small scale gold mining equipment distributors africa

small scale gold mining equipment

MINERS WAREHOUSE specialises in the supply and distribution of Mining Equipment to the small scale Artisinal Mining industry. Our range of equipment encompasses the entire requirement that a small scale mine will require from primary ore extraction including drilling and blasting as well as ore haulage and movement to ore processing, with high and efficient recovery rates and high production rates based on ore haulage from primary sources. Our ore processing and recovery equipment uses little to no chemical additives and we aim at a ZERO MERCURY mining environment.

Our equipment is well suited to miners producing 0.5 Tonnes per hour to 5 tonnes per hour. We offer free advice to our broad range of customers on the most efficient manner in which to mine their reserves whether they be Precious or Base Metals.

We pride ourselves on the supply of efficient and reliable equipment with the additional benefit of being able to offer the most suitable advice to each mining environment particular to each region and customer. We strive to be the foremost supplier and service provider to the Small Scale Mining industry in the Region.

Our Technical team offers full training and orientation on the equipment supplied to ensure that the customer gains the utmost benefit from the purchased equipment. We carry stock of all consumable spares and run a full work shop where we undertake services and overhauls on all equipment when required. We offer site visits if required by customers to train staff on the safe and efficient operation of their equipment. Our team can also offer valuable advice to the customer on how best to maximize production and increase life of mine.

small scale mining equipment appropriate process technologies | mineral processing plants

TriTank TT20: our personal favourite, an entirely unique to APT advanced cyanidation system. These tanks have a wide range of applications and can be setup for Carbon-In-Pulp (CIP), Carbon-In-Leach (CIL), or Carousel operation.

The Elu-X is especially made for the smaller elution applications. Engineered in a minimalistic way, with safety and ease of use in mind, ensuring consistent high performance while keeping unnecessary costs at bay. An affordable, effective solution.

The RDGK: crusher and concentrator. Available as a stand-alone plant, itis simplyassembled on-site and can still easily be relocated. A trailer version is also available allowing you to simply take the crusher to site and you're ready to go. All compactand portable.

The GoldJigga: a manual hydraulic jig concentrator used to concentrate coarse nuggets of gold from coarse (+3mm) oversize material. This jig is highly durable and can be used in the most remote of locations as it does not run with any kind of electricity.

The RG30-T: this scrubber is part of our standard wash plant range and incorporates the GoldKacha concentrator. It comes fully assembled and is available in trailer version, allowing for optimal mobility and ease of operation when following your mineral resource.

Especially for small-scale mining applications, encouraging growth anddevelopment with high recoveries. A more sophisticated solution to traditional sluices, whilst remaining easy to operate. No mercury required, minimal operational requirements.

small scale mining in south africa - jxsc machine

South Africa is endowed with large amounts of mineral wealth and is a global player with regards to the production of minerals and mineral-related products. The country is a major producer of a wide range of minerals, including precious metals, base metals, precious and semi-precious stones, and industrial minerals. Historically, this production can be attributed to large- to medium-scale mines controlled mostly by multi-national companies. Mining has contributed to the development of an extensive and efficient physical infrastructure and to the establishment of secondary industries. The historical impact of mining on the development of this country is apparent from the correlation of occurrence of high value mineral deposits and levels of development and high population densities. Past policies and discriminatory laws have resulted in lttle development of the small-scale mining subsector and hindered the participation of certain sections of the countrys population.

The definition of small-scale mining (particularly when considering artisanal mining, which is primitive and informal) has been debated at length at different fora. The most commonly used parameters for classification of the scale of a mine are gross annual turnover and number of employees. The South African Small Business Act of 1996, has classified businesses into micro, very small, small and medium according to criteria such as number of employees, total annual turnover and total assets. However, for mining thisclassification has some shortcomings. For example, on the one hand companies may be employing as few as three highly qualifed professionals as consultants and have a gross annual turnover of over 7.5 million Rand (approximately US$753,770), and on the other hand cooperative style mining operations with more than 50 people working a single deposit, using rudimentary methods, could have an annual turnover of less than R150 000 (ca. US$15,075). The majority of the group targeted by the activities of Mintek s2 Small-Scale Mining Division and other similar organizations are referred to as artisanal miners who are being supported to become true small-scale miners.

