small size tunnel dryer ir screen printing dryer infrared ray heating tunnel machine

china ir tunnel dryer, ir tunnel dryer manufacturers, suppliers, price

With hundreds of thousands of products to choose from and an ever growing product range, your industrial equipment needs are sure to be met here. Our China manufacturers & suppliers will provide a full-service to keep you up and running and meet your unique equipment requirements. If you are interested in China Ir Tunnel Dryer, You will be amazed by the variety of the product choices such as automatic infrared heater, industrial conveyor dryer, industrial infrared heater. Besides, their competitive & cheap price of Ir Tunnel Dryer factory would get you an edge in your own market. It's well known that product quality and safety is a stronger priority for this equipment industry and also for the buyers, here you are offered a greater chance to find trustworthy manufacturers & factories who are delivering high levels of performance, efficiency and reliability in their products all the time. With thousands of quality suppliers & manufacturers, we are sure that they can provide all equipment for sale, services and solutions for your various industrial applications.

infared ray drying hot drying tunnel for bottles - china

IR Drying tunnel for variety of screen printing, pad printing and spraying thermosetting ink processing such as heat press, electric products, ( silicon, electric membrane film key press, window glass. ) This conveyor dryer is widely used in the drying of screen printing industry,is especially suitable for solidifying heat-set and special type of printing ink.This tunnel dryerenables the production of printed products with good colorfastness, high flexibility and high gloss.

For all our machines, we provide one-year warranty. Life-long on-line technical support and provide free parts when problems occur within one year not including shipping cost. Any warranty shipping cost to us is responsible by buyer. Any shipping cost to buyer is responsible by us.

13m infared ray drying machine tunnel - china - manufacturer - ir hot

IR Drying tunnel for variety of screen printing, pad printing and spraying thermosetting ink processing such as heat press, electric products, ( silicon, electric membrane film key press, window glass. ) This conveyor dryer is widely used in the drying of screen printing industry,is especially suitable for solidifying heat-set and special type of printing ink.This tunnel dryerenables the production of printed products with good colorfastness, high flexibility and high gloss.

1.conveyor size: 13000*600mm(L*W) 2.machine size: 13100*1050*1880mm 3.Tunnel height of 600mm 4.belt height from floor of 600mm 5.Height of entrance:600mm 6.Total power:18KW 7.working power: AC 380V 50HZ 8.temperature adjustment: 0-200 Centigrade 9.constant temperature will be 2o C more or less 10.temperature resolution: 1o C 11.Belt speed adjustment: 0-50CM/MIN 12.Gross weight: 1400 KG

m265 | infrared (ir) screen printing dryer | screen printing machines and equipment | mismatic

M265 Infrared (IR) screen printing dryer The infrared (IR) dryer model M265 has been designed and built with the aim to give a reliable help to all the printers who need to dry few items daily (small and medium productions) but do not want to buy a cumbersome, expensive and power-hungry equipment. Due to the latest generation technology, this dryer can dry the printed items using only 3.2 kW: high efficiency standard with very low cost. It is suitable for all the carousel manual screen printing machines, digital printers for fabrics and screen/pad printing machines for promotional articles. Length of the tunnel: 165 cm Conveyor belt: Length: 265 cm Width: 50 cm Three (3) new dryers available in stock.

The infrared (IR) dryer model M265 has been designed and built with the aim to give a reliable help to all the printers who need to dry few items daily (small and medium productions) but do not want to buy a cumbersome, expensive and power-hungry equipment. Due to the latest generation technology, this dryer can dry the printed items using only 3.2 kW: high efficiency standard with very low cost. It is suitable for all the carousel manual screen printing machines, digital printers for fabrics and screen/pad printing machines for promotional articles.

Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. These cookies do not store any personal information.

Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website.

ir hot drying tunnel - sd5000 - lc (china manufacturer) - plate making & printing machine - industrial supplies products - diytrade china

IR Drying tunnel for variety of screen printing, pad printing and spraying thermosetting ink processing such as heat press, electric products, ( silicon, electric membrane film key press, window glass. ) This conveyor dryer is widely used in the drying of screen printing industry,is especially suitable for solidifying heat-set and special type of printing ink.This tunnel dryerenables the production of printed products with good colorfastness, high flexibility and high gloss.

For all our machines, we provide one-year warranty. Life-long on-line technical support and provide free parts when problems occur within one year not including shipping cost. Any warranty shipping cost to us is responsible by buyer. Any shipping cost to buyer is responsible by us.

ir drying machine ir hot drying tunnel ir dryer oven drying tunnel

IR drying machine IR Drying tunnel for variety of screen printing, pad printing and spraying thermosetting ink processing such as heat press, electric products, ( silicon, electric membrane film key press, window glass. ) This conveyor dryer is widely used in the drying of screen printing industry,is especially suitable for solidifying heat-set and special type of printing ink.This tunnel dryerenables the production of printed products with good colorfastness, high flexibility and high gloss.

For all our machines, we provide one-year warranty. Life-long on-line technical support and provide free parts when problems occur within one year not including shipping cost. Any warranty shipping cost to us is responsible by buyer. Any shipping cost to buyer is responsible by us.

conveyor tunnel drying unit from china-dongguan hoystar printing machinery co.,ltd,infrared dryer machines manufacturer from china

We also produce large infrared drying machine besides the small one,and also can customize it according to customer's design,high quality.you can cure or dry fast and efficiently any ink screen printed onto substrates such as t-shirts,garments,textiles,plastic,ceramic,glass,paper,electronic parts and pad printed products

infrared dryers - ir dryers latest price, manufacturers & suppliers

Wagle Industrial Estate, Thane Plot No.A 420 Ravi Electrical Road no. 28 Opposite EMCO Gate no -3 , RAMNAGAR ,MIDC Thane West, Wagle Industrial Estate, Thane - 400604, Dist. Thane, Maharashtra

Dahisar East, Mumbai Unit 5, 6 & 7, Gulmohar Building, Agarwal Green Ways Complex, Mahajanwadi, Near Thakur Mall NH8, Near Dahisar Check Post, Dahisar East, Mumbai - 401104, Dist. Mumbai, Maharashtra

ir hot drying tunnel - china - manufacturer - ir hot drying tunnel

IR Drying tunnel for variety of screen printing, pad printing and spraying thermosetting ink processing such as heat press, electric products, ( silicon, electric membrane film key press, window glass. ) This conveyor dryer is widely used in the drying of screen printing industry,is especially suitable for solidifying heat-set and special type of printing ink.This tunnel dryerenables the production of printed products with good colorfastness, high flexibility and high gloss.

For all our machines, we provide one-year warranty. Life-long on-line technical support and provide free parts when problems occur within one year not including shipping cost. Any warranty shipping cost to us is responsible by buyer. Any shipping cost to buyer is responsible by us.

sd3000w ir drying tunnel oven machine - china - manufacturer - ir hot

IR drying machine IR Drying tunnel for variety of screen printing, pad printing and spraying thermosetting ink processing such as heat press, electric products, ( silicon, electric membrane film key press, window glass. ) This conveyor dryer is widely used in the drying of screen printing industry,is especially suitable for solidifying heat-set and special type of printing ink.This tunnel dryerenables the production of printed products with good colorfastness, high flexibility and high gloss.

1)Temperature range: Normal~200o C 2) work power rate : 15kw 3) working power: AC 220V 60HZ 4) constant temperature will be 2o C more or less 5) temperature resolution: 1o C 6)Belt speed adjustment: 0-10M/MIN 7)Conveyor length :3000mm 8)Conveyor width:48" 9) High entrance 230mm 10)machine size: (L)3100x(W)1300x(H)1300mm 11)Conveyor belt use stainless steel belt 12)RMP's for the blower 1800 13) Machine color:white color

For all our machines, we provide one-year warranty. Life-long on-line technical support and provide free parts when problems occur within one year not including shipping cost. Any warranty shipping cost to us is responsible by buyer. Any shipping cost to buyer is responsible by us.

large size high temperature infared ray drying tunnel oven machine

IR drying machine IR Drying tunnel for variety of screen printing, pad printing and spraying thermosetting ink processing such as heat press, electric products, ( silicon, electric membrane film key press, window glass. ) This conveyor dryer is widely used in the drying of screen printing industry,is especially suitable for solidifying heat-set and special type of printing ink.This tunnel dryerenables the production of printed products with good colorfastness, high flexibility and high gloss.

