stone crushing different sizes in indonesia

indonesia - limestone investment analysis and crushing process | fote machinery

Indonesia is the largest country in ASEAN with a land area of 1.919 million square kilometers and a marine area of 3.16 million square kilometers. The mineral resources are very rich in Indonesia, especially the limestone resource.

In recent years, the limestone mining industry in Indonesia has risen greatly, which not only drives the economic development of Indonesia, but also provides a large number of job opportunities, and brought huge business opportunities for the limestone crushing industry.

Indonesia's limestone reserves are about 34 billion tons, and proven reserves are about 28 billion tons, mainly distributed in the south and north of West Java, East Java, Papua in the east, Bali and Sumatra. It is the main non-metallic mine in Indonesia and ranks second after the coal mine.

On December 16, 2008, the Indonesian Parliament passed the new mining law. On January 12, 2009, the Indonesian President issued a new law No. 4 to replace Act No. 11 of 1967, which was implemented in the country for 41 years.

The most essential reform of the new mining law is that it replaces the long-term implementation of the Contract of Work (COW) and the coal mining enterprise work permit system (PKP2B) in Indonesia with a new licensing system.

In order to attract more funds to its domestic mining sector, currently, Indonesia government is launching a series of attractive policies and constantly revising and improving mining investment laws.

At present, the construction industry is Indonesia's second largest industry whose output value accounts for about 10% of GDP. The average growth rate had reached 7% between 2009 and 2013, which is the main driving force for Indonesia's economic growth.

The infrastructure is also the main part of the construction industry. The output value of infrastructure construction in 2013 accounted for 53.8% of the total output value of the construction industry.

Therefore, Indonesian governments have made infrastructure construction a priority for government investment. As the basic raw material for the production of cement, the limestone is only increasing in demand.

The Asia-Pacific mining risk return rankings published by Business Monitor International show that Indonesia and Australia rank first and second in the Asia-Pacific region with their rich mineral resources and stable investment environment.

The physical properties of limestone are small hardness and high brittleness with low silicon content and low abrasiveness. Therefore, the limestone is relatively easy to crush with low production cost.

According to different uses, limestone needs to be crushed into particles of different sizes: the products of 20-50mm size are mainly used for burning lime and the products of -20mm size can be ground into different meshes to meet the needs of various industries such as power plants.

Limestone is mined by blasting. Due to the blasting distance and other reasons, the particle size of the raw materials varies, and during the mining and transportation process, the the soil and other debris are included.

In summary, considering the advantages and disadvantages of several crushing methods, plus the physical properties of limestone, and to meet the maximum size of 20-50mm grain products, equipment with a relatively small crushing ratio should be selected. Thus, priority is given to the jaw crusher.

The initial plan is to use two-stage jaw crushers. The size of the discharge port of a section of jaw crusher can be adjusted larger slightly. After the crushing, the grade of +50mm is sent into the second-stage jaw crusher to reduce the fine powder. The two-stage crushers achieve a closed loop.

The limestone production line is a common production line in the heavy industry equipment, which is favored and chosen by many customers. The common limestone crushing production line includes vibrating feeder, jaw crusher, belt conveyor and vibrating screen.

The raw materials are transported from the warehouse through the ESW38095 vibrating feeder (-3mm purlin, adjustable). The waste is transported through the belt under the screen; the material above the screen is fed into the PE500750 jaw crusher, then transported into 4YK1848 vibrating screen for sieving;

Investors can get a good crushing effect by adopting the appropriate process configuration and equipment selection. In combination with the principle of "breaking more and less grinding" in the limestone production line, it is necessary to produce the best particle size in the stage of crushing limestone.

Henan Fote Heavy Machinery specializes in the production of mining equipment for 40 years. It has rich crushing experiences in the production of limestone mining equipment with advanced crushing technology and complete after-sales service, and is favored by domestic and foreign customers.

As a leading mining machinery manufacturer and exporter in China, we are always here to provide you with high quality products and better services. Welcome to contact us through one of the following ways or visit our company and factories.