Activities are concentrated in the known mineral regions of the country, i.e., gold in the greenstone belts, diamonds where alluvial deposits exist in the Northern Cape and North West provinces. Coal mining at an artisanal level is found in KwaZulu Natal and the Eastern Cape. In the latter, the coal is used mainly for firing clay bricks. Mining methods include open pit to primitive underground excavations. Some artisanal and small-scale miners informally re-open old mine workings to access whatever ore has been left by the large mining companies. The reworking of dumps left behind by the same large mining companies is also quite common. The degree of participation of the small-scale mining subsector varies by commodity. This can be seen in the percentage employment of the subsector by commodity (see Table 2). The level of participation is determined by: availability of deposits; ease of mining, processing and extraction of the commodity; and access to markets. Some activities, such as sand and clay mining for brickmaking, are driven by local demand. These deposits fall within the soft-rock quarrying commodity group and are readily available to the small-scale miners. The minimum and uncomplicated processing requirements also make them attractive to this subsector, as reflected by the higher percentage of employees.

There are a number of pieces of legislation that impact on this group of miners and they are the same ones to which the medium and large mining companies are subject. These cover the environment; labour; mineral rights; exploration and mining permitting; and skills development. The mining policy of most countries, which is enforced by laws and legislative regulations, is usually in a language too complex for the artisanal and small-scale miners to comprehend. Most of these miners are not even aware of the national laws and regulations in force that affect the mining sector and inadvertently violate them. In South Africa the following areas are regulated: Mineral rights The issue of mineral rights in South Africa is under review. Minerals rights are like property rights and are protected by the constitution. Previously, South Africa had a dual system of private and public ownership, but the new Mineral and Petroleum Bill will make the State the sole owner of mineral rights. The issues of royalties, prospecting and mining rights also fall under this bill. Health and safety Health and safety aspects are governed by the Mine Health and Safety Act of 1996. Most of its regulations do not apply to small-scale miners. Environment management In South Africa the environmental legislation is governed by the National Environmental Management Act of 1998, the Mining and Minerals Act of 1991, environmental impact assessment (EIA) guidelines of 1997, the Environmental Conservation Act of 1 986 and the aide-memoire requirements of 1992. With the new legislation, however, all small-scale mining operations applying for prospecting or mining permits are forced to pay a deposit for environmental rehabilitation. Compliance is very low, as non-registration or illegal mining frequently occurs. Similarly, most small-scale miners have neither the resources nor the capacity to carry out an EIA. In response to these problems, the Department of Minerals and Energy (DME) has developed simplified EIA requirements, which are applied to artisanal miners defined as non-mechanized operations. Labour relations The key pieces of legislation governing labour relations in mining are the Labour Relations Act of 1995, the Basic Conditions of Employment Act of 1997, the Employment Equity Act of 1998 and the Skills Development Act of 1998. In each case, only small portions of the law are applicable to small- and artisanal mining. Skills development The Skills Development Act of 1998 sets out the frame-work for developing a coordinated approach to skills development in the country. The act was promulgated in order to improve productivity in the workplace, promote self-employment, and encourage employers to use the workplace as an active learning environment and to provide opportunities for new entrants to the labour market to gain work experience. Its regulatory impact on the artisanal and small-scale miners is also limited.

The efective participation of artisanal and small-scale miners in the sector is hampered by their lack of technical, business and management skills, and by their limited access to mineral deposits, capital and markets. Artisanal/small-scale miners are involved in almost all mineral commodities found in South Africa.

The availability of deposits and the daunting task of acquiring mineral rights limit the activities of artisanal and small-scale miners. It is often difficult to find out where mineral rights are located. Most artisanal and small-scale mining activities take place around small deposits, unsuitable for exploitation by the large mining companies. This is particularly true of deposits of precious metals and precious stones. Artisanal and small-scale miners are also often allowed to reprocess tailings dumps left behind by large mining companies. The lack of easy access to mineral deposits could be part of the underlying reasons for the existence of some of the informal artisanal mining activities.

