sulphur content on crushed stone material

characteristics and the environmental acceptability of the natural stone quarrying waste rocks | springerlink

The paper summarises the results of a study by the Geological Survey of Finland on the potential use of waste rocks from natural stone quarry production. Petrographic, chemical, mechanical and physical tests were undertaken on granite, rapakivi granite, migmatite, syenite, diorite, gabbro, anorthosite gabbro, schist and soapstone from 33 dimension stone quarries in Finland. The results indicate the waste rocks of Finnish natural stone quarries can generally be considered environmentally sound with potential uses in other industries.

Larticle rsume les rsultats dune tude de la Commission gologique de Finlande sur lutilisation potentielle de dchets issus de lindustrie des carrires de roches naturelles. Des mesures de paramtres ptrographiques, chimiques, physiques et mcaniques ont t ralises sur des chantillons de granite, granite rapakivique, migmatite, synite, diorite, gabbro, anorthosite, schiste et statite issus de 33 carrires en Finlande. Les rsultats indiquent que ces dchets de carrires de pierres naturelles peuvent gnralement tre considrs comme sains du point de vue environnemental avec des usages possibles dans dautres industries.

Blowes DW, Ptacek CJ (1994) Acid-neutralization mechanisms in inactive mine tailings. In: Jambor JL, Blowes DW (eds) The environmental geochemistry of sulfide mine-wastes. Short course handbook, vol 22. Mineralogical association of Canada, Quebec, pp 271292

EC (2009) Reference document on best available techniques for management of tailings and waste-rock in mining activities. January 2009. European Commission, Directorate-General, JRC Joint Research Centre, Institute for prospective technological studies, sustainability in industry, energy and transport. European IPPC bureau. 563 p. ftp://ftp.jrc.es/pub/eippcb/doc/mmr_adopted_0109.pdf. Accessed 6 October 2010

EN 12457-3 Characterisation of waste. Leaching. Compliance test for leaching of granular waste materials and sludges. Part 3: Two stage batch test at a liquid to solid ratio of 2l/kg and 8l/kg for materials with high solid content and with particle size below 4mm (without or with size reduction)

Langer WH (2001) Construction materials, dimensionstone. In: Buschow KHJ, Cahn RW, Flemings MC, Ilschner B, Kramer EJ, Mahajan S (eds) Encyclopedia of materials: science and technology, vol 1. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 15461550

Price WA, Morin K, Hutt N (1997) Guidelines for prediction of acid rock drainage and metal leaching for mines in British Columbia: Part II. Recommended procedures for static and kinetic tests. In: Proceedings of fourth international conference on acid rock drainage. Vancouver, British Columbia, 31 May6 June, pp 1530

Streckeisen AL (1974) Classification and nomenclature of plutonic rocks. Recommendations of the IUGS subcommission on the systematics of igneous rocks. Geologische Rundschau, Internationale Zeitschrift fr Geologie. Stuttgart 63, pp 773785

The authors wish to thank Maria Nikkarinen and Marja-Liisa Risnen for their valuable insights and comments on this article and the staff of GTK mineral processing laboratory in Outokumpu for fruitful cooperation. The support of the Mika Risnen in the writing process is also greatly appreciated. The project was funded by State Provincial Office of Eastern Finland and the European Social Fund.

Luodes, H., Kauppila, P.M., Luodes, N. et al. Characteristics and the environmental acceptability of the natural stone quarrying waste rocks. Bull Eng Geol Environ 71, 257261 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-011-0398-z

origin of salts in stone monument degradation using sulphur and oxygen isotopes: first results of the bourges cathedral (france) - sciencedirect

The crystallisation of soluble sulphate salts is one of the most important factors of stone monument degradation. The origin of these salts is variable: marine, air pollution, building or restoration material. The lack of certainty about these sources represents a problem for restoration campaigns. The use of sulphur and oxygen isotopic tracers allows to discriminate the origins of materials and some stone deterioration patterns like black crusts (e.g. [rmek J., 1988. Sulfur Isotopes in the revealing corrosion mechanism of stones. 6th International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone,. Proceedings, ed. J. Ciabach. Nicholas Copernicus University, Torun, Poland, 341345.]). First results obtained on the Bourges cathedral (France) show that the sulphur and oxygen isotopic composition of sulphates from external (atmospheric pollution) and internal (mortars, plasters and sulphates coming from stone sulphide oxidation) origins constitute well differentiated poles. The isotopic composition of sulphates implied in different stone deterioration patterns is well explained by a combination of these poles. The present study will be extended to other French monuments located in different lithological and hydroclimatic settings where contributions of sea salts and ancient chemical treatments are suspected.

