets, the breaker can fit a range of carriers. However, varying distances between pin centers can complicate hookups to quick coupling systems. In addition, loose components, such as spacers, can become lost when the breaker is not in use and detached from the carrier.

Some carriers are equipped with quick-coupling systems, which require a breakers mounting interface to be configured like the carriers original attachment. Some manufacturers produce top-mount brackets that pair extremely well with couplers. This allows an operator to use the original bucket pins from the carrier to attach the breaker, and eliminates the need for new pins. This pairing also ensures a fast pickup with the quick coupler.

Its also a good idea to check which breaker tools are available through the dealer and manufacturer. The most common for aggregate mining are chisels and blunts. There are two kinds of chisels commonly used in aggregate mines: crosscut and inline. Both chisels resemble a flat head screwdriver, but the crosscut chisels are used when carrier operators want to direct force in a left-to-right concentration; whereas, inline chisels direct force fore and aft. With chisel tools, operators can concentrate a breakers energy to develop cracks, break open seams or define scribe lines.

If a chisel cant access or develop a crack or seam, a blunt can be used. Blunts have a flattened head that spreads the energy equally in all directions. This creates a shattering effect that promotes cracks and seam separation. Ask your dealer if the tools you are considering are suited for the application. Using non-original equipment manufacturer tool steel can damage the percussive piston in the breaker, seize into the wear bushings, or cause excessive wear.

Regular breaker maintenance is necessary, yet its one of the biggest challenges for aggregate operations. It not only extends the life of the breaker, but also can keep minor inconveniences from turning into expensive problems. Some manufacturers recommend operators inspect breakers daily to check grease levels and make sure there are no worn or damaged parts or hydraulic leaks.

Breakers need to be lubricated with adequate amounts of grease to keep the tool bushing area clear and reduce friction, but follow the manufacturers recommendations. For example, adding grease before properly positioning the breaker can lead to seal damage or even catastrophic failure. And too little grease could cause the bushings to overheat, seize and damage tools. Also, manufacturers advise using high-moly grease that withstands working temperatures greater than 500 degrees. Some breakers have automatic lube systems that manage grease levels, but those systems still need inspections to ensure there is adequate grease in their vessels. Shiny marks on the tool are a good indication the breaker is not properly lubricated.

Little has changed in basic crusher design over past decades, other than that of improvements in speed and chamber design. Rebuilding and keeping the same crusher in operation year after year has long been the typical approach. However, recent developments have brought about the advent of new hydraulic systems in modern crusher designs innovations stimulated by the need for greater productivity as well as a safer working environment. Importantly, the hydraulic systems in modern crusher designs are engineered to deliver greater plant uptime and eliminate the safety risks associated with manual intervention.

Indeed the crushing arena is a hazardous environment. Large material and debris can jam inside the crusher, damaging components and causing costly downtime. Importantly, manually digging out the crusher before repairs or restarts puts workers in extremely dangerous positions.

The Mine Safety and Health Administration has reported numerous injuries and fatalities incurred when climbing in or under the jaw to manually clear, repair or adjust the typical older-style jaw crusher. Consider that fatalities and injuries can occur even when the machine is locked out and tagged out. Recent examples include a foreman injured while attempting to dislodge a piece of steel caught in the primary jaw crusher. Another incident involved a fatality when a maintenance man was removing the toggle plate seat from the pitman on a jaw crusher. The worker was standing on a temporary platform when the bolts holding the toggle seat were removed, causing the pitman to move and strike him.

The hydraulic systems on modern crusher designs eliminate the need for workers to place themselves in or under the crusher. An overview of hydraulic system technology points to these three key elements:

A hydraulic chamber-clearing system that automatically opens the crusher to a safe position, allowing materials to pass. A hydraulic overload relief that protects parts and components against overload damage. A hydraulic adjustment that eliminates the maintenance downtime associated with manual crusher adjustments, and maintains safe, consistent crusher output without the need for worker intervention.

Whether a crusher is jammed by large material, tramp iron or uncrushable debris; or is stalled by a power failure the chamber must be cleared before restarting. Manual clearing is a lengthy and risky task, especially since material can be wedged inside the crusher with tremendous pressure, and dislodging poses much danger to workers placed in harms way inside the crusher.

Unlike that of the older-style jaw, the modern jaw will clear itself automatically with hydraulics that open the crusher to a safe position, and allow materials to pass again, without the need for manual intervention. If a feeder or deflector plate is installed under the crusher, uncrushable material will transfer smoothly onto the conveyor without slicing the belt.

To prevent crusher damage, downtime and difficult maintenance procedures, the hydraulic overload relief system opens the crusher when internal forces become too high, protecting the unit against costly component failure. After relief, the system automatically returns the crusher to the previous setting for continued crushing.

The modern crusher is engineered with oversized hydraulic cylinders and a traveling toggle beam to achieve reliable overload protection and simple crusher adjustment. All closed-side setting adjustments are made with push-button controls, with no shims being needed at any time (to shim is the act of inserting a timber or other materials under equipment). This is a key development as many accidents and injuries have occurred during shim adjustment, a process which has no less than 15 steps as described in the primary crusher shim adjustment training program offered by MSHA.