Comparisons between different scales of production show that, although the basic industrial processes are the same, the differences in scale often necessitate application of different technologies. With increasing scale, there is a trend towards more sophisticated technologies. For the established small-scale miner, access to technology is not as much of an obstacle as it is for miners lower on the scale (i.e., artisanal). However, common throughout this subsector is the preference for generic technologies that are no longer protected by patents. Patented technologies tend to be too expensive for small-scale operators. Just as important as access to technology is the ability to use these technologies. Within the upper end of the small-scale mining sector, appropriately qualified skills may be hired. However, at the lower end this is often not feasible. The negative impacts resulting from lack of skills and limited access to technology are evident in the observed operations that are rudimentary, unsafe, environmentally unfriendly and using inefficient processes. A most horrific example of the negative impacts is misuse of mercury during gold extraction; the mercury is handled unsafely, posing a health hazard and there is no real concern for the environmental impact. Another horrific common occurrence in the small-scale mining subsector is unsafe coal and clay excavations, where the low competence of the rock makes overhangs liable to collapse, resulting in injuries and sometimes fatalities. In some SADC3 countries, the small-scale miners have been supported by free or subsidized technical and management services training, and by plant and equipment hire administered by governments. Non-governmental organizations have also been known to be instrumental in setting up central processing facilities for use by small-scale miners, e.g., the Shamva Mining Centre in Zimbabwe established by the Intermediary Technology Development Group. This provides an alternative to the somewhat unsatisfactorily custom milling and processing done by the more established small-scale mining companies for the producers at the lower end of the scale (mostly artisanal miners).

Smaller companies have different financing requirements than do larger companies, and they need support from the investment community. I ending to this sector is perceived to be risky; consequently, the domestic banks generally restrict lending to only short-term investments, if they lend at all. This greatly hampers the development of the subsector. The risk profile of a potential project is at its peak in the early stages and decreases through the development phases. Most companies never find an ore body, but a few are extremely successful. The risks at the early stages, that is, before a pre-feasibility study is completed, are normally beyond what typical commercial banks are willing to expose themselves to.

Low capitalization limits the amount of funds that small-scale miners can allocate to proper market research. At the artisanal level, the process of finding markets is unsystematic and haphazard. In some countries, where small-scale mining activities have been supported through government initiatives, the establishment by government of a central buying facility such as in Zimbabweassists the lower end of the scale. However, to more established mining companies, this set-up couldif legislated-become a hindrance to obtaining competitive prices. Some countries, for example Bolivia and Peru, have acted to close their state-controlled mining banks. Others have focused on precious metals and stones, like Vietnam, which has contracted private trading companies to buy rubies from small-scale miners with an agreement to provide training in cutting and polishing to the miners. No central buying facilities exist in South Africa, but some assistance with accessing foreign markets is available through the Department of Trade and Industry. However, most artisanal and small-scale miners are unaware of the existence of such services, and may also lack the capacity to individually attain the critical mass required by the market.

Policy-makers in South Africa recognize the need to promote the development of an efficient small-scale mining subsector. Legislation in South Africa is being adapted to play an important role in the support of artisanal and small-scale mining and will play a major role in its sustainability. The October 1998 white paper of a new minerals bill, which is currently being debated, stated thatGovernment will encourage and facilitate the sustainable development of small-scale mining in order to ensure the optimal exploitation of small mineral deposits and to enable this sector to make a positive contribution to the national, provincial and local economy. The new Minerals and Petroleum Resources Development Bill will open up the mining industry and facilitate new entries. Moreover, the Council for Geosciences is currently developing a central database of all known state owned deposits in South Africa, thus making it easier to find out where mineral rights are located. There is also a need to simplify the process of applying for mineral rights. The change in atudes has resulted in some encouraging developments, such as joint ventures between small and large mining companies. This allows access for small-scale operations to mineral deposits and sometimes guarantees markets. However, the latter has to be weighed against the same negative impacts experienced with legislated central buying systems. One example of these ventures is in the Northern Cape, where the Small Scale Miners Forum has gone into a joint venture with Samancor, which has leased them its mineral rights to some manganese deposits. Some large mining companies have allowed small-scale miners to rework their tailings or marginal areas with the understanding that all the production would be sold through the large companies. At the OKiep Mine, a group of small-scale miners have been allowed to upgrade oxide copper dumps by handpicking and selling the concentrate to the mine.