1.drying oven size 4*1.35M, 2.Entrance&exit length 1.2M, 3.Height of dryer opening:356mm 4.conveyer belt:stainless steel chain conveyor 5.speed:0-1.5M/min 6.Temperature range: Normal~350o C 7.Electric 220V, 3 phase, 60 Hz 8.Well insulated 9.With exhaust 10.With circulating blowers 11. IR heaters on top and bottom total 12pcs*2.5KW 12.Machine will need three safety stops (one at each end and one on the control panel). 13.thickness of steel being used:1.5mm 14.panel will have these readouts: power indicator, start/stop, ampere meter, heating button, Temperature indicator, speed controller, emergency button etc

For all our machines, we provide one-year warranty. Life-long on-line technical support and provide free parts when problems occur within one year not including shipping cost. Any warranty shipping cost to us is responsible by buyer. Any shipping cost to buyer is responsible by us.

infrared drying - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Infrared drying (IR) uses the energy from IR radiation to directly heat the bulk material of the polymer granule/flake. The delivered energy is applied directly to the granule with no other transfer medium. The applied energy causes internal heating and molecular oscillation and therefore heats the bulk material of the granule and any internal moisture. A stream of cooler ambient air surrounds the granule and the internal heat drives the moisture out into the cooler air stream that removes it from the process.

The driving force for IR drying is the difference in temperature between the vaporised water and the ambient air stream: this creates a partial pressure gradient from the inside of the granule to the outside and a strong driving force for moisture removal.

This system uses a horizontal drum containing an internal spiral feed which transports and agitates the material as it is carried along the drum underneath the IR heaters. The final moisture content of the polymer is determined by the power rating of the IR heaters and the residence time in the system. These can be finely controlled by the rotation rate of the drum and the power applied to the heaters.

This system uses not only IR heaters but an additional applied high vacuum (down to 980 mbar). The IR provides material heating and the vacuum further draws the water out of the material (as with standard LPD drying). This increases the process efficiency and reduces energy use.

These systems can be used for drying both hygroscopic and non-hygroscopic materials but are particularly suited to the drying of reprocessed PET. PET processing uses crystalline granules but the material becomes amorphous during processing therefore PET regrind is amorphous and must be recrystallised before it can be processed again. Historically a separate recrystallisation process was used prior to drying and processing. In IR drying processes, the PET is raised above Tg and continuously agitated during the process, this effectively combines recrystallisation and drying in one pass.

Drying times for many hygroscopic materials can be dramatically reduced and, in the case of PET reprocessing, the recrystallisation process can be performed at the same time. The MOBY process (IR + vacuum) also provides a cleaning action to provide high-quality reprocessed PET for direct processing (Super-Clean for food applications) and can also be set up to improve the intrinsic viscosity (IV) of the PET from the system.

The direct energy application at the point of use provides reduced process times and energy consumption is claimed to be 72120 W/kg for PET recrystallisation and drying to final moisture contents of less than 0.005%. This is much lower than that achieved with traditional drying methods.

The IR drying technology is widely spread in the paper industry. It is accepted as an efficient tool for drying, heating, and curing of paper and board products (Petterson and Stenstrm,2000). The paper processing industry enjoys many benefits when integrating IR technology into the process. IR applies heat evenly across surfaces, a quality essential in paper applications. And the quick on/off controllability of IR lamps avoids application of too much or too little heat, keeping the process moving at optimal throughput.

IR dryers are used for special purposes in production and can be considered as complementary drying rather than a replacement of traditional drying methods (Petterson and Stenstrm,2000). IR drying is regularly used for the following purposes (Gavelin,1982):

The consumption of paper products is expected to increase over time, and the number of production sites and machines is expected to decrease. The prognoses are built on the expected growth of the population and the fact that countries that historically have consumed very little paper per capita will increase their consumption in line with the total development of living standards. This will result in new machines to manage the demand for an increased production, improved quality, and new products, which will take place over time in those paper mills that intend to stay competitive in the future (PWC,2013). Use of gas IR dryers in the paper industry has a long history. More than 30 years ago, gas IR dryers were used by the paper mills (Arwidsson,2009). High power, electrical IR dryers were introduced to the market in the early 1980s (Gavelin,1982). It was mainly a result of the increase of oil prices some years earlier. The prices of electricity and oil became more or less equal, and the high-power electrical dryers became an alternative in the market. Today, the situation has changed once again, electricity is now expensive and the use of oil is limited in many paper-producing countries. Fuel gas is an important energy source and it is expected to grow further in importance using liquefied natural gas (LNG) (Affrstidningen Nringsliv,2012). An additional reason for developing a new gas IR dryer is the environmental aspect (Larsson and Nodin,2012). The paper industry is a major consumer of fuel gas for the production of paper. Different types of fuel gases are used, but most frequent is liquefied petroleum gas. The use of fuel gas is increasing in many industries while oil will continue to be phased out. It is also expected that fuel gas consumption will increase as a result of new distribution methods of LNG and because of the reduced impact on the environment using this fuel gas (Nslund,2011). Cocombustion with gases such as biogas and/or hydrogen is interesting in order to decrease the environmental impact further.

A manufacturer of high-end wallpaper products replaced its hot air system with IR. The new system dries water-based print on the wallpaper, and allows several types of paper to be dried using a single system. Line speed increased 50% because of high-power density at the right wavelength.

A manufacturer of food trays for commercial transportation sought a more efficient method of drying the nonslip coating on the tray liners. The company installed a carbon medium wave IR system to dry the water-based coatings. IR is particularly well suited to this application, since it removes water efficiently and evenly across the product surface, ensuring a consistent finish to the product. IRs fast control means that the system can be switched on and off quickly as the situation demands. This also increases energy efficiency.

A roll-form paper products company faced a challenge: one of the companys products required a water-based adhesive to be applied to paper prior to lamination. Previously, the adhesive was dried in a warm air oven, but colored adhesives yielded inconsistent results and an inferior-looking product. The short-term solution was a slowdown of the production line. The company devised a long-term solution: a predrying system using carbon medium wave heaters immediately before the existing warm air heaters. IRs quick on/off properties afford maximum control. The end result is a consistent and high-quality product without production slowdowns.

Martin etal. (2000a) estimate primary energy savings of 3.3GJ/t paper. Investment costs for IR dryer installation are $120 per ton paper and additional operation and maintenance cost requirements are $0.92 per ton paper (Jaccard and Willis,1996). Because this technology is mostly suitable for drying high-quality coated paper, it can be applied to about 15% of total paper produced.

Alternative drying methods using convective or radiation heat transfer, or a combination of pressing and drying, have found niche applications for certain paper grades. Coated papers requiring noncontact drying use combined convective and infrared drying systems. The quality of the coated surfaces is sensitive to the drying method, and the absorption of radiant energy in the infrared region is confined to a very thin layer especially suitable for coating drying. Sack grades requiring nonrestrained drying to induce product strength properties use air flotation drying. This technique uses high-velocity hot air streams from alternate air bars on both surfaces of the web for simultaneous floating and drying. Air flotation dryers are commonly used for drying thick sheets of market pulp. Microwave or dielectric drying is especially effective in correcting moisture profile for all grades.

Some tissue manufacturers use through-drying of an unpressed web to enhance softness and bulk. Hot air is drawn through the web, which is supported on a perforated cylinder under a vacuum. The drying rate is similar to that obtained on a Yankee dryer.

Much effort has been devoted to the development of press drying and impulse drying since the 1980s. In these concepts the distinction between pressing and drying is blurred since they are performed simultaneously to achieve high drying rates and special product properties. A few commercial designs have been applied in the manufacture of board grades.

There are now several applications using gas- rather than steam-heated cylinders in multicylinder dryers. This approach permits much higher surface temperatures than can be obtained with steam heating, and increases the drying rate.

The conditions in which olive leaves are treated influence the phenolic content. Currently, there are no widely accepted guidelines for the drying of olive leaves and data from literature are insufficient or contradictory. However, in order to stabilize the by-product, avoid quality losses and undesirable degradation during storage, the immediate dehydration of olive leaves is an important operation.

