For those who want a quick answer to silencing this warning: python -m pip install pip==21.0.1 -- you can pin to an older version of pip for now. It's unnecessary IMO, but you can pick your poison (some warnings to ignore vs older pip version).
For historical reasons (uhm... Python 2), pip has used distutils.sysconfig to get information about where to install your Python packages. That module can be functionally replaced by sysconfig that was added to the Python standard library in Python 3.2. However, Python distributors patch it (and not sysconfig) to provide an alternative default install scheme.
PEP 632 deprecates distutils, and it is going to be removed from the Python standard library. distutils-based installations is something that the Python packaging community has been trying to deprecate and remove for a while.
We've been working with a lot of distributors to get them to fix their patches, so that installations in the future can transition to using sysconfig as their source of truth. This message is a part of our "get information from users of broken Python installations". As you've probably noticed, Python installations with differently configured distutils.sysconfig and sysconfig are exceedingly more common than we'd expected. :)
For those who failed to run python -m pip install pip==21.0.1 (for example returned the same error message like ValueError: check_hostname requires server_hostname), you can try to disable the system proxy and retry the command (If you were using some proxy like shadowsocks, v2ray, etc).
Artificial sand, also called crushed sand or mechanical sand (m sand), refers to rocks, mine tailings or industrial waste granules with a particle size of less than 4.75 mm. It is processed by mechanical crushing and sieving.
In China, the artificial sand was mainly used in the construction of hydropower systems. For example, the Three Gorges Project and the Yellow River Xiaolangdi Project used artificial sand to prepare concrete. Due to the remote environment of the hydropower project and the high quality of sand and gravel, the projects have taken the materials locally.
Many Indian states have decreed the use of crushed sand in infrastructure construction because of its high compressive strength and cohesion and the adverse environmental effects of river sand mining, which will greatly boost the demand for artificial sand.
There are both natural and human factors in the increasing demand for artificial sand. The former is that the natural sand is about to run out, while human factors include people's requirements for environmental protection and the need for high-quality concrete.
With the development of infrastructure, the natural sand resources formed by hundreds of thousands of years in many countries and regions have been almost exhausted, which has affected the further development of construction projects.
Driven by huge interests, natural sand has been indiscriminately mining, which changes the river course, affects the safety of river embankments, destroys the living environment of fish and contaminates the groundwater. The crushed stone sand is an important alternative resource to change this phenomenon.
In the process of mining river sand, it often produces a large amount of tailings which is not used reasonably. Especially in small mines, the tailings are piled up at random, occupying land and polluting the environment.
Besides, in urban planning and construction, a large amount of construction waste is generated, which actually can be crushed by the crushers to produce the artificial sand and aggregates for promoting resource utilization.
With the rapid development of concrete technology, the comprehensive performance of high-performance concrete and high-strength structural concrete has higher requirements on the quality of aggregates, requiring it with stable quality, good gradation and shape, while less and less natural sand meets the requirements. Therefore, people are turning their focus on artificial sand.
Artificial sand and mixed sand are mainly used in building construction, municipal construction, transportation, and other projects whose concrete strength grade is below C60. When meeting the corresponding technical requirements, they can also be used for concrete projects such as ports and water conservancy.
The vibrating feeder feeds the stone evenly into the coarse crushing machines for the primary crushing of the stone. The crushed stone from the coarse crushing equipment is transported through the belt conveyor to the fine crushing machines for the secondary crushing.
The primary crushing equipment directly processes supplied materials from the stone material factory and is the foremost processing plant. The jaw crusher is the ideal choice for primary crushing.
The secondary crushing equipment is responsible for the middle and fine crushing in the stone crushing process. The secondary crushing equipment mainly includes impact crushers and cone crushers.
The crushed material is conveyed by the belt conveyor to the crushed sand making machine for fine crushing. The finely crushed material is then screened through the vibrating screen for coarse sand, medium sand, fine sand and other specifications.
VSI sand making machine is called high cost-effective sand making equipment with low initial investment cost and good use effect. It is high in operation efficiency with the PLST crushing cavity.
The HVI sand making machine manufactured by Fote is more advanced in technology. Its butt ends and lubrication scheme are modular in design, and the peripheral guard plate can be turned up and down to extend its life cycle. It has the effects of sand making and shaping at the same time.
For those with strict requirements on the powder content of sand, a sand washing machine can be installed behind the sand manufacturing machine, and the sewage discharged from the sand washing machine can be recycled by the fine sand recovery plant.
The following video shows clearly the difference between crushed sand and river sand from the aspects of source, wastage, setting time, shape, silt content and so on. It is worth collecting and sharing with friends.
