sweden mining equipment manufacturing html

mining in sweden - lexology

Mining has been of great importance in Sweden throughout modern history, and ore production has been rising significantly in recent years. There are currently almost 100 companies with exploration permits active in the search for minerals, and the mining sector in Sweden employs approximately 6,000 people (indirect jobs not included).

Mines currently in operation produce iron ore, sulphide ore and gold, but other minerals can also be found in sufficiently large quantities for profitable mining. There is an ongoing permit process for an open-cast mine for rare earth minerals (the deposit is considered to be the fourth largest in the world).

In 2011 a proposal for a national strategy for mineral exploitation was put forward by the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) to the Swedish government, and a national strategy was published by the government in 2013. This has, so far, resulted in additional funding for mapping and mineral information as well as the formation of a new group within the SGU with the sole task of assisting the mining industry.

Political stability, good infrastructure throughout the whole country, a solid legal system, widespread expertise among the workforce and a well-developed mining equipment industry mean that Sweden offers favourable conditions for mining operations.

Parties interested in starting mining operations in Sweden can visit the SGUs website and through different databases on the site obtain basic information for the initial evaluation of suitable areas for exploration. See also question 9.

Sweden is by far the biggest producer of iron ore in the EU and is also among the leading producers of copper, zinc, lead, gold and silver. In 2013, approximately 75 per cent of prospecting expenses spent in Sweden concerned prospecting for gold, copper, zinc, lead and nickel, while 20 per cent of the expenses concerned iron ore. Exploration for other minerals such as molybdenum, wolfram, vanadium, tellurium and lithium was of interest for some foreign prospectors. A comprehensive map of ore and mineral locations can be found online through the Mineral Resources Information Office (MINKO) (apps.sgu.se/kartvisare/kartvisare-index-en.html).

In 2016 the SGU, the expert agency for issues relating to bedrock, soil and groundwater in Sweden, was commissioned by the Swedish government to provide an analysis regarding the available resources of innovation-critical raw materials in Sweden. Owing to the fact that innovation-critical raw materials are used in the production of batteries in, for example, mobile phones and electric cars, the demand for these raw materials has increased substantially in Sweden and the EU during the past few years. After the presentation of the SGUs results, the Swedish government declared that Bergslagen in Sweden is one of the most interesting areas in the world regarding access to this kind of material. The SGU has therefore been asked to further evaluate the possibilities of extracting innovation-critical raw materials in Sweden.

In June 2016 five of the eight parties of the Swedish Parliament agreed on a framework agreement for Swedens long-term energy policy, the energy agreement. The agreement includes, for example, the target of reaching 100 per cent renewable electricity generation by the year 2040. As a part of fulfilling this goal, wind power is being expanded at a relatively fast pace. In the energy agreement the parties also agreed that fees for connecting offshore wind power to the Swedish national grid should be abolished. The reason for the abolition of the connection fee is in part to make Swedish waters a more attractive location for potential wind parks and in part in order to create more equal conditions in relation to the corresponding facilities, both on land and in water, in other countries around the Baltic Sea wherein the connection fee for offshore wind power plants is, in several countries, not applicable to wind power projects. The Swedish Energy Agency has been instructed by the Swedish government to investigate the potential conditions for, and formulation of, the abolition of the connection fee.

The Swedish government has set up an investigation concerning the environmental permit application system for environmentally hazardous activities according to the Environmental Code. This encompasses a large number of industries including the mining industry. The focus of the investigation is to ensure that the permit process promotes investment that drives techniques and practices towards a decrease in environmental impact. The aim is to increase investment in innovative, sustainable industrial production, in what the Swedish government calls the smart industry sector. The investigation is to be presented by 30 September 2018 at the latest.

The mining industry is active in most parts of Sweden apart from the southernmost regions and the islands of land and Gotland, where the prospect of finding valuable mineral deposits is more limited. In those regions industrial mineral and construction material extraction is common instead. Northern Sweden is generally rich in minerals and has the highest concentration of mining operations in the country. Specific areas of interest are the Skellefte field in the county of Vsterbotten, an area of significant mineral density, and the county of Norrbotten, where the majority of iron ore production is located.

All acts governing the mining industry are national, but decisions under these acts are taken by administrative bodies at both regional and national level. See question 6. Sweden is a member of the EU and consequently any EU legislation concerning the mining industry is applicable as well.

The Swedish Minerals Act (No. 45 of 1991) is the principal law regulating the mining industry and it governs the procedure for acquiring exploration permits and exploitation commissions on land, irrespective of who owns the land to be explored or exploited. Detailed provisions of the application process and fees can be found in the Minerals Ordinance (No. 285 of 1992).