Traditional methods of drying as shade or sun drying are still practiced, but this operation is not well controlled, influencing the final quality of the product. Thus, for industrial purposes, hot air drying is the most used method, allowing an accurate control of the process variables [129]. Several studies have been interested in the investigation and modeling of the drying behavior of olive leaves.

The effect of blanching and infrared drying on the leaves color, total phenol content and moisture removal rate of four olive tree varieties was studied, using an infrared dryer at 40C, 50C, 60C and 70C. Infrared drying seemed promising, inducing a considerable moisture removal from the fresh leaves (>85%) and short drying time (15min at 70C). Total phenol content of dried olive leaves increased compared to fresh leaves. In the specific case of Chemlali variety, total phenols increased from 13.80.2 to 21.32.9mg GAE/g d.w. (+ 54.35%) after IR drying at 40C. Infrared drying is then suggested for preserving olive leaves during storage [130].

Erbay et al. studied the use of hot air to dry olive leaves in a pilot-scale heat pump conveyor dryer and evaluated the effect of drying on product quality. Optimum operating conditions were found to be at 53.43C, air velocity of 0.64m/s, and process time of 288.32min. At these conditions, was observed a total phenolic content decrease (9.77%), moisture loss of 94% and antioxidant activity loss of 44.25% [131].

The effect of freeze- (liquid N2 or conventional freezing 28C) and hot-air (70C or 120C) drying on the concentration of olive leaves polyphenols was studied. Both drying methods significantly influenced the concentration of polyphenols. Freeze drying was not considered an adequate technique to promote extraction since the leach of phenolic compounds from olive leaves was not promoted. The antioxidant potential was reduced compared with that of fresh leaves, due to activation of oxidative enzymes. N2-freeze treatment was better than conventional, increasing oleuropein content by 448% compared with fresh leaves, and providing total phenolic contents of 372 and 36.31.4mg GAE/g d.w., respectively. Hot-air drying at 120C provided a higher phenolic content (452mg GAE/g d.w.) than freeze-drying, especially in oleuropein. The reduction of the drying temperature to 70C results in a significant decrease of total phenols (452mg GAE/g d.w.). Hot-air drying was evaluated on leaves previously affected by N2-freezing. Freezing prior to hot-air drying significantly reduced total phenolic content (372mg GAE/g d.w., 70C and 492mg GAE/g d.w., 120C) [132].

The effect of solar drying conditions on the drying time and some quality parameters of olive leaves, such as color, total phenol content and radical scavenging activity, was investigated using a laboratory convective solar dryer. Temperatures of 40C, 50C and 60C and air velocities of 1.6 and 3.3m3/min were employed in the study. The drying time required to reduce the moisture content to 0.10kgkg1 d.w. depended on the temperature. Total phenol content was affected by drying conditions and olive leaves variety. In general, temperature of 60C and air velocity of 3.3m3/min resulted in higher content of polyphenols among the four varieties (16.8624.08mg caffeic acid/1g d.w.), although was observed a decrease in all values compared with that of fresh leaves (22.0326.06mg caffeic acid/1g d.w.) [133].

Microwave radiation is also used in leaves drying. Aouidi et al. used a microwave oven and dried leaves twice for 2min at a maximum power of 800W. Lyophilization was adopted for oleuropein determination in olive leaves [134]. Recently, microwave was seen as a reasonable selection for drying olive leaves preserving phenolic compounds during storage. Optimum conditions for microwave drying were found to be 2.085g of sample at 459.257W for 6min to achieve maximum yields of total phenolic content (38.712mg GAE/g d.w.) and oleuropein (203.561mg/g d.w.). Microwave drying was considered a promising technique compared to other methods, namely freeze-, vacuum-, oven-, and ambient air-drying [135].

The influence of an ultrasound energy system was also investigated on the drying process of olive leaves. Air drying experiments (40C, 1ms1) were performed without or with ultrasound application (8, 16, 25 and 33kW/m3). The use of ultrasound on drying olive leaves could represent a way to increase the drying rate [136].

Kamran et al. studied the recovery of phenolic compounds from fresh, air-dried, freeze-dried and oven-dried (60C and 105C) olive leaves. Extracts of oven-dried leaves at 105C showed the highest phenol recoveries (140mg/g d.w.). Olive leaves oven-dried at 105C for 3h increased oleuropein recovery as compared with fresh olive leaves [14].

Erbay et al. determined and tested the most appropriate thin-layer drying model with air temperatures of 50C, 60C and 70C, and air velocities of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5ms1, to understand the drying behavior of olive leaves. The drying depends on the velocity and temperature of the air. The temperature has great influence, in a way that the drying rate increases with increased temperature [137].

Malik and Bradford compared freeze-, ambient (25C) air-, and hot (60C) air-drying of olive leaves and their effect on oleuropein and other phenolic stability and recovery. Air-drying at ambient temperature revealed a fully preservation of oleuropein and verbascoside levels, while freeze- and hot air-drying caused a reduction in polyphenolic content, including oleuropein [freezing53.595.4% loss (time dependent); hot air1932% loss] [102].

Another factor studied is the effect of blanching process, which involves the treatment by means of form of heat, usually either steam or boiling water [138]. Recently was reported that the water blanching of olive leaves (1:4 (w/v), 9095C, 20s) increased phenolic content up to 0.3290.532mg/g GAE (61.7%) when compared with fresh, solar-dried and oven-dried leaves [139].

The first application of a-Si:H alloy solar cells was for calculators, and even today these cells are being used to power a variety of consumer applications that require small amount of power. Today, a-Si:H alloy solar panels are used for a wide range of applications from battery charging to large-scale grid-connected applications. Two different approaches have been adopted for production of superstrate- and substrate-type solar cell structures. Detailed discussions are given below.

Most of the manufacturers use monolithic interconnection of the cells using a superstrate structure. A typical flowchart of a manufacturing line for making superstrate-type solar modules is shown in Figure 34. Window glass plates are first washed; a thin (50nm) layer of silicon dioxide is deposited onto the glass, followed by about 6001000nm of tin oxide. The tin oxide is then laser scribed to form the front contacts of the individual cell segments. The glass plate is next loaded into the deposition systems where the different layers of the a-Si:H alloys are deposited, followed by the deposition of ZnO. Another laser scribing is done, followed by deposition of Al or Ag. Another laser scribing completes the series-interconnect steps. Figure 35 illustrates a series-interconnected superstrate-type solar module. Final encapsulation is done by bonding another glass plate to the cell structure. Several manufacturers have come out with glass-in/panel-out concept, where all the processes are done in an automated process, thus reducing the labor cost. Sizes from 1000cm2 to about 6m2 are being used (Lechner et al., 2008) and several equipment manufacturers (Kadam et al., 2008; Meier et al., 2008) are offering turnkey systems or custom-built equipment to PV manufacturers.

The biggest challenge is uniformity over large area. Since many individual cell strips are series interconnected, the cell with the lowest current (smallest thickness) will limit the module performance. While there has been a great deal of progress in achieving uniformity over large area for a-Si:H deposition, nc-Si:H poses different challenges. Many manufacturers are using vhf deposition reactors to increase the deposition rate. Use of vhf demands special cathode design so that the field distribution is uniform, and innovative antenna array design (Takagi et al., 2006) and multi-ladder power input structures (Mashima et al., 2006) have been proposed.

Instead of using glass or stainless steel, polymeric substrates have also been used by several groups, including PowerFilm Inc., Flexcell, and United Solar Ovonic. United Solar uses polyimide bonded to stainless steel to carry out the roll-to-roll operation. The processing for cell making is the same as used in their production line. The stainless steel is removed after the cell is completed, and the cells are interconnected to make lightweight laminates. Since the substrate is insulating, monolithic modules can also be made. A step-and-roll process has been developed (Takano et al., 2006), in which using a combination of roll-to-roll processing and laser drilling series-interconnected laminates can be fabricated. The outline of the process is as followed:

Another approach to take advantage of roll-to-roll application together with monolithic integration has been developed where tin oxide, active layers for the cell, and the BR are deposited sequentially on a roll of Al substrate (Hamers et al., 2008). After the cell processing and encapsulation, the Al substrate is etched off.