Based on the high quality and complete after-sales service, our products have been exported to more than 120 countries and regions. Fote Machinery has been the choice of more than 200,000 customers.

24 fun facts and information about crab for kids

Remember Sebastian from The Little Mermaid or Mr. Krabs from SpongeBob SquarePants? Well, theyre both crabs. If these characters amuse your child, you may want to introduce him to the real-world crabs. MomJunction has put together 24 interesting crab facts and information for preschoolers and kids that they would love to know.

Crabs are crustaceans, a subphylum of the arthropods. Arthropods are invertebrates with an external skeleton, which gives them a hard exterior. The thick exoskeleton or the external skeleton offers crabs a tough look.

Male and female crabs differ in size, shape, and color. A major difference between a male and female crab is the anatomy of their underside the male crab has a pointy apron while the female has a rounded apron.

While there are many animals with the term crab in their name, not all of them are true crabs. Interesting, isnt it? Keep reading to learn more about this crustacean. Here is some more information about a crabs anatomy.

Crabs are omnivores and eat both plant and animal matter. They feed on different types of algae, worms, mollusks, and other crustaceans (including crabs). Different types of crabs have different food habits, which are mostly dependent on the environment and the kind of food they can get. For example, saltwater crabs feed on baby turtles and even carcasses of birds and other sea animals washed up on the shore.

Crabs use their pincers to hold the food or prey, tear small pieces of it and move into the mouth. Some species of crabs can filter the food in water using the setae, which is a stiff hair-like structure.

Crabs usually live in water bodies including oceans, rivers, freshwater and saltwater lakes. Most crabs prefer living in freshwater bodies. Certain species of crabs can also live on land, especially in tropical regions, and some like the Coconut crab or the Robber crab can also climb trees. The Coconut crab is the largest arthropod that lives on land. A group of coconut crabs can even break open a coconut!

There are over 6,700 different types classified into 93 families. Around 4,500 species are known to the man. Of them, 850 varieties are semi-terrestrial and freshwater crabs. Unfortunately, a few species of freshwater crabs are under the threat of extinction due to human activities. Here is a list of the most popular species of crabs known to humankind.

The Horseshoe crab, also called the King crab, is a crustacean but not a true crab. It belongs to the family of arachnids like scorpions and spiders. Horseshoe crabs live in warmer climates and are found in India, Indonesia, Japan, the Gulf of Mexico and the eastern US.

Crabs are beautiful creatures that can be found anywhere in the world. They are a favorite among seafood lovers as they are low in calories and saturated fats. Crabs are a good source of protein, Vitamin B12, magnesium, copper, zinc and phosphorous, but high in cholesterol and sodium. Crab also represents the Sun sign Cancer, which is a Latin word related to crab.

All rights reserved. This information is for educational purposes only and not a substitute for professional health services. See a medical professional for personalized consultation. Please read our Disclaimer.

crushed stone aggregates - lehigh hanson, inc

Production of crushed stone has three stages: Primary crushing to break down the stone to a manageable size; secondary and tertiary crushing to render the rocks into sizes specific to their applications; and screening to separate the crushed stone for further processing or for finished products sizes.

Coarse aggregates consist of gravel, crushed stone or recycled concrete with particle sizes of ranging from 3/8-inch to 1.5 inches. Coarse aggregates are used in a wide range of construction applications, notably in concrete and asphalt mixes.

Common uses for base coarse crushed stone Foundation for asphalt pavement Foundation for concrete pads and pavements Unpaved roads and shoulders Backfill for pipe and underground utilities Cement-treated base

Sizes and Designations Sizes and designations vary by location due to governing agency requirements. Common designations include, but are not limited to: Base, Subbase, Dense Graded Base, -Crushed Stone Base, Graded Aggregate Base (GAB), Aggregate Base Coarse(ABC), Macadam Base Coarse (MBC)

Large coarse aggregates that consist of crushed stone (hardstone such as rhyolite, granite and sometimes dolomite) with particle sizes ranging from 1 inches to 4 inches. Typical uses include construction applications and railroad ballast.

