Sand production is a crucial problem during the process of extracting natural gas from hydrate reservoirs. To deal with sand-production problems systematically, a sand-production control system (SCS) is first proposed in this paper, specialized for pore-distributed clayey silt hydrate reservoirs. Secondly, a nodal system analysis method (NSAM) is applied to analyze the sand migration process during hydrate exploitation. The SCS is divided into three sub-systems, according to different sand migration mechanisms, and three key scientific problems and advances in SCS research in China Geological Survey are reviewed and analyzed. The maximum formation sanding rate, proper sand-control gravel size, and borehole blockage risk position were provided for clayey hydrate exploitation wells based on the SCS analysis. The SCS sub-systems are closely connected via bilateral coupling, and coordination of the subsystems is the basis of maintaining formation stability and prolonging the gas production cycle. Therefore, contradictory mitigation measures between sand production and operational systems should be considered preferentially. Some novel and efficient hydrate exploitation methods are needed to completely solve the contradictions caused by sand production.
Sand production prediction can help identify the most economical way of sand control methods with the desired production rate. This chapter examines some methods to model perforation failures for sanding prediction. Wellbore geometry, reservoir properties, depletion, and drawdown are addressed to analyze sand production, with particular attention focused on stress redistributions and sand failures in perforations and wellbores. Sanding failure criteria are very different from the conventional ones, and some criteria and rock strength correlations are discussed for sanding prediction. The critical bottomhole flowing pressure and critical drawdown are given to optimize production rate for reducing sand production. The relationships of perforation orientation, rock strength, in situ stresses and sanding potentials are analyzed to provide optimal perforation direction for mitigating sand production.
Sand production from the reservoir is caused by the structural failure of borehole wall rock. The internal causes of sand production from the reservoir are the stress state of borehole wall rock and the tensile strength of rock (affected chiefly by consolidation strength of rock), whereas external causes are the producing pressure drawdown value and the change in reservoir fluid pressure. In addition, the properties of reservoir fluid (oil) and the water cut are also factors affecting sand production from the reservoir.
In the thermal recovery process, thermal stress may be superimposed on the stress of borehole wall rock. However, due to no ripe theory and method at present, the thermal effect has not been considered during discussions of the firmness of borehole wall rock. In addition, the effects of oil properties and water cut on the firmness of borehole wall rock are being pursued and are not considered here.
On the basis of the rock failure theory, when the compressive strength of rock is lower than the maximum tangential stress t, the borehole wall rock is infirm, thus leading to the structural failure of rock and rock matrix sand production. The discriminant for determining whether the borehole wall rock of a vertical well is firm is as follows:
where t is maximum tangential stress of borehole wall rock, MPa; C is compressive strength of formation rock, MPa; is Poisson's ratio of rock, decimal number; is average density of overburden, kg/cm3; g is gravitational acceleration, m/s2; H is reservoir depth, m; ps is reservoir fluid pressure, MPa; and pwf is flowing bottomhole pressure during production, MPa.
If Equation (1-21) is satisfied, that is, Ct, under the aforementioned producing pressure drawdown (ps pwf), the borehole wall rock is firm and the structural failure of rock will not be caused, the rock matrix sand production will not be generated, then the sand control completion mode will not be selected. However, when the reservoir has low consolidation strength and the maximum tangential stress of borehole wall rock exceeds the compressive strength of rock, the structural failure of rock may be induced and the rock matrix sand production from the reservoir may be generated, then the sand control completion mode should be adopted.
The meanings of the parameter signs are the same as described earlier. By comparing Equation (1-21) with Equation (1-22), it is shown that due to the Poisson's ratio of rock, which is generally between 0.15 and 0.4, (34)/(1) > 2(1). Then, at the same buried depth, the tangential stress borne by the borehole wall rock of a horizontal well will be higher than that of a vertical well. Therefore, at the same buried depth, for the formation, from which sand production will not be generated in a vertical well, sand production is still possible in a horizontal well. Similarly, the discriminant for determinating the firmness of borehole wall rock of a horizontal well is as follows:
The MohrCoulomb model describes a few material properties. The angle is defined as the angle of friction. Sandstone, for example, will exhibit friction along a shear plane as the grains will restrict motion. This is the case irrespective of the sand grains being cemented or not. The cohesive strength o, on the other hand, reflects the degree of cementation of the material.