A roll-to-roll manufacturing process has been developed (Izu and Ellison, 2003) for the production of solar panels using the substrate-type structure. Stainless steel rolls, typically 1.5-miles long, 14-inches wide, and 0.005-inch thick, go sequentially through four machines that serve the purpose of (1) washing, (2) depositing the BR layers, (3) depositing the a-Si:H and a-SiGe:H layers, and (4) depositing ITO, which serves as an antireflection coating. The coated web is next processed to make a variety of lightweight, flexible, and rugged products. The processing steps involve (1) cutting of the web into slabs, (2) short and shunt passivation and etching of ITO to define strip-cell area, (3) attaching electrodes and grids, and (4) final assembly involving interconnection of the strips and lamination.

Wash machine. The roll of stainless is washed in a roll-to-roll processing system, which transports the web through a detergent cleaning station, multiple deionized water rinsing baths, and an infrared drying oven. The clean, dry, and dust-free web is next loaded into the BR machine. One roll is processed at a time that runs through the machine at a speed of 15ft min1.

BR machine. The BR machine sequentially deposits a reflective metal (Al) layer and a metal oxide buffer layer (ZnO) onto the cleaned stainless steel web by magnetron sputtering. Reactive sputtering is used for the ZnO layer deposition. The BR layers provide the ohmic contact between the stainless steel and the a-Si:H alloy. The layers are deposited at a high temperature to obtain a textured surface so as to facilitate multiple reflections. Three rolls are processed at a time running through the machine at about 7ftmin1.

Amorphous silicon alloy deposition machine. The web coated with the BR is next loaded into the a-Si:H processor (Figure 36), which is about 300ft long and has, in addition to the pay-off and take-up chambers, multiple chambers to deposit the nine layers of the triple-cell structure. The deposition chambers have multiple cathodes to ensure power uniformity. The adjacent chambers for the intrinsic and doped layer deposition are separated by proprietary gas gates to eliminate contamination of the dopant gases in the intrinsic layers. The individual layers are grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process at a pressure of about 1Torr, and all the layers are deposited simultaneously and consecutively on the moving web (Figure 36) to complete the triple-junction cell structure. Special cathode designs ensure improved gas utilization and uniformity of the deposited layers. The gas manifolds for introducing silane and germane for the a-SiGe:H alloy component cells are specially designed to facilitate band gap profiling (Guha et al., 1989). The process conditions used for the deposition of the p-type layer facilitate microcrystalline growth (Izu and Ellison, 2003).

Six rolls move through the machine at a speed of about 2.2ftmin1, three on each side of the cathode placed in between, and the rolls are on the same vertical plane. The machines are provided with diagnostic tools to determine layer thickness and cell parameters such as open-circuit voltage.

Indium tin oxide deposition machine. The final step in the deposition process is reactive magnetron sputtering of ITO, which serves as the antireflection coating and also provides the top conducting contact. Typical deposition temperature is 200C. Three rolls are processed at a time running at about 7ftmin1. Figure 37 illustrates the four roll-to-roll processes.

Module assembly operation. The module assembly operation is semi-automated to facilitate flexibility in the choice of the product line while ensuring low cost and reliability. The finished roll of the coated web is first cut into 9.4inch14inch slabs. The slabs are then processed to define cell size, passivated to remove shunts and shorts (Guha et al., 1998), and tested to ascertain quality. Grid wires and contact pads are next applied, and the cells are then interconnected and the cellblock laminated to provide protection against outside atmosphere. The finished modules undergo performance measurement under global AM1.5 illumination and a high pot (hi-pot) test before they are shipped out. The cell assembly steps are shown in Figure 38.

The introduction describes Yankee dryers as the class of gray cast iron drying cylinders 1020ft in diameter and up to 300in. wide that weigh up to 380,000lb and operate with up to 140psi steam pressure at speeds up to and beyond 6000ft/min. The introduction indicates that they may contain an energy equal to 100lb of TNT, so safety is very important. Since 1950, the article indicates there has been only one disastrous failure in the United States.

Mushiri T, Mashana G Mbohwa C (2016). Design of a paper slitting and rewinding machine for a developing country, Zimbabwe Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management Detroit, Michigan, USA, September 2325, 2016.

Kline, I.E., Paper and Paperboard, Manufacturing and Converting Fundamentals, Miller Freeman Pub. Inc., San Francisco, 1982. Section III (pp. 152228) contains five useful chapters corrugating operations and raw materials; packaging; tissue and related grades; and cut size, bond, copy paper, and computer paper.

Research in the novel heating methods of foods, for applications such as cooking, pasteurization, sterilization, defrosting, thawing, and drying, often focuses on areas such as the assessment of processing time, the evaluation of heating uniformity, the appraisal of the impact on quality attributes of the final product as well as the prediction of the energy efficiency of these heating processes [14]. Nowadays, other drying alternatives are being continuously sought aiming at final products with acceptable quality at reduced financial expenditure. Hence, new technologies, such as osmotic dehydration, infrared radiation, supercritical drying (superheated steam drying) or electroheating, are the focus of interest for researchers. Additionally, several predrying treatments are commonly used in order to minimize adverse changes occurring during drying.

Osmotic dehydration (OD) has been used as a viable process for the partial removal of water from cellular materials, including fruits and vegetables. In this case, an advantage is that a change of phase is avoided, and, consequently, the possible physical, chemical, and biological changes (typical when drying at high temperature) are reduced. OD is based on placing foods in a hypertonic solution (i.e., sugar, salt, sorbitol, or glycerol), where the complex cell-wall structure of the food acts as a semipermeable membrane, which is not completely selective. The hypertonic solution has a higher osmotic pressure, and, consequently, the water activity is reduced, creating a driving force, which results in two countercurrent mass-transfer flows: diffusion of water from food to solution, and diffusion of solute from solution to food. Water removal can be aided with the help of vacuum. OD systems consist mainly of a storage tank where the osmotic solution is prepared, followed by a pump to control the flow rate at the processing tank. The product is placed in the processing tank where the osmotic solution is pumped in at a constant rate [1].

The efficiency of OD behavior has been studied using osmotic agents, such as sucrose, glucose, fructose, corn syrup, and sodium chloride, or other drying processes assisting OD. For example, it has been reported that OD, ultrasound, and ultrasound-assisted OD show different responses when applying these drying pretreatments to different fruits, as the ultrasonic waves can cause a rapid series of alternate compressions and expansions, causing cavitation, which may be helpful to remove strongly attached moisture. Besides, the forces involved create microscopic channels that may ease the removal of moisture. Research has also been focused on the influence of OD, prior to conventional drying, on the moisture transport characteristics, and, more recently, interest has been raised in the investigation of the physical characteristics of fruits after osmotic pretreatment and drying.

Infrared drying (ID) has received considerable attention lately for drying foodstuffs such as grains, flour, vegetables, pasta, meat, and fish, due to advantages such as higher energy efficiency, shorter drying time, versatility, simplicity of equipment, fast response of heating and drying, easy installation to any drying chamber, and low capital cost [15]. During ID, radioactive energy is transferred from the heating element to the product surface without heating the surrounding air. Several experimental studies have been carried out to drying various agricultural and food materials including carrot, garlic, potato, peach, apple, banana and yam slices, paddy and parboiled rice, or onion slices.

A supercritical (SC) fluid is defined as a substance for which both pressure and temperature are above the critical point. At this thermodynamic condition, the supercritical fluid cannot be condensed even with extreme compression. The most and widely desirable fluid for the extraction of natural products for foods is carbon dioxide (CO2); for that reason, SCCO2 drying could be a very promising technology, especially for sensitive food products [16]. However, the use and applicability of this technology to foodstuff drying is still under investigation, with very limited available data. Indeed, so far, only two publications dealing with SCCO2 drying of food products are available in the literature. Thus, there is a need for more studies to investigate the feasibility and potential applications of this new technology in the food industry. One of the needs is to determine the optimal conditions for the process and to identify the dominant parameters that could control the SCCO2 drying [16].