The Swedish Environmental Code (No. 808 of 1998) is relevant in many aspects. The Environmental Code is applicable in matters concerning the granting of a concession, which means that an environmental impact assessment (EIA) must be appended to an application for a concession. A permit for exploitation must always be granted under both the Minerals Act and the Environmental Code. For more information about EIAs, see question 36.

Applications for exploration permits and exploitation concessions under the Minerals Act are administered by the Mineral Inspectorate. The County Administrative Board takes part in the environmental evaluation of applications for exploration permits and exploitation concessions. The Swedish government makes decisions in matters of particular public interest. The local municipality is responsible for permissions in accordance with the Planning and Building Act. Permissions required by the Environmental Code are handled by the Land and Environmental Court. Supervision of compliance with the environmental conditions is usually carried out by the County Administrative Board and by the municipalitys Environment and Health Board.

A stand-alone framework called the Fennoscandian Review Board Standard (FRB standard) is recommended for use by the Swedish Miners Association and has also been adopted by the corresponding organisations in Norway and Finland. The classification system is based on the international template for the public reporting of exploration results, mineral resources and mineral reserves that is created by the Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards with the purpose of creating mutual international standards. The FRB standard is subsidiary to national legislation. The FRB standard is similar to the CIM Standards, the JORC Code and the SAMREC Code since all the standards are based on the international template for the public reporting of exploration results, mineral resources and mineral reserves.

To what extent does the state control mining rights in your jurisdiction? Can those rights be granted to private parties and to what extent will they have title to minerals in the ground? Are there large areas where the mining rights are held privately or which belong to the owner of the surface rights? Is there a separate legal regime or process for third parties to obtain mining rights in those areas?

All minerals that are covered by the Minerals Act are listed in this act and those not listed belong to the landowner. Minerals of interest for mining are among those listed. The reason for this policy is that landowners in general are considered not to have the required capacity for exploiting mineral resources on their land. The same rules apply to all types of landowners, whether it is the state, private entities or individuals. Exploration permits can be granted for exploration on land (real property) belonging to any type of landowner, both private and public.

What information and data are publicly available to private parties that wish to engage in exploration and other mining activities? Is there an agency which collects mineral assessment reports from private parties? Must private parties file mineral assessment reports? Does the agency or the government conduct geoscience surveys, which become part of the database? Is the database available online?

The SGU collects basic geological data concerning Swedens bedrock geology and properties of rock. Information related to prospecting obtained through government surveys and private exploration, is accessible through MINKO. Most information is accessible online where maps can be produced on request for specific purposes and received in digital form or as hard copies. The National Drill Core Archive is located at MINKO and contains over 4,000km of drill cores that can be used for analysis. The results from such analysis have to be submitted to MINKO and will be made public after a period.

When an exploration permit is terminated without the granting of an exploitation concession within the exploration area, the permit holder (if they are carrying on exploration work professionally) must submit a summary report within three months.

What mining rights may private parties acquire? How are these acquired? What obligations does the rights holder have? If exploration or reconnaissance licences are granted, does such tenure give the holder an automatic or preferential right to acquire a mining licence? What are the requirements to convert to a mining licence?

An exploration permit is granted for a specific area of land where there is some likelihood of a successful discovery being made. The area covered by the permit must be of a suitable shape and size and no larger than can be explored by the permit holder in an appropriate manner. An exploration permit gives access to land for exploration work that does not harm the environment or prejudice the use of the land and entails a preferential right to an exploitation concession. The rule is such that the party that applies first is given priority and therefore it is required that the first application is complete and will not need to be supplemented at a later time, as this can result in complications for the assessment of which party applied first.

If there is a possibility of the exploration work having a significant impact on the environment, a notice of consultation in accordance with the Environmental Code must be sent to the supervisory authority (the County Administrative Board). Before exploration work begins, the permit holder must prepare a work plan. The plan must contain a description of the work planned, a timetable and an assessment of any impact on private rights and public interests. The plan must be communicated with all landowners and any other affected parties. A work plan enters into force if there are no objections. It will also enter into force if the applicant and the objecting party agree to the contents of a revised plan. If they cannot agree, the matter may be adjudicated by the Mining Inspectorate, who in some cases can also establish conditions for the exploration work.

Before any work may be commenced, the exploring party is obliged to provide security for the compensation of any damage and encroachment of rights that the exploration work might inflict. An applicant for an exploration permit is required to pay an application fee as well as an exploration fee. The amount is decided according to the extent of the area subjected to exploration.