The table below shows the mix ratio of M15 M55 and M55 M55 concrete designed for artificial sand and river sand. The results show that in the same Concrete Mix Design, the strength of concrete by artificial sand is higher.
As the demand for aggregates from China, Africa, Latin America, Europe,etc. will continue to rise, and the price of artificial sand will also increase, the outlook for the global aggregate market for sand and gravel is worth looking forward to.
According to the Global Sandstone Aggregate report, by 2020, the demand for aggregates of sand and gravel in the Asia-Pacific region will increase the fastest in the world, and the growth rate of India, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia and other regions will be among the best.
Due to the economic transformation, the demand for sand and gravel aggregates in China will slow down. However, the report predicts that by 2020, China will still be the world's largest aggregate demander, accounting for almost half of the world's total aggregate.
The Global Sandstone Aggregate report shows that the reserves of natural sand are gradually decreasing globally, and in some developing countries where the demand for aggregates and sand is huge, illegal sand mining has happened frequently. According to the report, by 2020, the reserves of natural sand resources in some countries will be quickly depleted.
The depletion of natural sand resources will lead to a sharp increase in the price of aggregates and artificial sand, especially in areas where the demand for aggregates is huge. It can be seen that the profit margin of the artificial sand is very large.
The m sand manufacturing machine produced by the supplier Fote is suitable for m sand making production line of high hard and abrasion-resistant materials such as limestone, quartz stone, granite, river pebble, basalt, cement, various ores, glass raw materials, mechanism building stone, gold slag, etc.
The limestone, widely distributed in nature, is easy to obtain. It is the main raw material for manufacturing cement, lime and calcium carbide. After being processed, limestone is used in large quantities as building materials. Generally, simple processing process is through the limestone sand production line.
Quartz is a hard, wear-resistant, chemically stable silicate mineral mainly composed of silicon dioxide. It is an important industrial mineral raw material generally used in glass, building materials, ceramics, high-tech electronics industry, etc. after crushing and sand making.
The granite has the characteristics of hard texture, high strength, abrasion resistance and weathering resistance. It has the title of "The King of Rocks" and is a good building material. It is rich in resources with low mining costs but high product value. Granite is a popular choice when the product needs to be weather-resistant or durable.
The river pebble resources are rich with low collection costs and high application value. After making sand from river pebble, it is widely used in water conservancy and hydropower, expressways, high-speed railways, passenger dedicated lines, bridges, airport runways, municipal engineering and high-rise buildings in the engineering field.
Basalt is the best material used for repairing roads, railways and airport runways. With the characteristics of strong compressive resistance, low crushing value and strong corrosion-resistance, it is the best cornerstone for the development of railway transport and road transport.
As a professional manufacturer of mechanical sand production equipment, Fote Heavy Machinery has rich experience in the design of mechanical sand production equipment, a perfect service system and professional after-sales team.
As a leading mining machinery manufacturer and exporter in China, we are always here to provide you with high quality products and better services. Welcome to contact us through one of the following ways or visit our company and factories.
Based on the high quality and complete after-sales service, our products have been exported to more than 120 countries and regions. Fote Machinery has been the choice of more than 200,000 customers.
At Python Products Inc., we know that fish enthusiasts would rather spend time enjoying their fish than maintaining them. That is why we constantly strive to improve on the old methods of aquarium maintenance by adding time-wise, helpful products to our already popular product line.
If you are tired of the old routine, then it's about time you cut your aquarium maintenance time in half with our complete, ready-to-use system, NO SPILL CLEAN and FILL! No buckets, no siphons, no mess, no tank tear downs - EVER again!
We take all the steps necessary to ensure the product you receive is of the highest quality FDA approved materials. Unlike garden hoses, our patented systems consist of UV stabilized, non-porous tubing which eliminates the possibility of adding dangerous chemical toxins into your aquarium water.
Sand making production line is also called sand and stone production line. And the sand production line is a kind of special equipment for producing construction sand and stone. The sand making machine for sale is often needed in many fields, and this processing line can meet the requirements of simultaneous production of stone and artificial sand.
Compared with traditional sand making machine, Aimixs sand manufacturing process can save 50% energy. The sand manufacturing plant can crush rock, sand, gravel and other materials into various size in accord with the requirement of construction sand. Sand made by sand production line has uniform size and high compression strength, and this kind of sand is much more in line with the construction requirements than the sand processed by the ordinary hammer sand crusher machine.
Firstly, the feeding system. The system send raw material to sand crusher and sand screening machine. According to crush and screen process, feeding equipment includes vibrating feeder and other types of feeding machines.