Electroheating can be subdivided into either direct electroheating where electrical current is applied directly to the food (i.e., ohmic heating (OH)) or indirect electroheating (i.e., microwave (MW) or radio frequency (RF) heating) where the electrical energy is first converted to electromagnetic radiation, which subsequently generates heat within a product [14]. These technologies differ in terms of their methods of application. In MW heating, waves generated by a magnetron pass via a waveguide into an oven cavity in which they bounce around off the metal walls of the cavity interior impinging on the product from many directions. In OH, the product is placed in direct contact with a pair of electrodes through which a low-frequency (traditionally 50 or 60Hz) alternating current is passed into the food product. This product needs to be either unpackaged and in direct contact with the electrodes and subsequently packaged, or alternatively be in a sealed pack, which has conductive regions which allow electrical current into the product. Meanwhile, RF heating also involves the use of electrodes. The product is placed either midway between or on top of one of a pair of electrodes, between which a high-frequency directional electrical field is generated by high-power electrical valves, which transfer energy to the electrodes by a transmission lines. RF heating does not have any requirement for direct contact between the product and electrodes, as RF waves will penetrate through conventional cardboard or plastic packaging.

Food exposure to MWs is under investigation, particularly taken into account the doubts raised on food safety due to possible structural changes. However, the mild effect and the versatility that seemingly reduce the thermal impact on foods functional properties, allow for an overall food quality improvement [4].

MWs heating involves drying of a solidfluid mixture or food substrate by the interaction between an electromagnetic field and dipolar molecular species (such as water), or ionic species (such as salts). The friction produced by the dipoles rotation and by the migration of ionic species to regions of opposite charge generates heat, especially where the water content is in relative excess [14]. The three main frequencies available for MW technology are: (1) 915MHz, used in certain cases due to technical complications; (2) 2.45GHz, which is already used throughout the world in household MW ovens; and (3) 2830GHz, not feasible on an industrial large scale, although it is a low-cost alternative [1].

Potential advantages to drying by MWs can be attributed to the difference in the way that energy is delivered. Thus, as MWs can penetrate materials and deposit energy, heat can be generated throughout the volume of the material; the transfer of energy does not rely on diffusion of heat from the surfaces, and it is possible to achieve rapid and uniform heating of relatively thicker materials [17]. MWs can transfer energy throughout the volume of the material; hence, the processing time can be reduced and the overall quality enhanced. This is particularly interesting for materials with low thermal conductivity, where MW can result in significantly reduced processing times. However, the penetration depth or intensity depends on physical and dielectric properties of the treated food and can vary with temperature [17] and electromagnetic field frequency, as well as with food composition and its overall shape [14, 17]. Heating by MW is recognized as a rapid treatment, but, nonetheless, it is characterized by a certain nonuniformity in temperature distribution [4]. Consequently, on occasion, MW can be coupled with other drying technologies. For example, fluidized-bed drying in combination with MW heating have been employed, compensating some of the drawbacks of each method, as temperature uniformity of the particles is achieved by good mixing due to fluidization; and, simultaneously, the diffusional period of drying can be reduced by the utilization of MW energy.

RF also uses electromagnetic energy to heat products instantly inside the product. Time cycle and efficiency improve exceptionally, as the process does not depend on a temperature gradient. RF electromagnetic waves cover the frequency spectrum from 30 to 300MHz. RF energy mainly acts through the electrical conductivity of the material; hence, the presence of ionic species (i.e., dissolved salts) tends to make materials good heating candidates. Therefore, RF shows some advantages with respect to MW technology, as RF generally heats more uniformly than MW, and energy is less expensive per kilowatt than MW [1].

However, in spite of its considerable speed advantage over conventional heating methods, its uptake by industry has been relatively slow. Recently, a substantial number of publications have been appearing and it is likely that this trend will continue for the foreseeable future. For example, Marra et al. [14] made a complete review of the recent advances in RF treatment of foods.

Finally, refractance window (RW) is a new technology in which water is used to transmit heat into the product being dried. The product is evenly applied to the surface of a conveyor belt (a sheet of special plastic floating on hot water) and infrared heat passes directly through the membrane and into the product. In this technology, all three methods of heat transfer, radiation, conduction, and convection occur for exceptionally effective heat transfer. However, as the material dries, the infrared window is closed, as moisture no longer contacts the plastic, and the only heat transfer taking place is by conduction. As plastic is a poor heat conductor, little heat is lost. This also causes the majority of infrared radiation to be bent back into the water, leaving only conducted heat as the drying means, thus protecting the product by preventing color and flavor degradation. Furthermore, RW drying maintains product temperatures far below the temperature of the circulating water beneath the conveyor belt, also protecting the products from oxidization. A broad variety of fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, flavorings, herbs and spices, dairy, cereals, starches and grains, as well as beverage products have been successfully dried by RW [1].

Establish tolerance limits for each hue, i.e. red, green, blue, etc. Always remember Look and Think. The smaller the tolerance limit, the more problems in reproduction. Be reasonable and select the tolerance limit based on supplier and manufacturer information.

As a computer reading can be taken only after complete drying, the approval time is considerably increased. The solution to this problem is to compare sample and standard side by side during wet or semi-dry conditions. Approval time can be reduced if comparison is made under identical conditions. Use of the IR drying technique is recommended as it does not produce colour drift.

For coloured pigments, determine the strength at maximum absorption (Rmin). In case of yellow and red pigments, the absorption region is a flat spectral curve. So, we may select the danger point. We cannot correct for the deviations in chromaticity of incoming pigment but can always correct for strength by adding required pigment or clear.

Primaries for database: We have to prepare separate primaries based on the production process, i.e. separate primaries for sand mill processing and ball mill processing for the same pigment (1 pass-2 pass). We have to make new primaries if colour development (strength and chromaticity) is very much affected due to the process. Then we have to collect the data of optical properties for each pigment based on the pigment-medium-process combination.

Water base paints: We can use the pastes of unknown pigmentation, but care should be taken while mixing with the black: in no case is bronzing to be observed and clear or proper pigmentation is to be prepared. The concentration of the mix with white is to be selected so that reflectance of the mix with black will not be more than that of the mix with white. This will depend upon the strength/depth of colour paste. In the case of colours where the TiO2 percentage is at 4%, a separate white base is to be prepared.

Specular excluded (SCE) mode: Gloss plays a very important role. In a computer program, proper calibration values of SCE are to be stored and after getting the correct data we can use this SCE mode of operation to run a match program with SCE data.

Colour difference unit: Our eye is non-linear and equal colour differences in different hues are not equivalent to each other. In one of the authors case studies, we selected three paints of three different hues (red, yellow and green). Visually matches were very close between the sample and standard of these three different hues, but instrumental measurements indicated large deviations (see Table12.4). This case study indicates why there are differences in visual and instrumental assessment of colour.

Colour difference in metallics: If we measure the metallic colour at four different places and compare with the standard, considerable colour differences are noticed. While fixing tolerances, we should note down these influences and deviations.

If we prepare the samples the same way each time, then each sample will be the same as all previous and all subsequent ones. This is called reproducibility of making samples. We must realize that in setting colour specification, we must have good repeatability of sample making. Most carefully run tests will exhibit some differences in sample preparation. In no case did the duplicate samples exactly match one another. We may get a colour difference in the range 0.04-0.6 CMC units.

The pigment manufacturers usually allow a maximum batch to batch strength variation from standard of plus or minus three percent and total colour difference E=0.5 CMC units. This is to be strictly controlled.

Quality of pigment or bases is based on pigment dispersion. The shade or mass tone of any pigment will often vary significantly, depending upon how well the pigment is dispersed. The maximum strength of pigment can be obtained with complete dispersion but the presence of streaks and specks indicate incomplete dispersion of pigment. This will result in inaccuracies in colour measurement.

There is a relationship between shear viscosity and processing temperature which affects pigment colour development. For example, phthalo blue milled at 275F and 300F will have significantly different tone and strength.

System failures: Flocculation, bleeding, spewing, crazing, mottling and migration are due to system failures. Colour measurement will be a futile exercise if system failures are observed in pigment dispersion and paint making.

Sample surface differences: If there is a difference in surface appearance (e.g. gloss), then colour measurement will be inaccurate. Gloss, texture and surface irregularity will create problems in colour measurement while differences in surface gloss account for the colour differences.

In the case of paint samples, wide variations are observed in duplicate drawdown when drawdown is made at either fast or slow speed. This is due to the different film thickness of the drawdown. We can reduce the variations to a minimum by using opaque samples.