Small portable gold washing plant for sale The project on Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development (MMSD) in Southern Africa made recommendations for the support of the small-scale mining subsector by providing appropriate training and capacity-building programmes through partnerships among government, educational institutions, companies and donors. It also recommended the creation of a regional forum to promote the development of a harmonized regional legal framework. In many countries where small-scale mining activities are present, the necessary services are made more accessible through government programmes; these may sometimes include subsidized rates. In South Africa there is a host of companies and individuals that offer services to the small-scale mining sector at normal market rates. Some of these service providers are government science councils such as Mintek, the Council for Geosciences and CSIR s Miningtek. Low capitalization of small-scale mining projects makes accessibility to overseas service providers extremely dificult. For the lower end of the small-scale miners, the National Steering Committee of Service Providers to Small- Scale Miners (NSC) was formed by the Department of Minerals and Energy to offer a more accessible service in a one-stop-shop configuration. The main motivation behind the establishment of the NSC was to correct the practices of artisanal mining especially unacceptable safety standards and environmentally unfriendly methodsby assisting this type of operation to advance to the higher level of small-scale mining and ensure sustainability. The services of the NSC are also extended to: First-time entrepreneurs with limited experience and expertise and who are trying to enter the mining sector by starting green-field operations; Formal small- or medium-sized operations that are operating below the potential of the deposit being exploited, due to lack of expertise and expansion capital. The NSC includes specialists in geological prospecting, mining, minerals processing, diamond recovery, capacity building and manufacturing. The Committee represents the following organizations: Mintek, Miningtek, the Council for Geosciences, Ntsika, the Industrial Development Council (IDC) and Khula. The NSC also gives financial support through IDC and Khula. Other finance institutions involved or having an interest in the small-scale end of the mining sector include the New Africa Mining Fund7 and the International Finance Corporation (IFC). These institutions are involved, or wish to be more involved, in the sector as they believe that the small-scale mining sector is a potential growth area, particularly in light of the new minerals bill. The investors in the New Africa Mining Fund (NAMF) will include South African financial institutions, mining houses and development finance institutions. It is expected that NAMF will invest in smaller mining ventures and promote junior mining activities. The Fund is supposed to invest at the pre- feasibility, feasibility and early production stages of smaller mining projects. Funding will be approved according to criteria that include: The viability of the project; The composition of the promoting agent; Black economic empowerment criteria.

The Skills Development Act of 1998 is being enforced through the setting up of a National Skills Authority, imposing a skills- development levy on employers, setting up a National Skills Fund, developing labour centres and setting up a skills development planning unit. In the mining sector, the Skills Development Act is implemented through the Mining Qualifications Authority. This body is responsible for the development of unit standards, national and accrediting qualifications, and of training providers in the sector. Several groups have been formed to generate standards and qualifications to cover the different areas of the mining sector, one of which specializes in the small-scale mining subsector. The skills requirements for artisanal and small-scale miners are covered by the following broad areas: Geology; Mining; Mineral processing; Environment; Health and safety; Operational management; Marketing; Financial management; Human resources management; Business planning.

The small-scale mining subsector has great potential for growth. This potential can be realized through coordinated activities, such as those of the NSC, and as part of the integrated rural development plans for local government. The underlying ethos in all the initiatives is the drive towards sustainable development through beneficiation, downstream processing and adding value. Minteks intervention strategies to support artisanal and small-scale miners include: Beneficiation and value-addition development programmes for poverty alleviation focused on the rural development nodes of South Africa; Development/application of appropriate and safer technologies; Facilitation of technology transfer through training; Provision of entrepreneurial skills and access to technology, mineral deposits and financial resources.