Eq. (12.72) is identical to the solution for wellbore collapse, except for the boundary condition. For wellbore collapse, typically the wellbore pressure is higher than the pore pressure, requiring a nonpenetrating boundary condition. For underbalanced drilling and sand production, the wellbore pressure is equal to the pore pressure giving a penetrating boundary condition (see Section 12.7). The least principal stress then becomes
Sand production affects the pipeline design and operations mainly in three areas. One is that sands in the pipeline increase pipeline erosion. Another is that fluid velocity would have to be high enough to carry the sands out of the flowline. Otherwise the sands can deposit inside the pipeline and block the flow. Finally, sand deposition inside the pipeline can prevent inhibition chemicals, like corrosion chemicals, from touching the pipe wall, thus reducing the effectiveness of chemicals.
The most challenging tasks of assessing the sand impacts on pipeline design are determining the particle sizes and determining the concentration of the sands that would be transported by the pipeline. Both particle size distribution and concentration depend upon such parameters as formation rock types and sand control technologies used in well completion. If the formation is unconsolidated, more sands can potentially be produced. Sand grain sizes can be determined by obtaining representative formation samples and performing sieve analysis (Bradley, 1987). Once grain sizes are determined, the proper sand control method can be designed to block the sand from flowing into wellbore and surface pipeline.
Even the best sand-control technologies can potentially fail and allow sands to be introduced into the production system, including the pipeline. Thus, sand detection becomes very important for pipeline operations. No matter whether an intrusive technique, like impedance sensors, or a nonintrusive technique, like ultrasonic sensors, is used for sand detection, an accurate interpretation method must be developed.
The 1-D SPPS model predicts maximum erosion rate given system geometry and materials, flow conditions, and particle properties (McLaury and Shirazi, 1999). It calculates the maximum erosion by defining how a hypothetical representative particle will impinge the target material. The abrasion caused by this particle is defined by length loss in the target material, and is calculated using the momentum of impingement, which requires the so-called characteristic impact velocity of this representative particle. Given flow conditions, particle and pipe properties, the model first calculates the characteristic impact velocity. The erosion ratio, which is defined as the ratio of measured target material mass loss to the mass of all particles in the carrier fluid, is calculated using a power law correlation of the characteristic impact velocity. Here, the carrier fluid can be single phase (liquid or gas), or multiphase (liquid/gas mixture). The maximum erosion rate empirical model in 1-D SPPS calculates the target material length loss per unit time, and uses erosion ratio and accounts for pipe geometry, size and material; fluid properties (density and viscosity) and rate; and sand sharpness, density and rate.
The multiphase carrier mixtures result in different flow patterns in the conduit depending on the relative ratios of liquid and gas flow rates, and liquid and gas densities and viscosities. These flow patterns are (1) Annular, (2) Mist, (3) Churn, (4) Slug, and (5) Dispersed Bubble (Zhang, 2006). The 1-D SPPS model can predict erosion rate considering or ignoring the effects of flow pattern in cases of multiphase (liquid/gas) carrier fluids. In the flow-pattern-dependent calculations, the input liquid and gas flow properties are first used to determine the flow regime, and erosion-rate-prediction models specifically developed for each flow pattern are used to calculate the erosion rate. Partly due to its semi-empirical nature and partly due to its efficient algorithm, 1-D SPPS calculates the erosion rate for a single input almost instantaneously.
The Mohr-Coulomb model describes a few material properties. The angle is defined as the angle of friction. Sandstone, for example, will exhibit friction along a shear plane as the grains will restrict motion. This is the case irrespective of the sand grains being cemented or not. The cohesive strength o, on the other hand, reflects the degree of cementation of the material.
Equation 11.72 is identical to the solution for wellbore collapse, except for the boundary condition. Typically for wellbore collapse, the wellbore pressure is higher than the pore pressure, requiring a non-penetrating boundary condition. For underbalanced drilling and sand production the wellbore pressure is equal to the pore pressure giving a penetrating boundary condition (see Section 11.7). The least principal stress then becomes:
As Canadian oil sands production is set to enter a period of strong growth and expansion, a number of environmental issues and challenges are facing the industry. Most attention has been given to accelerating greenhouse gas emissions, but other environmental issues such as surface disturbance and water conservation also represent serious problems for the operators of oil sand projects and need to be weighed against the economic aspects of oil sand development (Charpentier et al., 2009; NEB, 2006; Swart and Weaver, 2012).