In paint applications, we have to remember variations occur due to different variables such as dispersion technique, temperature effect, system failures, sample surface differences and anomalous pigment behaviour.

There are 24 chapters including 9 chapters on coaters and coating. There are also chapters on some hard-to-find topics including calendering, extrusion, saturators, laminating, surface treatment, drying, IR and electron beam curing, film orientation, winding, slitting, splicing, web handling, sheeting, die cutting, embossing, and static electricity.

This is a good introduction to the historical equipment development, methods of coating, properties of coated paper, pigments used in coating, lists of dyes, starch, additives, coating formulations, and finishing.

Over 40 abstracts are given on the title topic. The function of water retention is to improve the ability to hold the vehicle (water) within coatings after application and to decrease the migration to the surface or into the base sheet.

PTS Coating Symposium is the largest and most prominent international meeting place for the surface finishing of paper and board. Coating technology has undergone a sea change in the past few years to become a flexible coating process for innovative surface functions. Today, barriers and multifunctional surfaces can meet complex requirements for a wide range of applications in an endless variety of sectors.

Metso Paper developed a totally new spray coating technology, OptiSpray, which uses high-speed low-impact coating technology. OptiSpray provides excellent runnability and production efficiency and is a viable option for rebuilding existing machine lines to produce coated grades.

This book is a comprehensive overview about basic starch chemistry, starch modifications, quality control, shipment, storage, cooking, in mill conversion, best practices of application in surface sizing and coating, and also includes the environmental aspects. It also includes a description of developments for modified starches, copolymers, and coating technology that have happened in the last decade.

Babcock D and Kotoye F (2005). Coated paper imports and the effect on North American paper requirements, presentation at the 2005 TAPPI Coating and Graphic Arts Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, April 1820, 2005.

Coated paperboard is a global business, especially in the coated solid bleached sulfate board (SBS) market. US exports are increasing as the dollar weakens against foreign currencies. US exports of coated SBS board have traditionally been approximately 20% of total US production. Improving the quality and printability of coated paperboard is discussed.

Triantafillopoulos N, Gron J, Luostaring I and P. Paloviiti P (2001). Operational issues in high speed curtain coating, Paper presented at the 2001 TAPPI Coating Conference, San Diego, California USA May 710, 2001.

Curtain coatinga new coating process for specialty papersis emerging as a potential method for coating printing paper grades. The operational principles of the process and results from pilot coater trials are presented. Curtain coating can achieve low coat weights (5.8g/m2 on LWC, with the high coverage (85%), even at low coating solids (54%) to avoid detrimental bubbles in the coating.

Urscheler R, Dobler F, Roper JA, Haavisto J and Nurmiainen T (2005). Key attributes and opportunities of multilayer curtain coating for paper, Paper-10 presented at the 2005 TAPPI Coating and Graphic Arts Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, April 1820, 2005.

Curtain coating is an emerging method for coated paper and paper board. Most of the work has focused on single-layer curtain coating using slot die curtain applicators. Multilayer curtain coating offers several advantages over single-layer curtain coating. These advantages include low capital costs, flexibility in coating design, wide operational latitude in terms of coating rheology, and avoidance of issues faced at high application speeds.

Dimmick A (2003). Influence of average particle size of aragonitic precipitated calcium carbonate on coated paper properties, Paper presented at the 2003 TAPPI Spring Technical Conference, Chicago, Illinois USA May 1115, 2003.

This paper presents the influence of average particle size of aragonitic precipitated calcium carbonate on coated paper properties. The optimal average particle size for opacity for acicular aragonitic PCC was equal to the optimum predicted by Zeller of 0.40.55m with prismatic calcite PCC. The coated paper smoothness improved, and sheet gloss and print gloss both increased, as the average particle size of the aragonite PCC became smaller.

Joyce MK, Saari JS, Kataja K, Mikkonen H, Peltonon S and Qvintus- Lieno PK (2005). Coating trial results with non-mineral bases pigments, Paper presented at the 2005 TAPPI Coating Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, April 1820, 2005.

VTT has developed starch-based nonmineral paper pigments to replace mineral pigments. The purpose is to introduce some coating resultsof developed starch pigments. Pilot scalecoating and filler trials were performedatWestern Michigan University pilotfacilities.

Virtanen JM (2002). Latest experiences of film coating and introduction of a new contactless optispray coating method, African Pulp and Paper Week Adding value in global industry (konferenssi), TAPPSA, Durban 2002.

The main goal behind the food drying process is to reduce the moisture content to a secure and desirable level, and thus extend the life of the dried products. Sun drying is a conventional technique that is broadly employed to prevent agricultural crops from spoiling, especially in rural areas. The sun-drying method comes with some disadvantages such as spoiling due to rain, wind, moisture, and dust, and deterioration of crops because of decomposition, insect attacks, fungi, etc. In addition, sun drying is labor-intensive and needs a considerable amount of energy as well as land area for spreading the product [74]. Solar drying is one of the most promising technologies among various solar energy applications. Drying can be defined as a mechanism to remove products moisture involving both heat and mass transfer. Solar drying offers an alternative method for drying agricultural products in a clean and sanitary environment that can reduce crop losses, energy consumption, and drying time in addition to improving the quality of the final products [75]. The basic principle of a solar dryer is shown in Fig. 6.12.

Solar drying methods are mainly classified into the open sun-drying method and drying with solar dryers. Additionally, solar dryers can broadly be categorized as passive and active systems. Solar dryer classification is mainly based on the heat transfer mechanisms they employ to withdraw the moisture content from the product. In passive solar dryers, buoyancy forces or wind flow are utilized to circulate the heated air resulting from solar thermal utilization while in active solar dryers, the hot air is circulated by means of mechanical devices such as fans or blowers, which can be driven by the power supplied from PV modules or grid electricity [76, 77]. The passive and active solar dryers can be further grouped as direct, indirect, and mixed solar dryers depending on the way that solar radiation is collected by the space under the drying process. A wide classification of solar dryers is shown in Fig. 6.13. In direct solar drying, heat is produced by the exposure of sunlight on the crop itself and the internal space of the drying cabinet. The indirect solar dryers, also known as conventional dryers, do not receive solar radiation directly because a separate solar-powered unit collects thermal energy, which can then be transferred to the drying chamber. Finally, the mixed solar drying method uses both features of the direct and indirect methods when a faster drying rate is required [75, 77].

One of the electrical demands of active solar dryers is the need to power a fan to induce the forced convection flow. In this regard, the PV modules can be integrated with an electric circuit to run one or some DC fans, which are placed at the entrance of the air collector [78], the exit of the air collector [79], or the exit of the drying chamber [80]. Goud et al. [78] developed an indirect type of solar dryer using PV modules to maintain the airflow through the system. In their work, three DC fans were placed at the entrance of the solar collector and powered by three PV panels (10Wp). The schematic view of the developed solar dryer is shown in Fig. 6.14. As can be seen in this figure, a solar air collector is incorporated with the drying chamber, which includes drying products placed on several trays to contact the hot air. The absorbed solar energy by the collector is transferred to the incoming air (running via an electric DC fan), resulting in the air to be heated at the entrance of the drying chamber. As the hot air stream reaches the trays, the heat and mass transfer take place on the products surface in which water is gradually extracted from the product, leading to dried material production. Analyzing the experimental data, average air velocities of 1.0824 and 1.0774m/s were recorded in green chili and okra drying processes, respectively. Moreover, it was concluded that the integration of PV modules with the presented fans is appropriate and can be proposed as a reliable system.

Janjai et al. [81] tested a PV-ventilated greenhouse dryer in which three roof-mounted PV panels were used to facilitate the drying process carried out on dry peeled longan and banana. The results indicated that the proposed design is able to reduce drying time and improve product quality compared to conventional sun-drying designs. In a similar study conducted by Eltawil et al. [42], a greenhouse-like tunnel dryer coupled with a solar thermal collector and a PV panel to power a DC fan was investigated for drying mint. They concluded that the developed system results in a reduction of peppermint drying time and improves the quality of the dried product.

