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hjpotters92s answer is great for fixed separator strings. If the separators vary and one wants to join them with each subsequent match one can use the following two approaches, neither of which requires closures:
In this Python tutorial we will learn about Python split() string function. Unlike len(), some functions are specific to strings. To use a string function, type the name of the string, a dot, the name of the function, and any arguments that the function needs: string.function(arguments). You can use the built-in string split() function to break a string into a list of smaller strings based on some separator.
In this example script we will split a sentence containing strings into multiple sub string using whitespace as the separator. If you dont have a separator to be defined then you can just provide split() which will by default consider separator as None.
By default if your dont specify split limit, then all the possible values will be slit from the provided string. In this example we will define maxlimit as 1 so after the first split, python will ignore the remaining separators.
The split() method separates a string into parts wherever it finds a space and stores all the parts of the string in a list. The result is a list of words from the string, although some punctuation may also appear with some of the words.
We will use split() to count the number of word in /usr/share/doc/grep/README file. You can ignore the try and except block if you are not yet familiar with it, you can concentrate on the else block where I am performing the actual task:
In this tutorial we learned about string.split() using different examples. We can combine split with regex to add more powerful features which will cover in different tutorial. Here I have covered limited examples on using it with string in different scenarios.
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Model 5LL-2000 5LL-1500 5LL-1200 5LL-900 5LL-600 5LL-400 Spiral Diametermm 2000 1500 1200 900 600 400 Spiral Pitchmm 1200 800/680/540 720/540/360 660/540/400 450/360/270 240/180 Starts 3 4 4 4 2 2 Feeding Sizes (mm) 4-0.04 0.8-0.037 0.3-0.03 0.3-0.03 0.2-0.02 0.2-0.02 Feeding Density (%) 20-45 30-60 25-35 25-55 25-55 25-55 Capacity (t/h) 15-40 6-8 4-6 2-3 0.4-0.8 0.15-0.2 Dimension (mm) Length 2300 1560 1360 1060 700 460 Width 2300 1560 1360 1060 700 460 Height 6500 5230 5230 4000 2600 1500 WeightKg 1100 800 600 400 150 50
separator( [string] , [annotation=string], [backgroundColor=[float, float, float]], [defineTemplate=string], [docTag=string], [dragCallback=script], [dropCallback=script], [enable=boolean], [enableBackground=boolean], [exists=boolean], [fullPathName=string], [height=int], [horizontal=boolean], [isObscured=boolean], [manage=boolean], [numberOfPopupMenus=boolean], [parent=string], [popupMenuArray=boolean], [preventOverride=boolean], [style=string], [useTemplate=string], [visible=boolean], [visibleChangeCommand=script], [width=int]) Note: Strings representing object names and arguments must be separated by commas. This is not depicted in the synopsis.
As you can see from this code, the function splits our original string which includes three colors and then stores each variable in a separate string. This leaves us with three strings of a, b, and c. Then, when you ask the interpreter to spit out the variables stored in these strings, you get the appropriate color.
If youre in a rush, heres how to split a string by whitespace in Python: use the builtin split() function. It works for any string as follows: "What a Wonderful World".split(). If done correctly, youll get a nice list of substrings without all that whitespace (e.g. ["What", "a", "Wonderful", "World"]).
In the remainder of this article, well look at the solution described above in more detail. In addition, well try writing our own solution. Then, well compare them all by performance. At the end, Ill ask you to tackle a little challenge.
When we talk about splitting a string, what were really talking about is the process of breaking a string up into parts. As it turns out, there are a lot of ways to split a string. For the purposes of this article, well just be looking at splitting a string by whitespace.
Of course, there are a ton of different types of whitespace characters. Unfortunately, which characters are considered whitespace are totally dependent on the character set being used. As a result, well simplify this problem by only concerning ourselves with Unicode characters (as of the publish date).
In the Unicode character set, there are 17 separator, space characters. In addition, there are another 8 whitespace characters which include things like line separators. As a result, the following string is a bit more interesting:
On top of all that, we need some way to verify that a character is in fact a whitespace. To do that, we created a list of whitespace characters called whitespace_chars. Rather than listing all of the whitespace characters, I cheated and showed two examples with a little ellipses. Make sure to remove the ellipsis before running this code. For some reason, Python gives those three dots meaning, so it wont actually error out (although, it likely wont cause any harm either).