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Small to medium scale mining equipment for recovery of gold, chrome, tin, tantalite and more. We are based in South Africa but are global. Small to medium scale mining equipment for recovery of gold, chrome, tin, tantalite and more.

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WHAT IS THE STATUS OF SMALL-SCALE MINING IN SOUTH AFRICA? DISCUSSION DOCUMENT FOR THE MQA SSM COLLOQUIUM, AUGUST 2010 The growth of the smallscale mining sector in South Africa has accelerated since democracy as the mining Selected small-scale mining operations to provide a picture of industry practices

Artisanal mining in South Africa probably has a long history, but this has not been documented. For Zimbabwe, Roger Summers has mapped extensive pre-colonial mines, prospecting trenches, and early processing sites, but this has so far not been done for South Africa. Violence is a constant problem in the artisanal mining sector.

1 THE ARTISANAL AND SMALL SCALE MINING SECTOR & SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS1 M. Hoadley1 and D. Limpitlaw1 1 School of Mining Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, [emailprotected] ABSTRACT The activities of the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector are largely poverty driven, and there is a

1 THE ARTISANAL AND SMALL SCALE MINING SECTOR & SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS1 M. Hoadley1 and D. Limpitlaw1 1 School of Mining Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, [emailprotected] ABSTRACT The activities of the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector are largely poverty driven, and there is a

Artisanal mining in South Africa probably has a long history, but this has not been documented. For Zimbabwe, Roger Summers has mapped extensive pre-colonial mines, prospecting trenches, and early processing sites, but this has so far not been done for South Africa. Violence is a constant problem in the artisanal mining sector.

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The benefits of legalising artisanal mining in South Africa Share Miners have marched on the department of mineral resources in Pretoria, demanding the legalisation of small-scale mining in an effort to make it safer.

Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) is a thorny issue for both governments and large scale mining (LSM) companies. In Zimbabwe, for example, artisanal diamond miners in the Marange area increased from a handful in 2004 to an estimated 35 000 in 2007. Can South Africas Legal Framework for Mineral Resources Facilitate the

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Artisanal and small-scale production supply accounts for 80% of global sapphire, 20% of gold mining and up to 20% of diamond mining. It is widespread in developing countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania, and Central and South America.

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Artisanal and small-scale production supply accounts for 80% of global sapphire, 20% of gold mining and up to 20% of diamond mining. It is widespread in developing countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania, and Central and South America.

About Small Scale Mining & Beneficiation Division Mintek supports the SMME sector through research and development of appropriate technologies, and by providing training and support so that development can be as sustainable as possible even though based on limited resources.

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the case of gold mining. Less commonly, women Enhancement of other skills, including South Africa 500 5 Tanzania 137,500 25 Zambia 9,000 30 Zimbabwe 153,000 50 Asia The Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in Developing Countries 4 mining (Onuh, 2002). This process involves

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Turbopan gold pan is a prospecting tool and mining tool for the prospector and artisan miner involved in small scale mining. Whether you're a hobbyist out looking for a run or a crevice filled with gold or gold panning for a living in a developing country Turbopan is the right piece of prospecting equipment that gets all the gold easily and quickly.Turbopan eliminates the problem of

Large and medium scale and artisanal and small scale mining .. countries such as Peru, Mongolia and South Africa (World Gold Council, 2014). .. special equipment and safety procedures restricts the recycling of e-waste.

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911MPE hassmall gold mining equipment for sale andmore specifically mineral processing equipment. Our equipment is best used in small scale extractive metallurgyoperations operated by small miners or hobbyist prospectors and mining fanatics. 911MPE offers gold mining equipment as well as processing equipment applicable to most any base metals: copper, lead, zinc, nickel, tin, tungsten and more. For the relatively small size of equipment offered, sample preparation and metallurgical laboratories can economically buy good alternatives to the usually unaffordable equipment for sale in the classic market place.