Secondly, the crushing system. The system is the heart of the whole set of sand processing equipment. The work of sand crushing plant system is to crush different varieties of ore raw materials into the required size of the finished product. A complete stone production line includes many crushers. These crushing machines have different functions, and complete the crushing operation together.
Thirdly, the screening and transporting system. The system screens the ore which are crushed by crushing machinery. In the compound sand and stone production line, sand and stone need to be separated, and the separated material needs to be transported to the respective site. The sand screening equipment used in this process is generally a linear vibrating screen or other sand sieve machine.
When sand making production line is working, large pieces of stone stored in the silo are transported by the vibrating feeder into the jaw crusher for crushing coarsely. The belt conveyor delivers the coarsely crushed materials into the cone crusher (or impact crusher) for crushing. And then the belt conveyor carries the crushed materials to the vibrating screen for screening. The finished sands(materials above the sieve) are transported by the belt conveyor to the sand washing machine for washing, and then they are sent to the finished product stack with belt conveyor. Large particles stone(materials under the sieve material) are delivered by the belt conveyor to the vertical mobile impact crusher (sand making machine) for crushing finely. Finely crushed stones will be sent by the belt conveyor again into the vibrating screen for screening. In this way, closed loops are formed. This is how do you make sand with a sand processing line.
Aimixs rock sand manufacturing process line adopts the most advanced technology, and it has reliable performance, reasonable design, easy operation, high efficiency and other characteristics. Moreover, its Production capacity is from 50t/h to 500t/h, and the finished product size can be graded on the basis of users different needs. There are three major performance advantages of Sand processing line:
Firstly, our sand making machine for salehas more convenient maintenance method. Compared with other production line, its maintenance is simple. The wearing parts adopt the high-strength and wear-resistant material, which has small consumption and long service life. Aimixs sand making machine price is reasonable and can bring customers considerable economic benefits.
Thirdly, it has wider application range. It is successfully used to crush limestone, basalt stone, granite, pebble and other rocks. The finished product can fully meet the GB14685-2001 standard. And the sand making processing line provides highway, railway, water conservancy, concrete mixing plant and other industries high quality aggregates.
Sand washing machine, also known as stone washing machine, is mainly used to remove sand products impurities (such as dust). Because sand washing machine for sale usually adopts water washing method, we call it sand washing machine. Among them, most machines are used to clean machine-made sand, so it is also known as stone washing machine.
On the basis of different appearances and working principles, it can be divided into spiral sand washing machine, drum sand washing machine, water wheel sand washing machine, and vibration sand washing machine.
Aimixs sand washing plant for sale has so many structure characteristics. Firstly, it has simple structure and stable operation. Secondly, it is suitable for all kinds of working environment. And the service life is relatively long. Thirdly, the washing materials have less consumption. Its washing efficiency is high and the sand washing machine can fully meet all the requirements of high-grade materials.
However, there are not all the informations about sand washing plants. As one of sand washing plant manufacturers, Aimixs sand washing machine price is very reasonable. Besides, we have more detailed information about the related products. You can contact us for sand sieving machine price, sand crusher machine price or other details.
We suggest that you buy sand machine from professional sand plant manufacturers. Aimix Group, a professional sand plant supplier, can produce all kinds of sand maker machines and the related equipment, such as: sand washing plant, sand washing equipment, and sand screening plant. Aimixs crush sand plant not only has high quality, but also has cheap price. Our equipments are directly sold by factory, so you dont need to worry about the price!
All kinds of sand making machine for sale and stone jaw crusher machines for sale all can be customized according to users actual needs. If you still have questions about sanding machine for sale, please send us an email. We will show you more detailed information, such as: sand making machine video, more information about sand screening machine for sale and so on. If you want to purchase, welcome to visit our factory at any time.We will always provide you high quality equipment and professional service!