Using these variables, were able to loop over our string and construct our substrings. We do that by checking if each character is a whitespace. If it is, we know we need to construct a substring and update start_index to begin tracking the next word. Then, when were done, we can grab the last word and store it.
Now, I borrowed this solution from a method that we ask students to write for a lab in one of the courses I teach. Basically, the method is called nextWordOrSeparator which is a method that looks like this:
Here, we track a couple variables. First, we need an end_index, so we know where to split our string. In addition, we need to determine if were dealing with a word or separator. To do that, we check if the character at the current position in text is in separators. Then, we store the result in is_separator.
With is_separator, all there is left to do is loop over the string until we find a character that is different. To do that, we repeatedly run the same computation we ran for is_separator. To make that more obvious, Ive stored that expression in a lambda function:
At any rate, this loop will run until either we run out of string or our test_separator function gives us a value that differs from is_separator. For example, if is_separator is True then we wont break until test_separator is False.
Now, we have a solution that is slightly more robust! Also, it gets the job done for anything we consider separators; they dont even have to be whitespace. Lets go ahead and adapt this one last time to let the user enter any separators they like:
In the documentation, this is described as a different algorithm from the default behavior. In other words, the whitespace algorithm will treat consecutive whitespace characters as a single entity. Meanwhile, if a separator is provided, the method splits at every occurrence of that separator:
To test performance, well be using the timeit library. Essentially, it allows us to compute the runtime of our code snippets for comparison. If youd like to learn more about this process, Ive documented my approach in an article on performance testing in Python.
Again, Pythons split() method is pretty quick. Meanwhile, our robust method is terribly slow. I cant imagine how much worse our performance is going to get with a larger string. Lets try the many_spaces string next:
This very quickly became painful to wait out. Im a bit afraid to try the long_string test to be honest. At any rate, lets check out the performance for the first_space string (and recall that the bugged solution doesnt work as expected):
Weve written a function which can be used to split any string we like by any separator. How could we go about writing something similar for numbers? For example, what if I wanted to split a number every time the number 256 appears?
We could then delineate each code by some separator codein this case 256 because its outside of ASCII range. Using our method, we could split our coded string by the separator and then make sense of the result using chr():
If you read my article on obfuscation, you already know why this might be desirable. We could essentially write up an enormous number and use it to generate strings of text. Anyone trying to reverse engineer our solution would have to make sense of our coded string.
Also, I think something like this is a fun thought experiment; I dont expect it to be entirely useful. That said, feel free to share your solutions with me on Twitter using #RenegadePython. For instance, heres my solution:
Finally got around to solving my split challenge for integers in Python. There has to be a simpler solution, but I like how this turned out! You can find the original #RenegadePython challenge here: https://t.co/utQPgXDylL pic.twitter.com/bGabw6OoeH
As you can see, I used modular arithmetic to split the string. Certainly, it would be easier to convert the key to a string and split it using one of our solutions, right? That said, I like how this solution turned out, and Im glad it works (as far as I can tell).
If youd like to go the extra mile, check out my article on ways you can help grow The Renegade Coder. This list includes ways to get involved like hopping on my mailing list or joining me on Patreon.
The How to Python tutorial series strays from the usual in-depth coding articles by exploring byte-sized problems in Python. In this series, students will dive into unique topics such as How to Invert a Dictionary, How to Sum Elements of Two Lists, and How to Check if a File Exists.
Each problem is explored from the naive approach to the ideal solution. Occasionally, therell be some just-for-fun solutions too. At the end of every article, youll find a recap full of code snippets for your own use. Dont be afraid to take what you need!
If youre not sure where to start, I recommend checking out our list of Python Code Snippets for Everyday Problems. In addition, you can find some of the snippets in a Jupyter notebook format on GitHub,
Jeremy grew up in a small town where he enjoyed playing soccer and video games, practicing taekwondo, and trading Pokmon cards. Once out of the nest, he pursued a Bachelors in Computer Engineering with a minor in Game Design. After college, he spent about two years writing software for a major engineering company. Then, he earned a master's in Computer Science and Engineering. Today, he pursues a PhD in Engineering Education in order to ultimately land a teaching gig. In his spare time, Jeremy enjoys spending time with his wife, playing Overwatch and Phantasy Star Online 2, practicing trombone, watching Penguins hockey, and traveling the world.
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