To commence mining activities an exploitation concession has to be acquired. As a cardinal rule, concessions are valid for 25 years, but can be extended. Further, a concession is valid for a specific area, which is determined on the basis of the shape and extent of the deposit, the purpose of the concession and other circumstances. Concession is granted if the discovered mineral deposit shows a probability of profitable exploitation and if the location and nature of the deposit does not render it inappropriate to grant the requested concession. The Environmental Code is applicable in matters concerning the granting of a concession. The holder of an exploration permit is not entitled to an automatic but rather a preferential right to acquire an exploitation concession.

In order for the holder of an exploration permit to acquire an environmental permit the operation must be subject to a trial in the Land and Environmental Court. This is a process that is separate from the previously explained procedure concerning exploration permit and exploitation concession. The process to acquire an environmental permit is governed by the Environmental Code. The environmental impact of the operation is thereby tried by the court. The court also sets the conditions for the operation in its decision.

A transfer of an exploration right or a concession can be permitted under the Minerals Act after an application to the permitting authority (the Mining Inspectorate). The permission can be granted if the future licence holder meets the conditions set forth in the Minerals Act.

Transfer of an environmental permit is possible, provided that the new holder is taking over the permitted operation. According to the Ordinance of Environmentally Harmful Operations and Protection of Health (No. 899 of 1998), the new holder must notify the supervisory authority (the County Administrative Board) about the transfer.

An exploration right is valid for a period of three years, and can be prolonged for a maximum of 15 years under special conditions. The conditions for extension gradually become more severe. The conditions for extension concern the likelihood of finding minable minerals and the amount of exploration already conducted. When an exploration permit expires, a new application can be filed for the same exploration area. The new application can be filed no earlier than a year after the previous exploration right has expired, but exceptions can be made from the one-year rule if special conditions apply.

Once a concession is granted it is valid for 25 years. It can be prolonged for 10 years at a time if work is performed on a regular basis in the said area. If work is not performed on a regular basis in the said area, the concession can still be prolonged for an additional period of 10 years if mining is still ongoing, the work performed meets specific criteria set up under the Minerals Act or if it is otherwise motivated by the common interest that the mineral findings should be exploited in an effective manner. The application to prolong a concession should be filed no later than six months before the valid concession expires.

Environmental permits may be time limited or valid for an unlimited time. As the Minerals Act runs in parallel to the Environmental Code, the environmental permit is linked to the restrictions of the exploitation concession even though the environmental permit itself is not explicitly time limited. In practice the permit may be time limited as the operator normally needs to apply for a new environmental permit after a certain time frame has passed in order to meet the requirements of Chapter 2 of the Environmental Code (for example, meeting the standards of using the best available technology). A renewal of the environmental permit in this sense is treated as a new application.

The Minerals Act states that an exploration permit or an exploitation concession can be revoked if the holder does not fulfil their obligations in accordance with the provisions of the Minerals Act, the terms laid out in the exploration permit or exploitation concession or if there are other specific reasons. The revocation of an exploration permit or an exploitation concession can only occur if considerable public interests are at stake. Revocation may also proceed owing to foreign and defence policy if it is necessary to secure Swedish influence over a deposit. An exploration permit may also be revoked if the holder is in breach of any term regarding consent to exploration work.

The terms of an exploitation concession can be changed if an operation according to the concession gives rise to inconveniences of considerable size that were not anticipated when the concession was granted. Under other circumstances, the terms laid out in exploration permits or exploitation concessions may be changed only in accordance with the holders request or consent.

The Environmental Code also provides the possibility to change the conditions and terms of an environmental permit or to revoke the environmental permits, in whole or in part. A revocation or change of conditions and terms may only be made owing to specific circumstances such as the operations giving rise to inconveniences of considerable size that were not anticipated when the environmental permit was granted or a considerable breach of the environmental permit terms and conditions. Several governmental authorities have the possibility to initiate the processes described above.

The Mining Inspectorate handles any disputes between the permit or concession holder and the landowner concerning rights and obligations connected to exploration or exploitation. Disputes regarding compensation to the landowner are handled by the Mining Inspectorate or the Land and Environmental Court.

A legal proceeding for the designation of land is held at the request and expense of the concession holder. This procedure establishes the concession area, which is the area the concession holder may use for exploitation of the mineral deposits. In addition, any land within or outside the concession area, which the concession holder plans to use for activities related to the exploitation, may be covered by the decision. When an exploitation concession is terminated, the concession holder forfeits any rights to the land assigned to him or her at that time.