where did all the crushed lump sulphur go? | argus blog | argus media

China is buying less because of softer prices for granulated sulphur, as well as stricter environmental regulations on crushed-lump imports. Major sellers in Iran and Turkmenistan are struggling to export their crushed-lump cargoes because of lower pricing alongside trade sanctions on vessels loading from Iran. Crushed lump trades will probably continue to dwindle from the global sulphur spot market if these obstacles remain. Pre-2019 crushed lump sulphur trade Until 2019, Iran and Turkmenistan dominated the crushed lump spot supply market, with both countries exporting at least 77-89pc of all spot crushed lump cargoes in 2017-18, Argus data show Total crushed lump spot sales tracked by Argus totalled 540,000t in 2017 and 535,000t in 2018. Of the two counties, Iran was the largest supplier, shipping 480,000t in 2017 and 211,000t in 2018. China remained the number one buyer. Argus data show China secured at least 60pc of all crushed lumps sold in 2018, at 321,000t. The second largest buying market for crushed-lumps was north Africa, supported by demand from Moroccan fertilizer producer OCP, as well as from smaller buyers in Tunisia and Egypt. But unlike China, OCP prefers to secure its crushed lump cargoes on a quarterly contract basis, rather than a spot basis, and predominantly secures them from suppliers in Saudi Arabia and Russia. Post 2019 crushed lump sulphur slumps Chinas environment ministry banned several ports from discharging crushed lumps in mid-2018 and placed restrictions on buyers processing it on an industrial scale. This was done to limit pollution from dust, caused by storing or processing sulphur in crushed lump form in large quantities. These new environmental restrictions significantly weakened Chinas crushed lump demand, forcing suppliers to lower their offer prices to attract a dwindling customer base. Alongside this, the US re-imposed trade sanctions on Iran in November 2018, which caused among other things freight rates to increase for Iranian sulphur exports, as wary vessel owners applied premiums for chartering from Iran. Global sulphur prices also softened throughout 2019, driven by falling end-product DAP prices and sentiment, alongside improving domestic sulphur production rates within key import markets such as China and India. As better quality granular sulphur became readily available at lower prices during 2019, crushed lump demand was further dampened. Cfr China granular prices dropped by around $88/t in January-December, reaching record lows in November at around $61/t cfr. The lower prices also added more pressure on Turkmenistan-origin crushed lump suppliers trying to sell their product overseas. Rail costs to Irans Bandar Abbas port remained broadly flat at $55-65/t in 2019, while fob Iran crushed lump prices dropped by $87/t in January-December, averaging just $23/t throughout the fourth quarter of 2019. Argus data show that just 130,000t of Turkmen-origin spot crushed lumps was sold in 2019, down by 36pc on 2018 sales. No spot crushed lumps were sold in 2019 in Iran, with Iranian supplier IGCC cancelling numerous sales tenders that year because of persistent low prices. No spot sales of Iranian or Turkish loading crushed-lump sulphur have been confirmed so far in 2020. 2020 crushed lump sulphur trade and beyond Global spot sales of crushed lump sulphur are expected to continue this downward trajectory. Chinese domestic crushed-lump demand is still being stalled by the environmental ban, as well as lower granular sulphur prices, high sulphur inventory levelsand modest DAP production rates from major buyers. And Covid-19 is putting more pressure on freight rates from Iran, as the pandemic further discourages vessel owners from chartering vessels loading from the country. Some support for crushed lump trade will remain through Moroccos OCP, but the companys demand is largely being met by existing contract arrangements with Saudi Arabian and Russian crushed lump suppliers. And overall demand is falling steadily from the expansion of OCPs Jorf phosphates hub, which only processes granulated sulphur. This means Iran or Turkmen-origin spot cargoes are unlikely to re-enter the global market in significant quantities, particularly given pressures from prices, sanctions, and now the Covid-19 pandemic. Argus publish sulphur services delivering price reporting, short-term and mid to long-term outlooks Argus Sulphur - price assessments, trade trends and key current data Argus North American Sulphur and Sulphuric Acid pricing and market developments for North American sulphur and sulphuric acid markets Argus Monthly Sulphur Outlook - 12-month forecasts for prices and trade balances Argus Potash Analytics - mid to long-term analysis and outlook