Infrared drying is one of the techniques used to enhance the quality of the product and decrease the drying time [82]. Although the combination of the solar dryer with an infrared system has not been extensively studied, those limited works investigating this novel integration suggest significant potential [83, 84], especially when PV panels are incorporated to provide the electrical power needed for the infrared source. In this regard, Ziaforoughi et al. [44] introduced a solar dryer assisted by a PV-powered infrared system to investigate the drying process of potato slices. As Fig. 6.15 shows, in this design, an indirect dryer is used in which heated air is passed through the potato slices laid on the trays inside the drying cabinet and leaves the system from a chimney located on the cabinet topside. An intermittent infrared source, integrated inside the drying area, is used to boost the drying process with the aid of a temperature controller that controls the lamp current and maintains the product temperature at the desired level. In this work, the infrared source is powered with a PV panel installed beside the dryer. Results revealed that the utilization of PV technology culminates in a 4069% reduction in energy consumption while the drying time can also be decreased by 3152% with infrared assistance.

Fig. 6.15. The indirect solar dryer assisted with a PV-powered infrared system [44]; (A) Schematic view of the experimental setup consisting of data loggers (D1 and D2), chimney (7), load cell (8), aluminum absorber (9), infrared lamp (10), and transmitters (T1 & T2); and (B) photo of the developed system.

Samimi-Akhijahani et al. [85] proposed an indirect solar dryer assisted with a PV-powered tracking system to dry tomato slices. As shown in Fig. 6.16, they incorporated a tracking flat-plate solar air collector coupled to a drying cabinet through the transferring tube, in which a one-axial fan powered by the PV panel was implemented to transfer the heated air from the collector to the drying trays in a forced convection mode. Photocell sensors were also coupled with the sun-tracking unit to control a PV-powered 12V DC motor. The results from the performance evaluation indicated that the proposed arrangement can reduce the drying time by 16.636.6% while the quality of the final product was not influenced negatively by the tracking mode.

Fig. 6.16. An active solar dryer assisted with a PV-powered solar tracker [85]: (A) Schematic view of the proposed design including axial fan (1), drying cabinet (2), trays (3), connecting tube (4), solar collector (5), PV panel (6), air inlet (7), charge controller (8), battery unit (9), sun-tracking sensor (10), control panel (11), mechanical pivot (12); and (b) photo of the experimental setup.

PVT utilization with a solar dryer not only provides the electricity supply for the assisted systems, but also delivers heat to the thermal collector and enhances the total performance consequently. Fig. 6.17 represents a PVT-powered solar dryer developed by Tiwari et al. [86]. As the figure shows, in this design, an air-based PVT module was constructed out of two sections, PV and solar thermal modules. During operation, solar radiation is captured by the entire module, generating electricity and thermal energy, respectively, from the PV and thermal sections. As the air is fed into the module, fresh air passing beneath the PV module makes it cooler while extracting the excess heat. Further, the thermal collector transfers the absorbed heat to the preheated air and provides adequate thermal power for the drying process where the hot air passes through the product, absorbing its moisture content and leaving the system from the exhaust gate. In the proposed model, scientists used the generated electricity to power the DC fans for air circulation purposes. They concluded that the developed system including one solar collector was able to yield 61.56% of thermal efficiency.

In another system introduced by Tiwari et al. [87], a mixed-type greenhouse solar dryer assisted with a PVT module for three different purposes was developed. First, the PV module generated electricity to drive DC fans, inducing forced mode operation. Second, the heat absorbed by the module was transferred to the drying cabinet, and third, the PVT module was arranged to block the direct exposure of the drying material to improve the product quality. Experimental results showed that the quality and decoloration of the dried product were promoted and mitigated, respectively. Additionally, the thermal energy and exergy values were determined to be 2.03 and 0.535kWh, respectively. In the research conducted by Fterich et al. [41], the performance of a mixed-mode forced convection solar dryer equipped with a roof-mounted PVT module was investigated. In the given design, the air is pumped into a drying chamber through a pipe by means of a DC fan powered by the PV module. Getting preheated by the PVT absorber including several aluminum tubes, the air is able to dry tomato slices in a more efficient way compared to other conventional methods. Performance analysis showed that mixed solar drying reduces the tomato's initial moisture content from 91.94% to 22.32% for 44h.

Dorouzi et al. [88] developed an indirect solar dryer assisted with a PVT system that was based on a desiccant regeneration circle. Closed-loop air circulation was formed using a DC fan, an auxiliary heater regulated the drying temperature, and a desiccant bed absorbed the exhaust air mist. In this work, calcium chloride solution as the desiccant fluid flowed freely over the PV panel to attain the excess heat and became regenerated. It is operated when the air relative humidity (RH) exceeds the set point. The results indicated that the proposed dryer has the capability to meet the entire electric power requirement when the drying temperature varies from 6065C and the RH set point for the regeneration circle activation is 28% of drying of the tomato. Fig. 6.18 depicts the schematic view and a photograph of the developed system.

Fig. 6.18. An indirect solar dryer assisted with a liquid desiccant-based PVT collector [88]: (A) Schematic view of the experimental test rig, (B) A photo of the system including a solar collector (1), air entrance to the collector (2), drying chamber (3), liquid desiccant bed (4), connecting tube (5), PV panel (6), regeneration system pump (7), and distribution pipe (8).

In an experimental investigation, a solar-powered fluidized bed dryer assisted with an infrared system was introduced by Mehran et al. [89] for drying paddy grains (Fig. 6.19). The proposed system included a solar water collector, a PV-powered infrared lamp, a gas-powered water heater, and a desiccant wheel. Two operating conditions of natural gas drying (NGD) and solar-assisted drying (SAD) were considered during the experiments. The results indicated the highest total energy consumption of 1.163kWh for the dryer under the NGD test mode and the lowest value of 0.314kWh under the SAD mode. In addition, the specific energy consumption values under the drying in SAD and NGD modes varied from 8.3022.12 to 16.7332.62kWh/kg of the evaporated water, respectively. Moreover, it was concluded that although using an infrared lamp results in an increase in the solar energy fraction to 0.741, its use in the fluidizing chamber has no remarkable impact on the drying speed of the crop.

The use of PV-powered solar dryers brings great advantages considering their technical viability and energy-saving potential. Although recent studies in this field show significant progress, there is still room for improvements in terms of decreasing costs and increasing performance, both thermal and electrical, to make the use of these sustainable facilities widespread.

screen printing conveyor dryers

The Little Buddy II is an ideal dryer for start-ups, small shops, short runs and on-site jobs. This dryer is compact, lightweight and versatile. Featuring Black Body Heaters and a floating belt tracking guide, the Little Buddy II is designed to provide years of dependable and trouble-free service.

NEW! 24" Wide Belt Little Buddy can cure up to 200 shirts per hour. This conveyor dryeris an ideal for start-ups, small shops, short runs and on-site jobs. This dryer is compact, lightweight and versatile. Featuring Black Body Heaters and a floating belt tracking guide, the Little Buddy II is designed to provide years of dependable and trouble-free service. ...

The Big Buddy III is the best conveyor dryer for a manual shop expecting to grow. Unique technology, capacity, and controls put the Big Buddy III at the top of its class. The unique belt tracking method that is virtually error-proof (never worry about the edge walking again). With 6500 watts of Black Body heaters you will get the production you need - and at the value you require. ...

T-Series Industrial Conveyor Dryers have an unbeatable combination of power and options. The T-Series offers 16 different models with a combination of belt width, bed length, oven chamber, voltage and belt material. "Hassle-Free" Belt Tracking System4ft or 5 ft Oven ChamberPTFE Coated or Stainless Steel Belt208 Volt or 240 Volt OperationDigital Solid State Temperature Control On All ModelsAnalog Speed ControlAnalog Conveyor Controls StandardLength of Conveyor and Over...

T-Series Industrial Conveyor Dryers have an unbeatable combination of power and options. The T-Series offers 16 different models with a combination of belt width, bed length, oven chamber, voltage and belt material. "Hassle-Free" Belt Tracking System4ft or 5 ft Oven ChamberPTFE Coated or Stainless Steel Belt208 Volt or 240 Volt OperationDigital Solid State Temperature Control On All ModelsAnalog Speed ControlAnalog Conveyor Controls StandardLength of Conveyor and Over...