Prior to the designation of land, the holder of the mining rights may enter into agreements with surface rights holders to acquire land rights. If all parties are in agreement, land will be designated according to what has been agreed. Where no agreements have been reached, the acquisition of land rights is handled in the land designation process. A surface rights holder may oppose the request by the mining rights holder to acquire land rights. If so, the conflicting interest is tried according to provisions in the Minerals Act, and land is designated according to what is required for the mining operations and connected activities. Land designations can be appealed to the Land and Environmental court and subsequently to the Land and Environmental Court of Appeal.

Neither the government nor the state agencies have a right to participate in mining projects. The project company is not required to be listed locally at any stage of the permit and concession processes.

It is not possible to expropriate permits or concessions related to mining, hence there are no compensation provisions regarding expropriation. On the other hand, the state is able to expropriate land and other areas under certain premises stated in the Expropriation Act (No. 719 of 1972). Reasons for expropriation are specified in this act. The decision to expropriate land is made by the government as a main rule, but the power of authority can be transferred to the County Administrative Board under certain circumstances. The compensation provisions for expropriated land are also stated in the Expropriation Act.

No exploration or exploitation is allowed in national parks and there are several other areas or proximity limitations that might affect the outlook of conducting mining operations. Mining operations are rarely permitted:

According to the Environmental Code, if an activity is located near or within a Natura 2000 area, the operator must demonstrate that the activity will not affect the environment in a significant way (Natura 2000 is an ecological network of protected areas within the territory of the EU). The Environmental Court tends to adjudicate matters affecting Natura 2000 areas quite strictly.

Exploration work that can have significant impact on the natural environment requires that a notice of consultation is sent to the County Administrative Board. If exploration work can damage land use where it is being carried out, security for compensation has to be given if the landowner has not given their consent.

Private parties conducting mining activities are required to pay an annual fee of 2 per mille of the average value of the minerals mined. The revenue is split between the landowners and the state, with landowners receiving 1.5 per mille and the state 0.5 per mille.

For an exploration permit, certain fees have to be paid to the Mining Inspectorate by the applicant. An application fee of 500 kronor shall be paid to the Mining Inspectorate when handing in the application for every new area consisting of 2,000 hectares. If permission is granted, another 20 kronor for each hectare has to be paid for the first three-year period of the permit. If an extension of the exploration permit is permitted, an additional fee of 21 kronor per hectare per year is required. Further extension of the permit is possible, but will result in even higher annual fees. All fees are required to be paid in advance for each period of time.

The tax advantages and incentives for private parties engaged in mining activities are regulated by the Energy Tax Act (No. 1,776 of 1994). For example, tax relief can be obtained regarding carbon dioxide tax and energy tax for certain vehicles used in the mining activity process.

There is no legislation in force regarding tax stabilisation and there are no tax stabilisation agreements. There are special rules regarding the state-owned company LKAB. These rules apply to, for instance, customs regulations.

During the course of the exploitation the holder of the concession must pay an annual mineral reimbursement according to the Minerals Act (see question 19). The holder of the concession is obliged to provide the information necessary to determine the scope of the reimbursement.

The principal business vehicle used is the limited liability company. Joint venture agreements are common but a joint venture is not a legal person and so the actual vehicle used to operate the joint venture is still the limited liability company. Partnerships are rarely used in any larger scale or capital intensive business since they do not provide the same structure and ease in transferring shares in the case of options and earn-in clauses. In addition, the minimum capital requirement for limited liability companies was recently lowered to 50,000 kronor, making this form of company even more accessible to both Swedish and international investors. It is also possible to open a local branch that is registered in Sweden and that is not a legal person in its own right but considered part of a foreign legal entity. Trusts, however, are not recognised in the Swedish legal system.

Are there jurisdictions with favourable bilateral investment treaties or tax treaties with your jurisdiction through which foreign entities will commonly structure their operations in your jurisdiction?

Sweden is party to a number of international tax treaties, which may have an effect on the way foreign entities choose to operate but, in general, such treaties are neutral in character and do not single out particular jurisdictions for favourable treatment.

The largest Swedish mining operators are listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange, now named Nasdaq OMX Nordic Stockholm. Others are financed by private equity firms or banks or both. In general, all means of financing open to any industrial business are also open to the mining industry.

There is no direct financing provided by the government, its agencies or pension funds. However, the government owns 100 per cent of the shares in major mining operator LKAB and pension funds may from time to time own shares in listed mining companies.

There are no specific restrictions concerning the importation of machinery and equipment for the mining industry. All services that are operated in Sweden, including mining, must be performed according to the law and provisions on health and safety (see questions 39 and 40).