911MPE has for target market what mining professionals consider the pilot-plant scale mining operation or artisanal mining operations with a focus around under 500TPD. Metals you can extract include: gold, silver or other of the precious group as well as the classic base metals; copper, lead, zinc, nickel, molybdenum. Much of our ultra-small scale equipment allows you to process from just a few kilo (pounds) per day and work on your passion for a small budget.

You can buy from us mineral processing equipment starting from crushing, grinding, classification, dredging, gravity separation, flotation, pumps, water treatment and smelting. A line of ovens, furnaces and laboratory equipment is also available.

Making a complete list of gold mining equipment starts with defining the type of gold mining you are doing and the budget you have at your disposal. The type of mining relates to hard rock,eluvial, or placer; alluvial deposits. The capital budget you have to invest in buying your equipment with dictate the scale at which you want to mine and influence the long-term operating costs of your mining operation.

Since most of the information online provides lists of gold mining equipment for amateur level mining with equipment like: gold pans, metal detectors, mini sluice box, blue bowl, geologist rock pick, soil scoop, hand screens/classifiers. The items listed just now fall closer to gold prospecting tools and equipment than actual mining.

I will present here what I consider are major equipment lists for 3 types of mining operations. Remember now, a metallurgist is writing. This will not be flawless and since my speciality is process equipment, that is mostly what will be discussed.

Some amateur level gold prospecting equipment such as metal detectors are often classified as mining equipment by small miners/prospectors operating as a hobby. These items include but are not limited to:

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What drives us What we make The new Wave Mat for gold prospecting and fine gold recovery. Click to read more. Its the foundation of everything we do. READ MORE and UNDERSTAND Gold Prospecting is a fairly simple formula. Read how Doc explains it with Mining math. We work with gold miners and gold prospectors in over 30 countries worldwide. Over 100 Gold Prospecting Videos to Watch Gold prospecting equipment and gold mining equipment. GoldHog produces and sells gold prospecting equipment to 35 countries around the world. We have over the past 7 years become the industry innovator in gold recovery and gold mining equipment.

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artisanal and small-scale mining in africa, the environmental and human costs of a vital livelihood source - lifegate

Artisanal and small-scale mining(ASM) provides jobs to 13 million people in 80 countries worldwide, numbers that resemble those of large-scale mining.Whilst the latter is often undertaken by big companies, requires a substantial labour force and operations continue until sites ares completely excavated, ASM on the other hand is carried out by small groups who travel around to identify sites where they believe precious minerals or metals can be found. It accounts for20 per cent of global gold supply, 80 per cent of sapphire, 20 per cent of diamond supply and 25 per cent of overall tin extraction, and provides essential minerals used in popular electronics such as phones or laptops. In 23 Sub-Saharan African countries, it is an important source of revenue for people living in rural contexts, where it is largely carried out as an informal and often illegal activity (for example, around 40-50 per cent of small-scale miners work illegally in Ghana). Yet itsbenefits are often outweighed by its costs.

The relative absence of legislation and government controls in African countries make theenvironmental impacts of ASM arguably on a par orworse than those of large-scale mines. These include mining in protected areas or thedumping of effluents into pristine ecosystems. Furthermore, communities around mining sites dont have the infrastructure to deal with waste, with dire impacts on hygienic and health conditions. Other important environmental concerns associated with ASM include land degradation, deforestation and loss of biodiversity.

Gold mining, widely practiced in Sub-Saharan Africa, presents additional problems. Mercury is used to separate gold from the soil, it is dissolved to extract the precious metal and thus dispersed into the air, which workers breathe in during operations. The remaining vapour then either settles into the ground, contaminating soil and waterways, or travels long distances in its gaseous form and eventually precipitates as rain. This process creates mercury hotspots in places far away from mining sites, as well as a series of other cascading effects: where mercury deposits into water sediments, bacteria transform it intomethylmercury, which is easily absorbed by worms, snails and insects. The contamination then travels up the food chain, eventually returning to humans. For example, consuming contaminated fish generates health risks in people living downstream of mining areas. Mercuryslong-term effectsinclude memory or motor-function loss, kidney malfunction, acute anaemia and respiratory diseases.