The small sand washing plant has small footprint, high capacity, high water recycling rate. The equipment is widely used in the washing and selection of materials in industries such as sand and gravel plants, mines, building materials plants, transportation, chemical industry, water conservancy and hydropower, and concrete mixing. Product info [Treatment water volume] : the small sand washing plant has capacity of 30 ton/hour [Applicable materials]: River pebble, granite, limestone, basalt, coal gangue, weathered sand, river sand, yellow sand andMore +
The LZZG sand mining processing plant is equipped with sand washing and sewage treatment equipment. It can save 80% of sand washing water for customers, and the processing capacity of the sand making machine can reach 50 to 300t/h. This sand washing production line has high output, low maintenance cost, and low energy consumption Etc. Simple and efficient crushed stone sand production line Rock sand processing equipment Granite, limestone, quartz stone sand making equipment includes jaw crusher, impact crusher (sandMore +
Recycling of urban waste has always been a major problem in urban construction management. Due to the development of urban construction, a large number of houses are demolished during urban construction, and there are concrete waste and cement block waste with reusable value. I want to configure a construction waste with an output of about 300 tons. How much does it cost to invest in a sand production line? Construction waste sand production line configuration The configuration plan of theMore +
What do I do if I do nt understand the equipment and technology when investing in a sand and gravel production line? For sand and gravel factories that have just entered the industry, small mining equipment is often preferred to produce sand and gravel aggregates. Then how is the most cost-effective configuration of a small sand and sand production line with an output of 30 tons per hour? What is the approximate price? Longzhong Heavy Industry Machinery Co., Ltd. introducesMore +
Advantages of pebble sand The pebble stone raw material has large reserves and wide sources. The sand production process is simple and the investment cost is low. The finished goose egg grit is uniform and round, the gradation is reasonable, the fineness modulus is adjustable, and the stone powder content is low, which is high-quality mechanism sand. The advantages of the series and so on have prompted the pebble stone sand making the project to be more valued by users,More +
Process analysis of sand production line step 1. Feeding The stone is blasted from the mountain and the large stone is sent to the vibrating feeder through the dump truck; step 2. coarse crushed The vibrating feeder sends the stone uniformly into the coarse and broken, and the coarse broken stone is first-stage crushed, and the stone material from the coarse broken material is transported to the fine broken through the belt conveyor for secondary crushing; step 3. sand screeningMore +
Use of kaolin The kaolin washing plantproduces washed kaolin sand. Pure kaolin has high whiteness, soft texture, easy dispersion and suspension in water, good plasticity and high viscosity, excellent electrical insulation properties; good acid solubility, low cation exchange capacity, good fire resistance Sexual and physicochemical properties. Therefore, kaolin has become a necessary mineral raw material for dozens of industries such as paper, ceramics, rubber, chemicals, coatings, medicine and national defense. kaolin washing plants The dewatering screen is used for theMore +
Recently, customers in Jiangsu Province visited LZZG and signed a cooperation agreement for the granite sand production line project. The production capacity of this production line is 300t/h. The processing material is granite. Equipment configuration: vibrating feeder, jaw crusher, multi-cylinder hydraulic cone crusher, sand making machine, vibrating screen, belt conveyor and other related equipment. Selection of raw materials The local granite is rich in resources, so granite is used as the raw material processing mechanism sand. The requirements for selectingMore +
The clean discharge sand washing production line is a system solution for the problems of the dry heap of finished materials, purification of tailwater, and dry discharge of solid waste. It mainly includes screening, cleaning, dehydration, fine sand recovery, solid-liquid separation, sludge dewatering, and other aspects. The material is effectively screened, washed and dewatered throughout the system. Save resources and reduce water consumption. The entire production line has excellent continuous working performance and convenient maintenance. Long service life, easy toMore +
The stone washing equipment is special equipment for cleaning stone materials produced by LZZG for high-standard projects such as highways, railways, bridges, and tunnels. It has the characteristics of good mobility, strong processing capacity, high washing rate, and power saving. Suitable for washing of fine-grained and coarse-grained materials. The stone washing machine has reasonable structure, convenient maintenance, large processing capacity, small power consumption, and high washing degree. The novel sealing structure, the new rotating shaft device, and the adjustable sewageMore +
Zhengzhou Xinzheng Waste Incineration Power Generation Zero Emission Project is one of the key construction projects of Luoyang Longzhong Heavy Industry in the second half of this year. After more than a month of customized equipment production, site planning, installation and commissioning, the project has been successfully completed and put into use. Although the project was successfully completed, it reflected a lot of problems in the process of construction. In this article, Longzhong made a simple summary of the problemsMore +
The sandwashing production line inIndonesia has a capacity of40-50m/h.The production line consists of conveyor, spiral sand washer, dewatering screen, cyclone, Deep Cone Thickener and so on. The sand washing production line that can wash 30 tons of sand in one hour belongs to the small and medium-sized sand washing line. The water consumption per 30 tons of sand is about 30-80 cubic meters per hour. The specific water consumption is related to the mud content of the sand, the sandMore +