The most commonly used standard terms used for equipment supplies are NL09, General Conditions for the Supply of Machinery and other Mechanical, Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. NL09 is issued by the engineering industries organisations in the Nordic countries and is widely recognised. For construction of buildings, roads or other structures, parties will use either AB04, General Conditions of Contract for Building and Civil Engineering Works and Building Services, or ABT06, General Conditions of Contract for Design and Construct Contracts for Building, Civil Engineering and Installation works. These standard form agreements are issued by the Swedish Construction Contracts Committee (BKK), a body formed by the main private employers associations and contractors associations as well as state infrastructure agencies such as the Swedish Transport Administration. They provide a tried and tested structure, and they can be combined with add-on standard terms from BKK (eg, subcontractor T&Cs or index provisions). For erection of plants, Orgalimes general conditions are sometimes used, for example, the Turnkey Contract of 2003.

The Environmental Code is the principal environmental law in Sweden. The Environmental Code is closely tied to the Minerals Act, which, with few exceptions, is applicable to all exploration and exploitation on land. Two types of rights are granted under the Minerals Act: exploration permits and exploitation concessions. The Mining Inspectorate grants these rights. In order to conduct mining operations both an exploitation concession and a permit under the Environmental Code must be acquired. With respect to mining operations, permits under the Environmental Code are granted by the Land and Environmental Court.

If exploration work could have significant impact on the environment, it entails certain investigations of the environmental aspects according to the Environmental Code. The Mining Inspectorate also hears applications for exploration permits and exploitation concessions, in consultation with the County Administrative Board, which examines whether the site is acceptable from an environmental point of view. The Environmental Code is also applicable in matters concerning the granting of an exploitation concession, which means that an EIA must be appended to an application for a concession.

The granting of a permit for mining operations under the Environmental Code is governed by the same rules as other business operations with an environmental impact. The details for the permit under the Environmental Code, such as noise levels, storage sites and damming up water deposits, are decided during the permit process carried out by the Land and Environmental Court. Supervision of compliance with the environmental conditions imposed is usually carried out by the County Administrative Board and by the municipalitys Environment Health Board.

The first step to acquiring a permit is the consultation process. It takes place between the company wishing to engage in activities with an environmental impact and parties environmentally affected by the operations, as well as agencies and organisations concerned with environmental issues. The purpose is to hear all concerned parties so that their interests can be considered when preparing the EIA.

After the consultation, the EIA has to be finalised. The purpose of the EIA is to describe the environmental impact that the proposed mining project will have. The description is made so that the reviewing bodies (the County Administrative Board or the Environmental Court) can assess whether the project should be allowed from an environmental point of view or not. The applicant must provide information in the EIA regarding any alternative sites for the proposed operation, together with a justification of why the proposed site was selected. The applicant must also provide a description of a zero option, which details the consequences of not starting the proposed operations.

After the hearing and EIA have been carried out, the application for a permit under the Environmental Code can be submitted to the Land and Environmental Court. The Land and Environmental Court determines whether the information gathered and presented in the consultation and environmental assessment phases is detailed enough to proceed with a ruling. During the initial phase of the proceedings, any affected parties may submit supplements to the application. The complete information will then be sent for review and comments to any affected party. Before the main hearing begins, the applicant will have the opportunity to address any comments made during the consultation process.

The closure and remediation process is handled in the Environmental Code permit process through the details for the permit. If deemed necessary, a security will have to be provided to cover for potential damages to the environment and closure of the mining operations. All types of security are approved as long as they are satisfactory for their purpose. The applying party must show that the suggested security is satisfactory and if a security cannot be provided a permit will not be granted.

Certain requirements for the operator in charge of dam maintenance are listed in the Ordinance on Dam Safety (No. 214 of 2014). A tailings or waste dam typically needs a water operation permit according to the Environmental Code and the main principle being that the owner of the tailings or waste dam is responsible for its maintenance. The Ordinance on Dam Safety requires the operator in charge of maintenance to produce an impact assessment and propose a classification based on the impact that may potentially be caused by a dam failure. Furthermore, the operator in charge of maintenance must have a safety management system concerning the methods, routines and instructions needed for:

High-risk installations are subject to provisions with more severe requirements in the Ordinance on Mining Waste (No. 319 of 2013). High-risk installations are defined as installations wherein a deficiency or mistake in the installation or operational organisation may cause a major accident or an installation that has a certain amount of dangerous substances or chemicals. The Ordinance on Mining Waste also includes provisions on localisation and general design of tailings and waste dams.

The operator in charge of maintenance must make a complete assessment of the dams safety and the operational organisation every 10 years. The operator is also obligated to produce yearly safety reports to the supervising authority.