In the perspective of peak oil, Canadas huge reserves of unconventional oil have the worlds attention. It is often claimed that nonconventional oil production such as oil sands production may bridge the coming gap between the worlds soaring oil demand and global oil supply.
The worlds nonconventional oil initially in place could amount to as much as 7 trillion barrels (71012bbl). Oil sand deposits in Canada and the United States as well as extra heavy oil in Venezuela account for the majority of these resources. However, the amount of bitumen (and, hence, synthetic crude oil) that could be recovered from these resources is very uncertain.
The strong growth in oil demand indicates that Canadas vast resources of oil sand may have a market. However, as the oil sand industry strives to exploit these resources, significant challenges must be overcome, most importantly higher natural gas prices, capital cost overruns, and environmental impacts.
Critics contend that government and industry measures taken to minimize environmental and health risks posed by large-scale mining operations are inadequate, causing damage to the natural environment. In fact, there are those critics who would have oil sand development stoppedthere appears to be concern that oil sand development rapes the environment and will leave it a disaster area for future generations. This is not quite the case.
It has long been recognized that there is the need for responsible resource development, and the various levels of government have put the criteria in place to assure minimal environmental impact through (1) science-based precautionary limits that tell us when ecosystems are threatened and (2) improvement of the systems and approaches for monitoring and addressing the impacts of oil sand development on the climate, air, freshwater, boreal forest, and wildlife. In fact, the establishment and implementation of an effective oil sands monitoring is fundamental to the long-term environmental sustainability and economic viability of a rapidly growing oil sands industry in Canada (Dowdeswell et al., 2010) or, for that matter, in any country that seeks to follow development of indigenous oil sand resources.
Characteristics of reservoir formations susceptible for deformation and sand production are reviewed. Stress-induced formation damage resulting from reservoir formation compaction, subsidence, and sanding processes is investigated. The mechanical and hydrodynamic processes causing sand production, migration, and retention in reservoir formations are described and modeled. Typical features of effective gravel pack designs are explained. The various parameters affecting the gravel-pack efficiency are discussed. The criteria available for effective selection of sand control techniques are reviewed. Predictive models for sand filtration and retention in gravel packs and applications by means of typical test data are presented.
The operation of any piston pump is based on the relative movement between the piston and cylinder. From this follows that the same pumping action is achieved in a rod pump if the plunger is stationary and the barrel moves. The traveling-barrel rod pumps operate on this principle and have the plunger held in place while the barrel is moved by the rod string. The position of the anchor or hold-down is invariably at the bottom of the pump assembly.
Traveling-barrel rod pumps are versatile and can be used in normal, sandy, and corrosive wells. Figure3.8 gives a cross-section of an RHT pump. The plunger is attached to the bottom hold-down by a short hollow pull tube, through which well fluids enter the pump. The standing valve, situated on top of the plunger, is of a smaller size than the traveling valve. Thin-wall pumps are designated RWT and those with a soft-packed plunger RST.
The traveling barrel keeps the fluid in motion around the hold-down, preventing sand or other solids from settling between the seating nipple and the hold-down. Therefore, pulling of the pump assembly is usually trouble-free.
The size of the standing valve is limited because it has to fit into the barrel. This relatively smaller valve offers high resistance to fluid flow, allowing gas to break out of solution, causing poor pump operation in gassy wells.
In deep wells, the high hydrostatic pressure acting on the standing valve on the downstroke may cause the pull tube to buckle and excessive wear can develop between the plunger and barrel. This limits the length of the barrel that can be used in deep wells.
Sand making production line is also called sand and stone production line. And the sand production line is a kind of special equipment for producing construction sand and stone. The sand making machine for sale is often needed in many fields, and this processing line can meet the requirements of simultaneous production of stone and artificial sand.