T-Series Industrial Conveyor Dryers have an unbeatable combination of power and options. The T-Series offers 16 different models with a combination of belt width, bed length, oven chamber, voltage and belt material. "Hassle-Free" Belt Tracking System4ft or 5 ft Oven ChamberPTFE Coated or Stainless Steel Belt208 Volt or 240 Volt OperationDigital Solid State Temperature Control On All ModelsAnalog Speed ControlAnalog Conveyor Controls StandardLength of Conveyor and Over...

HomeBased Equipment conveyor dryers are ideally suited for the home based or small shop screen printer. They come standard with a heat resistant 20" wide PTFE coated belt. Conveyor dryer comes with a 5 year limited warranty and all components are UL listed. ...

HomeBased Equipment conveyor dryers are ideally suited for the home based or small shop screen printer.They come standard with a heat resistant 20" wide PTFE coated belt. Conveyor dryer comes with a 5 year limited warranty and all components are UL listed. ...

The 425 Press/Dryer Combo is ideal for screen printers with limited space. The 425 Press/Dryer Combo is both a 4 Color/2 Station Press and a 5 ft Conveyor Dryer. The Dryer has been specially re-enforced to properly hold the 4 Color 2 Station Press. ...

These compact dryers allow you to produce professional, long lasting images even with a limited space or budget. The double wall construction and adjustable oven doors retain oven heat while the exhaust flange allows removal of fumes from your shop. These dryers handle a wide variety of imprintables, caps, jackets, sweats, and transfers just to name a few.Odyssey Compact Conveyor Dryerscome with a 20" wide belt and new 2,000/3,000 watt heater capable of curing 60-70 pieces*/per hour...

These compact dryers allow you to produce professional, long lasting images even with a limited space or budget. The double wall construction and adjustable oven doors retain oven heat while the exhaust flange allows removal of fumes from your shop. These dryers handle a wide variety of imprintables, caps, jackets, sweats, and transfers just to name a few.Odyssey Compact Conveyor Dryer CD227 comes with a 22" wide belt and 6,200 watts ofheater capable of curing 120 pieces*/per hour...

The Powerhouse Quartz ConveyorDryer Series claim to fame isthetrue understanding of Infrared energy, its emission and how it affects different materials.Quartz technology provides near instant-on capabilities for curing plastisols. With warm up times in seconds and not minutes, its no wonder shop owners look to us for higher productivity. The Powerhouse Series 180 degree radiant pattern of emission means energy strikes from all angles, unlike standard panel...

The Powerhouse Quartz ConveyorDryer Series claim to fame isthetrue understanding of Infrared energy, its emission and how it affects different materials.Quartz technology provides near instant-on capabilities for curing plastisols. With warm up times in seconds and not minutes, its no wonder shop owners look to us for higher productivity. The Powerhouse Series 180 degree radiant pattern of emission means energy strikes from all angles, unlike standard panel...

Not just for plastisol anymore! The Powerhouse Series II Conveyor Dryercures plastisol and water-basedink at industrial rated production speeds. The control center is managed via a touch screen tablet that is easy to use while providing you much more information than ever before. A ground up redesign of the air handling system now offers a powerful yet controllable air flow that is easily matched to you ink system. Touch screen control, adjustable height heaters, adjustable air...

The Powerhouse Quartz ConveyorDryer Series claim to fame isthetrue understanding of Infrared energy, its emission and how it affects different materials.Quartz technology provides near instant-on capabilities for curing plastisols. With warm up times in seconds and not minutes, its no wonder shop owners look to us for higher productivity. The Powerhouse Series 180 degree radiant pattern of emission means energy strikes from all angles, unlike standard panel...

Not just for plastisol anymore! The Powerhouse Series II Conveyor Dryercures plastisol and water-basedink at industrial rated production speeds. The control center is managed via a touch screen tablet that is easy to use while providing you much more information than ever before. A ground up redesign of the air handling system now offers a powerful yet controllable air flow that is easily matched to you ink system. Touch screen control, adjustable height heaters, adjustable air...

The Powerhouse Quartz ConveyorDryer Series claim to fame isthetrue understanding of Infrared energy, its emission and how it affects different materials.Quartz technology provides near instant-on capabilities for curing plastisols. With warm up times in seconds and not minutes, its no wonder shop owners look to us for higher productivity. The Powerhouse Series 180 degree radiant pattern of emission means energy strikes from all angles, unlike standard panel...

BBC Forced Air Conveyor Dryers have the ability to handle plastisol, waterbased, discharge, direct to garment, and pretreatment. Dual digital controlled infrared heat zones and dry forced air work together to produce an optimal cure for your type of ink. BBC Forced Air Conveyor Dryers have set the standard for productivity, throughput and efficiency relative to its size. Highly efficient BBC infrared panels provide the most even and efficient heat distribution available...

BBC Forced Air Conveyor Dryers have the ability to handle plastisol, waterbased, discharge, direct to garment, and pretreatment. Dual digital controlled infrared heat zones and dry forced air work together to produce an optimal cure for your type of ink. BBC Forced Air Conveyor Dryers have set the standard for productivity, throughput and efficiency relative to its size. Highly efficient BBC infrared panels provide the most even and efficient heat distribution available...

The Aeolus is the next generation of Forced Air Conveyor Dryer. Using BBCs proprietary heatingelements there is nothing that BBC Aeolus dyer cant cure. From plastisol to pretreat, and everything in between, the Aeolus out shines the competition. The Aeoluss revolutionary design usesbanks of angled heating panels running along the edge of the PTFE coated belt to all but eliminateedge loss. Its unique design, partnered with BBCs proprietary watt density algorithm, provides...

The Aeolus is the next generation of Forced Air Conveyor Dryer. Using BBCs proprietary heatingelements there is nothing that BBC Aeolus dyer cant cure. From plastisol to pretreat, and everything in between, the Aeolus out shines the competition. The Aeoluss revolutionary design usesbanks of angled heating panels running along the edge of the PTFE coated belt to all but eliminateedge loss. Its unique design, partnered with BBCs proprietary watt density algorithm, provides...

The D-100 entry level tabletop conveyor dryer comes with a Hi/Lo heat adjustment and variable belt speed. This provides you with full control over your curing environment. This dryer is compact yet powerful due to the dense coil pattern and heater shields which eliminates hot and cold spots. This conveyor dryer is ideal for any home based or small business looking for an economical dryer with a small footprint.

uv and ir drying systems for screen printing from deco tech

At Deco Tech we provide the right UltraViolet curing systems for your specific screen printing applications. We offer UV curing solutions for both 3D and flat products. Pictured here above is a special two lamp UV conveyor system that is designed for UV curing screen printed inks on plastic, glass & metal containers. We also provide Ultra violet drying conveyor systems for flat graphic panels and for your special needs. We have our UV dryer systems engineered from a top manufacturer in South Korea and they are precision crafted to our exact specifications. We have the right solution to fit your budgetary needs. Additionally we provide our customers with IR (infra red) and NIR (near infra red) drying conveyors for your most demanding industrial curing & drying applications. Call us toll free at (800) 300-DECO to request a quote on any UV or IR drying system.

Control panel provides control over; main power on/off, fan control manual/auto, 2 lamp zones on/off and conveyor belt speed control. Also on the control panel you have visual feedback of voltage and amp meter output as well as an hour meter for display of total lamp life.

Glass bottles are shown as they are fed through the UV conveyor tunnel. The infeed doors are adjustable to reduce the amount of light leaking from the opening. When operating UV equipment it is important to follow all safety rules and wear UV safety glasses.

Pictured above is our DECO TECH four lamp UV curing conveyor system that is designed for UV curing of screen printed inks on plastic and glass bottles & jars. These well crafted Ultra Violet drying units are precision crafted to our specifications in South Korea and are CE approved.

Shown is the infeed side of the conveyor with adjustable doors to reduce the chance of light leaking into the working environment. This large unit can handle bottles up to 1 gallon jugs. Larger units are also available for bigger containers.

flash dryers | by

ScreenPrinting.com is where printers can conveniently find their favorite high-quality brands of equipment and supplies, such as Riley Hopkins, FN-INK, Baselayr, & Sgreen. Screen Printers can also earn points from each and every purchase through ScreenPrinting.com to be used for future orders of equipment and supplies. Enough about us... this is about you, you ready to get printing?