The principal health and safety law is the Work Environment Act (No. 1,160 of 1977), which is applicable in all situations where an employee performs work for an employer. The Work Environment Act is a framework act and detailed regulations are found in the provisions issued by the Swedish Work Environment Authority, which is the principal regulatory body concerning health and safety in the workplace in Sweden. The Work Environment Act states the obligations of the employer: prevention of ill health and accidents, for example. The provisions of the Swedish Work Environment Authority on rock and mining work and general recommendations on implementation of the provisions (AFS 2010:1) are the main provisions concerning mining. They regulate, among other things, the kind of investigation and risk assessments that need to be done before the work in the mine can begin, the kind of working methods and equipment should be chosen, the kind of knowledge the workers in the mine need to possess, the personal protective equipment the workers shall use and required inspections.

If the different sections in the provisions are in conflict with each other, the rules in the provisions of the Swedish Work Environment Authority on rock and mining work and general recommendations on implementation of the provisions (AFS 2010:1) will prevail. Note that only the most common provisions that can be applicable to mining are mentioned. There are additional provisions that regulate all work environments.

The general labour laws in Sweden are applicable to the mining industry such as the Working Hours Act (No. 673 of 1982), the Co-determination Act (No. 580 of 1976), the Discrimination Act (No. 567 of 2008), the Parental Leave Act (No. 584 of 1995) and the Annual Leave Act (No. 480 of 1977). However, labour provisions in Sweden also exist in collective agreements and private employment agreements.

The Swedish Work Environment Authority is responsible for the supervision of the Working Hours Act. Non-compliance of the Discrimination Act is handled by the Equality Ombudsman. Violations against the remaining laws are settled through negotiations or in court.

Management and recycling of mining waste products is regulated by the Environmental Code, the Regulation on Waste from Extractive Industries (No. 319 of 2013) and to a lesser extent the Waste Regulation (No. 927 of 2011). The relevant rules are based on the EU Mining Waste Directive (2006/21/EC). For ongoing mining operations, the mining operators are responsible for mining waste and the possibility of extracting minerals from this. The normal approach is to handle extraction of minerals from waste as part of the environmental permit, which may require an amended permit if the extraction from waste is not included in the original permit.

Although there are no specific regulations regarding exploration and extraction from waste piles and tailings ponds that are not part of any ongoing mining operations, these should be handled in general accordance with the Regulation on Waste from Extractive Industries (No. 319 of 2013) and require an environmental permit. The Swedish government is currently reviewing possibilities to simplify regulations for this type of operation. However, it may take several years before new rules can be implemented.

The right to exploration and extraction of mining waste from closed mining waste facilities varies depending on the circumstances and when the waste management was considered closed, but is typically held by the previous mining operator or landowner.

The same laws and provisions concerning health and safety apply for domestic and foreign national employees. An employer with domestic employees in Sweden has to follow the Swedish labour legislation. The same applies when foreign personnel are employed in Sweden. But if an employee is merely posted to Sweden, the employer is only obliged to follow some of the Swedish labour legislation, according to the Act on Posting of Workers (No. 678 of 1999), which was adopted to fulfil Swedens obligations according to the corresponding EU Directive (96/71/EC).

Foreign employees sometimes need a work permit in order to work in Sweden. Citizens of EU or EEA countries are exempt but they need to inform the Swedish Migration Board if their residency lasts longer than three months. Any employee from a country outside the EU or EEA who works in Sweden for more than three months needs both a work permit and a residence permit. They may also need a visa.

The consultation process is part of the permit process within the Environmental Code. According to the Environmental Code, known affected parties shall have the opportunity to express their opinions on a mining application. The principal regulatory bodies are mentioned in question 35.

Under the Minerals Act, rights holders to the affected land need to be involved during some stages of the granting of exploration permits and exploitation concessions. The indigenous Sami peoples right to herd reindeer is such a right. Reindeer herding is exercised in vast areas of northern Sweden and if the mining operations affect the prerequisites for this right, compensation will have to be paid to the Sami. The Sami will also take part in the application for a permit under the Environmental Code if the mining operation is planned to be carried out within their area.

The Swedish legislation against bribery and corruption is found in the Penal Code. The Code covers not only corruption in the public sector but also in the private sector and between the public and private sector. The relevant provisions are found in chapter 10, sections 5a-5e. An employee or person performing an assignment who, for him or herself or another person, receives, accepts a promise of, or demands an improper benefit for the performance of the employment or assignment, may be deemed as taking a bribe. A person who gives, promises or offers an improper benefit in cases referred to above may, on the other hand, be guilty of giving a bribe. There is no distinction between bribery of public officials and private bribery. Moreover, there is no distinction between bribery of foreign or domestic public officials. However, the involvement of a public official will act as an aggravating circumstance and make it more likely that a benefit will be deemed a bribe.