Common Uses Agricultural lime agent to treat soil (Ag-lime) Mineral filler or fine grind, currently available from Hanson at Thornton IL, Nokomis IL, Plum Run OH, Sandusky OH, or Watertown NY. Landscaping stones Skid resistance on ice or snow Chemical stone Scrubber stone to treat flue gases Filter courses for septic systems

jaw plates: how to choose the right one for different types of jaw crushers | fote machinery

The jaw plate is an important part in the jaw crusher equipment, and its service life directly affects the whole jaw crusher equipment. Therefore, you must consider the hardness and toughness of the jaw plate when you want to choose a correct one.

The wear of jaw plate depends on the types of your material and other variables such as material sizes. Too many fines enter the jaw crusher cavity will accelerate the wear speed of jaw plates because the fines fills the valleys which is necessary for the crusher to crush efficiently.

Generally, a jaw crusher finishes the crushing process by squeezing the material between stationary and moving jaw plates. The peaks and valleys of the jaw plates are offset from one another and use the mechanical advantage of leverage to break the rock.

Without this, the crusher has to rely on energy and friction to crush the rock. The compaction will also impose increased loads on the jaw crusher plates as much as five times the normal crushing force.

If the feeding material is over-sized, it also seriously affects the service life. In most applications, the reduction ratio of a jaw crusher is 6 to 1. Exceeding the reduction ratio will generate the crushing forces that break the crushers design limits and affect your overall production and machine performance.

That the jaw plate is severely worn can lead to uneven particle size and low efficiency, which indicates that you have to replace the jaw plates. If you want to choose a correct one, you should consider their different materials according to the purpose and real situation.

High manganese steel contains a relatively high carbon content which plays an important role in wear resistance. In general, the hardness increases with the growth of carbon content. Under non-strong impact conditions, increasing the carbon content is beneficial to improve the wear resistance of steel. And this is why high manganese steel has good deformation hardening ability.

Medium manganese steel has strong hardening ability and stable performance, which creates the function of self-protection when the law plates are subjected to impact and wear. The medium manganese steel jaw plate has achieved good results in the actual production process, and improves service life by 20% compared with that of the high manganese steel jaw plate.

Medium-carbon-low-alloy cast steel is a widely used wear-resistant material at present. Mainly because of its high hardness and suitable toughness, it can resist fatigue spalling caused by repeated extrusion of materials, and shows good wear resistance.

It can also be adjusted by composition and heat treatment to make the hardness and toughness be changed within a large range. That shows high flexibility strong adaption to the requirements of different working conditions.

The hardness of the material-The hardness of the material is also an important factor in choosing the jaw plate. The material hardness determines the toughness and strength requirements of the corresponding jaw plate.

For large jaw crushers, the crushed material is huge-block, which forces the jaw plate to accept strong impact and wear. For that situation, the high manganese steel can give full play to the advantages of good toughness and hardness.

Note: If the flare angle between the moving and fixed jaw plates is too large, it is easy to cause the sliding of the abrasive, deformation and insufficient hardening of the high manganese steel. So sometimes you should adjust the appropriate flare angle during use.

If you need to deal with materials with high hardness such as granite, quartz stone, concrete, etc., the medium manganese steel is the most suitable because of its strong hardening ability. Besides, it has a self-protection mechanism when crushing high hardness materials, which can greatly reduce the wear rate.

Medium and small sized jaw crushers usually bear a low impact load, so under such conditions, medium-carbon-low-alloy steel materials are more suitable. Not only can the disadvantages of high manganese steel difficult to reach the application hardness be avoid, but it also bring good technical and economic benefits.

Fote crusher manufacturer is committed to producing various types of high-quality crushers, and also sell jaw plates and other parts of various materials. You only need to leave some simple information on our website, such as crusher model and specifications, materials, or other requirements, and we will quickly match the jaw plate suitable for your jaw crusher machines.

As a leading mining machinery manufacturer and exporter in China, we are always here to provide you with high quality products and better services. Welcome to contact us through one of the following ways or visit our company and factories.