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Tertiary impact crushers are used for soft and medium-hard materials crushing, with close grain distribution and cubical products. Tertiary impact crushers are preferred because of they are being an ...

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Trio CT series jaw crushers are available in an extensive range of sizes suitable for mobile or stationary jaw crushing applications. They are manufactured with a higher mass, which improves their mechanical ...

Performance highlights Feed size up to 600 mm (24) Independent double deck vibrating pre-screen 2.300 x 1.000 mm (77" x 33") Feed opening 1.110 x 750 mm (44 x 29) C.S.S. min. - max. 45 - 180 mm (1 3/4 - 7) Capacity up to 400 ...

The Terex Finlay J-1480 incorporates the Terex Jaques JW55 single toggle jaw crusher which boasts a throughput capacity up to 750mtph depending on application and material. The machine is available with direct drive ...

The Powerscreen Trakpactor 320 is a mid-sized horizontal impact crusher designed to offer operators and contractors both excellent reduction and high consistency of product shape for performance in quarry and recycling ...

The RM 60 is the RM hook lift crusher and the ideal choice for niche processors and companies that need to crush smaller quantities to open up new business areas or expand existing areas profitably.Like all RM crushers, ...

... maximum jaw crushing mobility. Featuring Vanguard Plus Series Jaw Crushers, these plants are equally effective in aggregate or recycling applications. Both plants allow stationary and portable producers ...

Product Profile EMC100 is a dual-purpose Tracked mobile cone crusher The power of the equipment can be provided by its own generator set or external power supply, providing customers with more choices. ...

A mobile crusher uses the same range of crushing techniques as stationary models to break stone blocks into smaller pieces of a desired size. It can be mounted on a wheeled trailer or be self-propelled on caterpillar treads. Its autonomy is assured by incorporation of a hopper and conveyor to supply material to the machine as well as a second conveyor to remove finished product. It also may have sieves mounted upstream or downstream of the crusher for better control of input or output size.

Choice of crusher model will depend on: - material to be crushed and its resistance to compression - the maximum size of the initial pieces - desired output size - treatment capacity in tons per hour

fertilizer crusher machine | npk crusher | fine pulverizer for sale

Fertilizer crusher is often used for turning composted organic fertilizer into powders in fertilizer production line. We employ high quality materials and advanced technology on the machines, guaranteeing the convenient operating and long service time. Furthermore, there are various types of fertilisers pulverizers for your reference. Whether you want a high output machine or a facility with small production rate, our crushing machines can satisfy you. Whats more, it is important in whether fertilizer powder production line or granules making line.

Semi-wet chicken manure pulverizing machine is a key facility in organic fertilizer production line. Its usable for crushing fermented chicken manure into powders. Following informationabout chicken manure crushing tool will let you understand how the fine pulverizer works.

If you want to make powder fertilizers, then you can send them into the screening machine and pack the qualified powders. Meanwhile, it is also suitable for an organic manures granular production line as well. You can send the screened powder into the chicken manure granulators for pelleting.

Pulverizing is an important step in a powder fertilizer making line. Meanwhile, it plays a key role on the preparation of granulation. There are many types of fertilizer pulveriser for your reference. You can choose a machine for your different requirements on production capacity.

These 3 types of grinders are high output equipment. It is suitable to use them for your large scale fertilizer production line. Their output can reach 20 ton per hour. And with these machines, you can get well pulverized fine powder. Besdie, it is also applicable for you to use them for re-crushing in your fertilizer production lines.

This new vertical crusher machines accept materials which has high water content as high as 25%~50%. The materials crushed by it will be about 50 mesh, meeting the requirement of granulation. Whats more, it is applicable for grinding the hard materials including glass, ceramics, bricks, gravel from organic fertilizer of municipal solid waste. It is an ideal machine for your organic fertilizer materials powder making. Generally, the organic compost materials will be wet. This vertical manure grinder can pulverize them conveniently without blocking.

Chain pulverisers are suitable for pulverizing blocks and the returned materials in compound fertilizers line. For different installation ways, this machine can be divided into vertical chain crush machine and horizontal chain crushing facility. Meanwhile, we manufacture double-shaft fertilizer powder crusher with large production capacity.It is usable for pulverizing large pellets. Its high production capacity is 25 ton per hour, while the small output is 1 ton per hour.

It is suitable for grinding medium-hard materials by impacting. If there is a large-scale organic manure fertilizer production, it will be the first choice for you to crush materials. It can accept both dry pulverizing and wet pulverizing.

There are 2 types of pulverisers for your small fertilizer company. If you want a machine to crush 1 ton per hour, the small size cow dung fertilizer crushing tool and hammer pulverizing equipment can meet your needs. Generally speaking, the cage crushers are more suitable for compound fertilizer processing. Andfor your cow dung fertilizer powder making, you can use the semi-wet materials crusher facilities.

This type of crushing equipment is often used for bio-organic compost crushing, municipal solid waste crushing, agricultural wastes crushing, industrial organic wastes and so on. Especially, it has good effects on pulverizing chicken manure, sodium humate and so on. It is popular in organic manure processing line. Its production capacity is between 1-8 ton per hour. You can choose a suitable specification according to your production requirements.