Additional offences are trading in influence and negligent financing of bribery. Trading in influence involves the act of taking or giving an improper benefit in order to influence a persons action or decision in the exercise of public authority or in public procurement. An individual acting on behalf of a company that provides money or assets used by a third party for the giving of a bribe may be found guilty of negligent financing of bribery.

Consequences of bribery may range from a fine (proportional to the income of the individual, limited to a maximum of 150,000 kronor) or up to two years imprisonment, or in grave cases, imprisonment of between six months and six years. A company may be fined between 5,000 and 10 million kronor.

Particular attention is paid to the UK Bribery Act and the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act in view of the extra-territorial reach of these acts and in the former case, its strict liability provisions.

Has your jurisdiction enacted legislation or adopted international best practices regarding disclosure of payments by resource companies to government entities in accordance with the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) Standard?

"I find the newsfeeds to be extremely beneficial as a means of keeping up with changes in the law. I've made a regular practice of sharing a number of the items with members of our HR staff. Please keep up the good work."

equipment manufacture, mine equipment manufacture, mine equipment manufacturer - xinhai

Aiming at mining and mineral processing equipment manufacturing and procurement, Xinhai Mining has established a complete and strict quality management system, procurement and supplier management system to ensure production and procurement in strict accordance with the quality manual.

Mechanical Design Institute undertakes equipment research and development, design, improvement, etc. The technicians provide required equipment according to the equipment requirements put forward by Mineral Processing Research Institute and Mine Design and Research Institute, which makes the clients enjoy the seamless connection turn-key service including "mineral processing test, mineral processing technology, equipment selection, mine design and equipment manufacturing".

All outside metal materials should be first treated by sand blasting and then by coating if they are to be processed in the factory. Over 20 laser, plasma and flame cutting equipment and over 10 automatic welding equipment stand in the manufacturing base. All exported equipment is coated with marine paint for long-time shipment.

For developed countries such as Australia, Canada, the United States, South America and high-demand clients, Xinhai will provide the matched accessories such as motor, reducer, bearing and electrical components of internationally renowned brands, for example: The motor adopts ABB or SIEMENS brand; the reducer adopts SEW or Sumitomo brand; the bearing adopts SKF or Timken brand; and the electrical components adopt Schneider, ABB or SIEMENS brand.

Equipment manufacture is in the charge of Xinhai mine production plants that covers an area of 100 mu, and are divided into 3 production plants. It could manufacture more than 600 kinds of equipment of mining, ore dressing and metallurgy, and could provide full sets of main and auxiliary equipment for mine less than 10000 tons / day capacity. Xinhai company passed the ISO9001:2000 international quality management system certification, and has formed a complete and strict quality management system in equipment manufacture, its operation is in strict accordance with the requirements of the quality manual.

Xinhai takes sole responsibility of all problems of dressing plant construction in EPC. Xinhai could select some main equipment basing on rich experience, so the mine design is in step with equipment manufacture, which greatly shortens the construction period, and saves time and cost for customers. In order to strictly control the period, Xinhai will formulate detailed and feasible project schedule in EPC, and project control group strictly supervise the progress of project.

Xinhai has built mature and perfect procurement and supply management system, and established long-term cooperative relationship with excellent suppliers who are influential in the industry. Xinhai can purchase the equipment and supplies required by mine construction and mineral processing operation for clients, which includes but not limited to mining equipment, excavators, loaders, bulldozers, dump trucks, drilling machinery, mineral processing equipment, water pumps, blowers, cranes, hoists, mine supporting materials, installation & maintenance tools, test & chemical laboratory equipment, spare parts, plant consumables, modular housings, steel structure workshops, etc.

To improve procurement efficiency, reduce procurement cost and guarantee procurement quality, Xinhai applies two levels of procurement mode which is centralized procurement by headquarters, auxiliary procurement by project management department, and constructs perfect procurement and supply management institution system, which mainly includes Purchase Management Regulations of Equipment and Materials, Management Method of Circulating Materials and Low-valued Consumables, and Management Regulations of Warehouse for Equipment Spare Parts. Besides, Xinhai establishes information platform of procurement business for communication, and operations of procurement plan reporting and approval, warehouse entry inspection, general ledger management and supplier management can be carried out in a unified and coordinated way at the platform, which is convenient for the real time monitoring to the procurement work.