As well as the inhalation of toxic gases such as mercury and the fumes from explosive blasts, which can become lethal when combined with poorly ventilated environments, ASM-related accidents occur due to inadequate working conditions and equipment. A study shows that the Busia mining district in Tanzania experiences one to five deaths annually, and another looking at accidents and injuries in Ghanafinds that fatality rates are 90 times higher than in large-scale mines. Collapse of mine pits, explosive blasts and falls respectively account for 13, 10 and 5 per cent of total incidents, with almost 3 per cent of these injuries resulting in death: seeing as the researchis focused on individuals in hospitals, the authors acknowledge that most injuries are dealt with in private, meaning that the number of affected people is possibly much higher.

Mining communities form rapidly whenever and wherever minerals are found. These temporary establishments are usually informal, which means that they dont qualify to become the recipients of healthcare services. This is a serious issue for miners given the dangerous nature of their job. In addition, crime, prostitution and sexually transmitted diseases are rife in these communities. Whenever theres mining, theres money, says Doctor Penda Diallo ofthe University of Exeters Camborne School of Mines in southwest England.

Especially in developing countries across Sub-Saharan Africa this can fuel conflict and disagreement, says the lecturer and researcher specialised in sustainability in the extractive sector and thepolitics and governance of ASM. This can potentially lead to crime, especially among young people, for example in relation to the high value of gold from gold mining. Comparing this to jewellery shops, she explains that shops dont leave jewellery overnight to avoid attracting criminals because whenever there are high value items, its likely to find people wanting to steal them. Diallo also notes that theres a high occurrence of prostitution around gold mines because men are away from their families for a long time. She adds that these illicit activities also depend on area-specific as well as the country-specific dynamics.

Most coverage focuses on the ills of small-scale mining, with few attempts to understand why such problems come about.Its important to consider that for many individuals this activity is the only opportunity for employment, which in turn can bring social and economic development. There are other advantages to small-scale mining: often it is carried out through local enterprises, which means that individuals dont need to move far from home to work. It can also be integrated with other types of labour such as farming: mining can occur in the dry season, complemented by farming in the rainy season. This gives individuals more flexibility in their jobs, and helps them maintain a relatively stable lifestyle.

In Guinea alone,artisanal and small-scale mining revenues account for almost 16 per centof expenditure on health, education, water and infrastructure development, 80 per cent of export revenues and 20 per cent of the national GDP. Despite the massive potential of the industry, ASM remains at the periphery of poverty alleviation strategies and development policies.

According to Diallo, the high prevalence of illegal mining occurs because there are too many sites that are cumulatively not easy to control. This is exacerbated by the nomadic nature of the activity that happens because people move to new establishments based on where minerals are found. Mining needs to be formalised, i.e.regulated through legal and policy frameworks, to deal with this problem, so that the government knows where and how mining is happening. Suitable training and education can then be delivered to miners. Following this, incentives need to be given to workers so that they implement and maintain their training when mining. An example of this could be tax deductions that motivate individuals to use the knowledge derived from their training in practice. This needs to be coupled with on-site monitoring, Diallo adds. However, the limited capacity of governments results in an activity that is hard to control and improve.

Regulating ASM would also mean reducing the environmental impacts of the activity.A research paper focused on this aspect using Ghana as a case study suggests adopting moral suasion (education, publicity and social pressure), legal enforcement and fundraising to provide efficient machinery or more sustainable processing techniques. The researchers also suggest a series of mitigation measures, which include the reclamation of lands by reforesting mined areas. This was done successfully in the Ablorman, Nueng Forest Reserve and Buadua areas in Ghana.

In addition, some NGOs have emerged over time, offering guidance to miners and mining communities. For example,Conadogin Guinea manages mineral-related conflicts by supporting social cohesion in solving disputes and is based within mining sites, meaning that its action is both preventative and curative. NGOs like this give hope that some action can be taken to improve the impacts of ASM. For mining will persist as long as theres demand for minerals, so its time for governments and individuals to take action in protecting the rights of natural environments and the humans residing in them.