China is buying less because of softer prices for granulated sulphur, as well as stricter environmental regulations on crushed-lump imports. Major sellers in Iran and Turkmenistan are struggling to export their crushed-lump cargoes because of lower pricing alongside trade sanctions on vessels loading from Iran. Crushed lump trades will probably continue to dwindle from the global sulphur spot market if these obstacles remain.

Until 2019, Iran and Turkmenistan dominated the crushed lump spot supply market, with both countries exporting at least 77-89pc of all spot crushed lump cargoes in 2017-18, Argus data show Total crushed lump spot sales tracked by Argus totalled 540,000t in 2017 and 535,000t in 2018. Of the two counties, Iran was the largest supplier, shipping 480,000t in 2017 and 211,000t in 2018. China remained the number one buyer. Argus data show China secured at least 60pc of all crushed lumps sold in 2018, at 321,000t. The second largest buying market for crushed-lumps was north Africa, supported by demand from Moroccan fertilizer producer OCP, as well as from smaller buyers in Tunisia and Egypt. But unlike China, OCP prefers to secure its crushed lump cargoes on a quarterly contract basis, rather than a spot basis, and predominantly secures them from suppliers in Saudi Arabia and Russia.

Chinas environment ministry banned several ports from discharging crushed lumps in mid-2018 and placed restrictions on buyers processing it on an industrial scale. This was done to limit pollution from dust, caused by storing or processing sulphur in crushed lump form in large quantities. These new environmental restrictions significantly weakened Chinas crushed lump demand, forcing suppliers to lower their offer prices to attract a dwindling customer base. Alongside this, the US re-imposed trade sanctions on Iran in November 2018, which caused among other things freight rates to increase for Iranian sulphur exports, as wary vessel owners applied premiums for chartering from Iran. Global sulphur prices also softened throughout 2019, driven by falling end-product DAP prices and sentiment, alongside improving domestic sulphur production rates within key import markets such as China and India. As better quality granular sulphur became readily available at lower prices during 2019, crushed lump demand was further dampened. Cfr China granular prices dropped by around $88/t in January-December, reaching record lows in November at around $61/t cfr. The lower prices also added more pressure on Turkmenistan-origin crushed lump suppliers trying to sell their product overseas. Rail costs to Irans Bandar Abbas port remained broadly flat at $55-65/t in 2019, while fob Iran crushed lump prices dropped by $87/t in January-December, averaging just $23/t throughout the fourth quarter of 2019. Argus data show that just 130,000t of Turkmen-origin spot crushed lumps was sold in 2019, down by 36pc on 2018 sales. No spot crushed lumps were sold in 2019 in Iran, with Iranian supplier IGCC cancelling numerous sales tenders that year because of persistent low prices. No spot sales of Iranian or Turkish loading crushed-lump sulphur have been confirmed so far in 2020.

Global spot sales of crushed lump sulphur are expected to continue this downward trajectory. Chinese domestic crushed-lump demand is still being stalled by the environmental ban, as well as lower granular sulphur prices, high sulphur inventory levelsand modest DAP production rates from major buyers.

And Covid-19 is putting more pressure on freight rates from Iran, as the pandemic further discourages vessel owners from chartering vessels loading from the country. Some support for crushed lump trade will remain through Moroccos OCP, but the companys demand is largely being met by existing contract arrangements with Saudi Arabian and Russian crushed lump suppliers. And overall demand is falling steadily from the expansion of OCPs Jorf phosphates hub, which only processes granulated sulphur. This means Iran or Turkmen-origin spot cargoes are unlikely to re-enter the global market in significant quantities, particularly given pressures from prices, sanctions, and now the Covid-19 pandemic.

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