Based on the high quality and complete after-sales service, our products have been exported to more than 120 countries and regions. Fote Machinery has been the choice of more than 200,000 customers.

indonesia 50tph granite crushing plant - eastman rock crusher

According to the customers crushed stone material requirements, large size granites crush into different sizes of crushed stone materials of the process. Orders of the processe are primary crushing, secondary crushing, screening, and transportation.

Population Growth, economic development, global urbanization, three factors to promote the growth of global demand for crushed stone. At the subregional level, demand for sand and gravel is growing fastest in Asia, particularly in India, Africa and Latin America.

Building construction, road, hydraulic engineering and other industries, the crushed stone demand growth. Natures pebbles and river sand are limited, and extensive mining can also damage the natural environment. But the quarry plant solves the problem. Quarries produce not only crushed stone aggregate but also artificial sand.

Professional Engineers TeamTell us raw material of your aggregate plant, input size, output size, and capacity. Our professional crusher plant engineers will quickly design a completely crushing process flowchart of simple, efficient, and low cost for you. Also, our engineers can design the flowchart according to your needs. Answer any aggregate questions for you.

Excellent Crusher ManufacturersOur company was founded in 1985. In the aggregate crushing industries, we have 35+ years of machinery production of experience. All the equipment of stationary crusher plant, mobile(portable) crusher plant are choose the best materials, and meticulously casting every part. High Performance & Ease of Operation, many crushers equipment in stock.

how to identify gemstones (with pictures) - wikihow

wikiHow is a wiki, similar to Wikipedia, which means that many of our articles are co-written by multiple authors. To create this article, 14 people, some anonymous, worked to edit and improve it over time. There are 12 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed 297,784 times. Learn more...

You can quickly identify most gemstones by observing a few basic characteristics, like color and heft. If you want a more thorough, accurate identification, though, you will need to use special tools to examine the interior of the stone.

To identify gemstones, get an identification chart you can reference. When you find a stone, feel the surface to make sure its smooth, which is a sign that its a gemstone. The stone should not be malleable if it is a true gemstone. Then, check that the stone isnt an assembly of rock fragments by shining a light into it to see if it is made up of more than 1 piece. Look at the stones color and transparency and compare it to your chart to try to match it to a specific gemstone. To check the quality of the stone, shine a light on the part of the stone with the best polish to check the shine or its luster. For information about how to determine if the stone is synthetic, keep reading! Did this summary help you?YesNo

the complete guide to crushed stone and gravel

In this article, we are going to take a deep dive into the types of crushed stone and gravel, how they are made, and their basic applications. You may not be a quarry expert at the end, but you will understand the basics for your next concrete or hardscaping project!

Most crushed stone is produced in quarries and is crushed when machinery breaks up and crushes larger rocks. Instead of being shaped or formed naturally, such as in a riverbed or canyon, crushed stone is produced with man-made machinery and processes.

It begins with using a rock crusher in a quarry or site with plenty of large rocks. There are many types of crushers, but their main job is the same: Crush larger rocks into smaller pieces to be used for construction material.

Crushed stone is then passed through different screeners to be organized and stored in different piles according to their size. The screening process starts by removing larger stones, then medium stones, and eventually goes all the way down to the stone dust.

This screening is important because contractors need very specific types of crushed stone to complete different types of projects. For example, you dont want large stones in ready mix concrete, and you dont want stone dust in drainage systems.

After being sorted into different piles depending on the size of the stone, the stone is ready to be shipped from the quarry. Quarries deliver directly to job sites, to concrete plants, or to wholesale distributors who sell the stone through retail to customers.

Because large stones and quarries are hard on tires and require heavy metal, crushed stone was hard to make and transport until heavy machinery with tracks was developed. WW2 expedited the development of this machinery, and crushed stone began to be widely used in construction projects in the 1940s and 1950s.

Large-scale building projects, particularly in infrastructure like the Eisenhower Interstate System, helped usher in an era where crushed stone was used in almost every part of construction. Foundations, concrete, drainage systems, and roads were all needing large quantities of crushed stone.