Whether for the organic fertilizer processing or compound fertilizer granules making, there maybe some special materials. Here we provide you straw pulverizing equipment for grinding straws. It is often used for organic manure compost making line. And for your urea compound fertilizer granules making line, we have urea fertilizer pulverizer for making powder and granulate conveniently.

If your materials are straws, this crusher will be the most suitable machine. You can use it for pulverizing the straws and then add into the compost for adjusting the moisture content. Our straw crushing equipment can process 500kg straws per hour.

The straw crushing facility is a new product of wood powder machines. It can grind crop wastes, such as corn stalk, straw, peanut husk, bean stalk, flower stalk. Its suitable for you to apply it on organic fertilizer manufacturing, paper production and so on. This machine can not only turn green waste into treasures, but also protect the environment. Meanwhile, it brings more social efficiency.

If you want to make urea compound fertilizer granules, it is necessary for you to pulverize the urea fertilizer materials, And then mix it with other compound fertilizer materials for granulating. There are urea fertilizer pulverizing machine for you to make urea fertilizer powder dedicatedly. Meanwhile, we employ delicate designs for you to control the production capacity.

All the machines can be customized for your own fertilizer manufacturing requirements. Contacting our customer service center, we can tailor for you to meet your needs. Whether the sizes, the production capacity or the materials of machines, we absolutely make you satisfied.

If you want to produce powder fertilisers, it necessary for you to buy a fertilizer crusher to make materials into powders. Equipping with some other facilities, you can form a complete fertilisers powder manufacturing line. Complete powder fertilizer production processes includes pulverizing, screening and packing. With these machines, you can process your composted organic fertilizers into fine powdery fertilizers commerciaclly and efficiently.

Shunxin fertilizer facilities making factory can provide you the complete high quality equipment for your fertiliser production plant. Whats more, we can provide you reasonable suggestions for your own fertiliser making requirements and even tailor-made for you.

* Basic Info Your Raw Materials (required) Your Processing Capacities Per Hour or Day (required) Brief-description Your Inquiry *We respect your privacy, and will not share your personal information with other entities.

* Basic Info Your Raw Materials (required) Your Processing Capacities Per Hour or Day (required) Brief-description Your Inquiry *We respect your privacy, and will not share your personal information with other entities.

fertilizer grinder | chain & semi-wet & new type vertical | ex-factory price

In the fertilizer production process, you may use fertilizer crushers in two places. Firstly, when you ferment the organic materials, you will need it. Because a grinder can help you crush the raw materials to increase the fermentation area, which will speed up the fermentation.

Fermented poultry and livestock manure are easy to agglomerate because of their slightly higher water content, such as chicken poop compost, goat manure compost, pig manure compost and so on. At this time, a fertilizer grinder will help you get organic fertilizer powder you would like.

The semi-wet material crusher is suitable for crushing manure compost with a moisture content of 20%-50%. It uses high-speed rotating blades to achieve crushing lumps. Compared with ordinary crushers, this crushing equipment has better processing effects. In addition, its inner liner is made of high-duty lining to prolong its service life.

New type vertical grinder can be widely used in organic fertilizer crushing, and is a kind of adjustable crusher machine without screen cloth. This grinding machine has special material crushing blades and inspection window. You can clearly observe the crushing process and replace the wearing parts in time. Whats more, it can adapt well to materials with high water content, and it is not easy to block the materials during the crushing process.

Medium-sized cage fertilizer grinder (also is called medium-size horizontal cage bars crusher) is designed according to the principle of impact breaking. The cage crusher is equipped with two sets of cage bars, and then the materials are crushed by the impact of the cage bars.

And we have two types: vertical chain crusher and horizontal chain crusher. The difference between the vertical chain grinder and the horizontal chain grinder is the number of rotors. The horizontal chain crusher has a double rotor, while the vertical chain crusher has a single rotor.

SHUNXIN Company can not only provide you with organic fertilizer grinders and compound fertilizer grinders, but also provide you with crushers for special materials. If you want to buy a urea crusher or a straw crusher, you can choose from our factory.

If you want to make urea fertilizer pellets, it is necessary equipment for you. And SHUNXIN urea crusher is specially used for urea fertilizer production line. Our urea grinder used to grind and cut materials with gap between the roller and concave plate. When you use it, you can adjust the drum speed and diameter of the crusher to get suitable urea powder.

Small straw crusher is a new type crusher in the wood powder machine market. If you want a crusher to grind the straw, it is wise to choose our small crusher. Our straw crusher not only can guarantee standard rate of the finished product, but also it occupies a small area. Moreover, it is easy to operate, and has no dust pollution.

ShunXin is a leader among Chinese fertilizer equipment manufacturers. We are experinced in producing professional equipment for fertilizer production and solving all kinds of problems of making organic & compound fertilizer process. As a large fertilizer equipment supplier, we insist on using high quality fertilizer equipment which make the production process more enviroment frendly and economic to impress customers.