Compared with traditional sand making machine, Aimixs sand manufacturing process can save 50% energy. The sand manufacturing plant can crush rock, sand, gravel and other materials into various size in accord with the requirement of construction sand. Sand made by sand production line has uniform size and high compression strength, and this kind of sand is much more in line with the construction requirements than the sand processed by the ordinary hammer sand crusher machine.
Firstly, the feeding system. The system send raw material to sand crusher and sand screening machine. According to crush and screen process, feeding equipment includes vibrating feeder and other types of feeding machines.
Secondly, the crushing system. The system is the heart of the whole set of sand processing equipment. The work of sand crushing plant system is to crush different varieties of ore raw materials into the required size of the finished product. A complete stone production line includes many crushers. These crushing machines have different functions, and complete the crushing operation together.
Thirdly, the screening and transporting system. The system screens the ore which are crushed by crushing machinery. In the compound sand and stone production line, sand and stone need to be separated, and the separated material needs to be transported to the respective site. The sand screening equipment used in this process is generally a linear vibrating screen or other sand sieve machine.
When sand making production line is working, large pieces of stone stored in the silo are transported by the vibrating feeder into the jaw crusher for crushing coarsely. The belt conveyor delivers the coarsely crushed materials into the cone crusher (or impact crusher) for crushing. And then the belt conveyor carries the crushed materials to the vibrating screen for screening. The finished sands(materials above the sieve) are transported by the belt conveyor to the sand washing machine for washing, and then they are sent to the finished product stack with belt conveyor. Large particles stone(materials under the sieve material) are delivered by the belt conveyor to the vertical mobile impact crusher (sand making machine) for crushing finely. Finely crushed stones will be sent by the belt conveyor again into the vibrating screen for screening. In this way, closed loops are formed. This is how do you make sand with a sand processing line.
Aimixs rock sand manufacturing process line adopts the most advanced technology, and it has reliable performance, reasonable design, easy operation, high efficiency and other characteristics. Moreover, its Production capacity is from 50t/h to 500t/h, and the finished product size can be graded on the basis of users different needs. There are three major performance advantages of Sand processing line:
Firstly, our sand making machine for salehas more convenient maintenance method. Compared with other production line, its maintenance is simple. The wearing parts adopt the high-strength and wear-resistant material, which has small consumption and long service life. Aimixs sand making machine price is reasonable and can bring customers considerable economic benefits.
Thirdly, it has wider application range. It is successfully used to crush limestone, basalt stone, granite, pebble and other rocks. The finished product can fully meet the GB14685-2001 standard. And the sand making processing line provides highway, railway, water conservancy, concrete mixing plant and other industries high quality aggregates.
Sand washing machine, also known as stone washing machine, is mainly used to remove sand products impurities (such as dust). Because sand washing machine for sale usually adopts water washing method, we call it sand washing machine. Among them, most machines are used to clean machine-made sand, so it is also known as stone washing machine.
On the basis of different appearances and working principles, it can be divided into spiral sand washing machine, drum sand washing machine, water wheel sand washing machine, and vibration sand washing machine.
Aimixs sand washing plant for sale has so many structure characteristics. Firstly, it has simple structure and stable operation. Secondly, it is suitable for all kinds of working environment. And the service life is relatively long. Thirdly, the washing materials have less consumption. Its washing efficiency is high and the sand washing machine can fully meet all the requirements of high-grade materials.
However, there are not all the informations about sand washing plants. As one of sand washing plant manufacturers, Aimixs sand washing machine price is very reasonable. Besides, we have more detailed information about the related products. You can contact us for sand sieving machine price, sand crusher machine price or other details.
We suggest that you buy sand machine from professional sand plant manufacturers. Aimix Group, a professional sand plant supplier, can produce all kinds of sand maker machines and the related equipment, such as: sand washing plant, sand washing equipment, and sand screening plant. Aimixs crush sand plant not only has high quality, but also has cheap price. Our equipments are directly sold by factory, so you dont need to worry about the price!
All kinds of sand making machine for sale and stone jaw crusher machines for sale all can be customized according to users actual needs. If you still have questions about sanding machine for sale, please send us an email. We will show you more detailed information, such as: sand making machine video, more information about sand screening machine for sale and so on. If you want to purchase, welcome to visit our factory at any time.We will always provide you high quality equipment and professional service!
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