An example of this often occurs when a road is being replaced or resurfaced. Many road construction companies are beginning to grind and crush the existing road as they remove it. This crushed road, which is essentially crushed stone, then becomes the base for the new road.

The exact amount of crushed stone recycling is unknown due to a lack of reporting. Much of the crushed stone is also recycled right on the construction site, especially with road construction, and this makes it difficult to measure.

The most common use for recycled crushed stone is as a base for roadways, especially when the old road can be torn up, crushed, and reused. Concrete blocks and bricks can also be crushed and recycled as a base.

Crushed stone often has an angular and jagged edge that occurs during the crushing process. Gravel, on the other hand, typically has a very smooth texture and surface because of the natural weathering and wear of being exposed to the effects of running water.

Metamorphic: Metamorphic rocks become changed through intense heat or pressure. Similar to clay hardening in an oven, metamorphic rocks become very hard and crystallized by intense or heat or pressure.

If you go to a creek or river, you see all types of rocks, both large and small. These larger rocks can be used for foundations or other building projects, but typically gravel is screened and only the smaller pieces are used.

Pea gravel: Pea gravel is some of the smallest gravel - typically or smaller in size. Pea gravel is often used in places like fish tanks, walkways, swimming pools, or other places where foot traffic occurs or small gravel is needed.

When thinking of construction, it is important to know what kinds of rock are ideal for specific applications. After all, if a rock type crumbles easily under pressure, you dont want to use it as a component in ready mix concrete or pavement.

Granite: An igneous rock that is durable and is easily polished. Because of the color, grain, and polishing ability; they are often used inside homes for countertops or on the outside of monumental or civic buildings. However, they can also be used on bridge piers and river walls.

Limestone: A sedimentary rock that is the most commonly used to make crushed stone in the United States. One of the most versatile rocks for construction, limestone is able to be crushed easily making it a primary rock used in ready mix concrete, road construction, and railroads. It is widely available in quarries across the country.

Slate: A metamorphic rock typically found in layers. Because it is easily mined and cut in these natural layers, it works well in applications requiring thin rock layers. Common examples are roofing tiles, certain types of chalkboards, gravestones, and some pavement applications.

Laterite: A metamorphic rock with a highly porous and sponge structure. It is easily quarried in block form and used as a building stone. However, it is important to plaster the surface to eliminate the pores.

Stone dust: This is the very fine dust, similar to sand, that is created as the stone is crushed. Stone dust is useful when tamping or packing stone, but it causes problems for applications where water needs to drain, such as behind a retaining wall.

Clean stone: If crushed stone is clean, it has been screened so the majority of the stone dust has been removed, but some dust is still mixed in. This is useful for the top layer of a stone driveway or other places where some minor compaction is not harmful.

Washed clean stone: This is stone that has been screened like clean stone, but then also washed to ensure there is no stone dust on the finished product. This is often used for drainage purposes, for ready mix concrete, or places that need aesthetic appeal, such as curbing or decorative stone.

Crushed stone: If you hear the generic crushed stone term, it usually refers to stone that has a mixture of stone dust in it. This type of stone is best used for a base when heavy compaction is needed. As a result, it is typically used for the base of concrete and paving projects, foundations of structures, and driveway bases.

Or, if we were putting the base down for a patio, we want stone that compacts well and makes a strong base. Therefore, we want our stone to have stone dust, so we would call the quarry and order 2 crushed stone.

When putting down gravel in a flowerbed, make sure you start by laying down a quality landscape fabric, securely stake the fabric in place, and then layer the gravel on top of the fabric, usually 2-3 thick.

Stone dust compacts and hardens, especially when it becomes wet. Since drains need to always be open, it is important to keep stone dust out of drains. Therefore, construction projects needing drainage systems make sure they use only stone that has been cleaned and washed.

Crushed stone and gravel will continue to be a staple in construction, decoration, and industry for years to come. As recycling picks up, mining and quarries may slow down, but we will always need crushed stone in general construction and industry.

If you want to learn more about ready mix concrete and preparing for it, read our blog post on the Beginner's guide to concrete and the complete guide to pouring concrete in different types of weather.