Xinhai can also provide the customers with all kinds of equipment and spare parts needed in the mining production. If the part of the materials needed in mining production cannot be provided locally in the mining area, Xinhai can assist the customer to purchase the relevant materials.

In equipment manufacture, Xinhai takes advantages of a great deal of mining and ore dressing technicians to develop and improve 80% mining, dressing and smelting equipment by combining craft with machine manufacture. Some products reach the international leading level with own characteristic. In the equipment processing, Xinhai production factory owns more than 100 sets of general machinery processing equipment for example vehicles, milling, planing, grinding, boring, drilling, punching, welding, bending, shearing and so on, and independently developed mill processing equipment machine. The largest gyration diameter of machine tool is up to 6 meters.

mining - industrial manufacturing | pall corporation

Mining equipment reliability is a major key performance indicator in the increasingly competitive mining business. Maximizing equipment uptime and extending the life of capital equipment is paramount to improving business performance.

A major risk to equipment performance is lubricant filtration. Ineffective lubricant filtration results in increased frictional wear which can decrease equipment performance and ultimately lead to costly equipment failure and maintenance downtime. Our effective and reliable onborad and offboard lube oil filtration solutions deliver premium filtration performance that reduces the frequency of scheduled maintenance and extends the life of capital equipment.

Water and mining wastewater treatment is also critical to mining business performance. With increased regulatory oversight on fresh water usage, high performance filtration is a necessity. Our premium rinse water filtration solutions for mining applications ensure government cleanliness criteria are met and exceeded.

The mining business is extremely competitive. In order to succeed in this tough business environment, cost-effective solutions are required in all aspects of the operation. When it comes to operating expensive heavy machinery, ensuring reliability and minimizing operation downtime are crucial. Effective and reliable filtration of lubricant systems are an absolute necessity to maintaining continuous operations, but also to extend the life of the machinery itself. Palls Ultipleat SRT and Ultipor II lubricant filters deliver premium lube oil filtration performance to decrease the frequency of scheduled maintenance operations and extend the life of critical mining equipment.

Also at the forefront of mining concerns is the use and filtration of fresh municipal mining water. Mining operations can use water volumes in excess of 1 million gallons per day. With increasing scarcity of water supply and regulatory oversight on water use and purification practices, it is a necessity to optimize water filtration operations. Pall Aria microfiltration technology delivers premium solids removal performance well in excess of conventional practices. With our filtration solutions, water cleanliness criteria are exceeded and operational downtime is minimizes for a streamlined water filtration operation.

The competitive nature of the mining business has led to innovations that improve operational performance. Palls premium lubricant filtration and rinse water filtration solutions deliver a step change in filtration performance as well as improved reliability for optimized mining processes.

sweden welding equipment market | investment analysis | | overview, growth, opportunity, drivers, forecast | market analysis by geography, type, competitive landscape, key company information

Welding is the most popular joining process that is extensively used across industries, such as, automotive, aerospace, medical, consumer electronics, construction, and oil & gas. The type of energy deposition is crucial to distinguish the various welding techniques. Trade between industrialized nations is gradually reducing, and many emerging markets are fighting for a market space to export their industrial products. Most of these industrial products are manufactured using welding processes. The welding industry includes equipment, consumables and services. Industrial sectors are highly dependent on welding technologies to join the manufactured products. As 11% of the construction industrys labor share is occupied by welding, the construction industry is also one of the most important industries for welding applications in the world. Over XX% of the welding processes in the world have applications in the automotive industry. However, the trend changes from region to region, as some regions, like the Middle East, are hubs for the oil & gas industry.

Specialized welding methods like hot-air laser welding machines are expected to gain popularity in the future, especially with applications in coating materials that use plastic and textile. The welding equipment market is expected to grow at a remarkable rate, as the world moves toward industrialization, owing to the growing population. However, the lack of adequate regulations and structural integrity issues of traditional welding methods are expected to restrict the markets growth. Moreover, welding applications require workforce with specialized skill sets, and the manufacturing industry is estimated to witness gaps in skilled human resource. The Sweden welding equipment marketapplies to different sectors, such as residential, commercial, and industrial. Hence, the market segmentation is done based on these categories. By the type of welding process, the equipment market has also been categorized into arc welding, braze welding, forge welding, gas welding, resistance welding, and others. The XX type had the largest market share, with XX%, in 2016. By the end-user industry, the market has also been segmented into oil & gas, automotive & aviation, shipbuilding, power plant, mining, chemical & mining, construction, and others. The XX end-user occupied the largest market share, with XX%, in 2016. The major local and international companies that dominate this market on the basis of products, services, and continuous product developments have been listed in the report.