The stone production project is designed to have a capacity of 180,000 tons per year, 1,000 tons per day, and 300 working days per year. Due to a large amount of green stones in local demand, the crushing materials are mainly of granite, pebbles, gravel. After the site survey, LZZG engineers determined the three stages of the crushing sand production line, including the jaw crusher breaking, the cone crusher two breaks, the shaping machine three breaks, sand making machine sandMore +
Pebble sand-making machineis widely used and its performance has achieved the international advanced level, which is the most effective and reliable pebble sand-making machine, particularly suitable for the production of abrasives, refractory materials, cement, quartz sand, steel sand, furnace powder, copper ore, gold ore, pebbles, concrete aggregates, asphalt aggregates and the crushing and smashing of variety and hard materials.It is a high efficiency and energy saving equipment, its energy saving is 50%, which is higher than traditional sand making machine,More +
With natural sand decreasing, there are more urgent requirements for sand. So more and more customers wanted us to help them to design sand production line. The production site below is located in the mountainous area because their material is the stone quarried from the mountains. They wanted to wash materials and classified the stone as different grade. Through talking, our team made the blew projects. Project Description Daily operation: 12h Material: artificial stone Capacity: 150-200TPH Max. Feed size: <10mmMore +
The production system of an organization is that part, which produces products of an organization. It is that activity whereby resources, flowing within a defined system, are combined and transformed in a controlled manner to add value in accordance with the policies communicated by management. A simplified production system is shown above.The production system has the following characteristics:
JOB SHOP PRODUCTION Job shop production are characterized by manufacturing of one or few quantity of products designed and produced as per the specification of customers within prefixed time and cost. The distinguishing feature of this is low volume and high variety of products.
BATCH PRODUCTION Batch production is defined by American Production and Inventory Control Society (APICS) as a form of manufacturing in which the job passes through the functional departments in lots or batches and each lot may have a different routing.It is characterized by the manufacture of limited number of products produced at regular intervals and stocked awaiting sales.
MASS PRODUCTION Manufacture of discrete parts or assemblies using a continuous process are called mass production. This production system is justified by very large volume of production. The machines are arranged in a line or product layout. Product and process standardization exists and all outputs follow the same path.
CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION Production facilities are arranged as per the sequence of production operations from the first operations to the finished product. The items are made to flow through the sequence of operations through material handling devices such as conveyors, transfer devices, etc.
Dear sir, we are a leading glass bottle making company India with any our own Quartz sand manufacturing facility. During the manufacturing, we are generating a lot of sand dust & fines (100 to 400 mesh) which we are not able to use. Now, we are planning to use the Sand dust & fines in manufacturing of the glass bottles by using it instead of the manufactured sand in the glass furnace. Since the sand dust & fines cannot be fed into the furnace directly as it is very fine, we need to form small pallets instead of the manufactured sand in the glass furnace. Since the sand dust & fines cannot be fed into the furnace directly as it is very fine, we need to form small pallets in a Palletizer before feeding in the furnace. Since the adhesive property of the sand dust & fines is very poor, we are adding some binders before palletizing/granulating (balls of dim= 2 to 5 mm) the same in a temporary arrangement. I understand that you are manufacturing Pallisters/granulator for the sand dust & fine. We would therefore like to get your technical & commercial offer for a 5 ton /hr. Palletizer/granulator system.
Indian customer wants to produce granules materials with 5 ton per hour. The customer has a glass bottle making company in India. In his factory, there are lots of sand dust and fines wastes, so he wants to turn them into granules with additives like soda ash, sodium nitrite solution, and limestones. With a 5 ton per hour production capacity, the customer wants to make granules with an acre of 1360 square meters(40l*34mh) working space. This Indian customer has his own granulation line. However, in customers fertilizer production line, the rotary drum fertilizer granulator does not work well in his granule line, and its granulation rate is far lower than customers requirements. So, Indian customer want to find a new fertilizer production line solution from us.
Based on Indian customers raw materials and production capacity, the companys engineer team design a 5t/h production line equipped with pan granulator. In the disc pan granulation line, the main machine configurations are as follows:
In the sand dust granulation process, we recommend our disc granulator to our Indian customer. However, this customer fear it cannot make well granulated sand dusts as his required. In views of this, we recommend our customer send his raw materials to our factory for working performance testing.
Since customers trial materials are a bit of more, thus it will be more economic we buy the trial materials for customer and customer just pay for the trail material. This will be more economic and cost efficient on the trial process.
1) Q: In fertilizer machines installation: The complete fertilizer granulation line can be installed in a building with length = 30-meter, width = 22-meter, height = 6 meter? A: as your said, all the belt conveyor has 20-degree slop angle, the whole line length should be 34m, the width and height are ok. 2) Q: In the production line capacities: The plant output is 5 tons of finished granules per hour. A: yes, granules output is 5t/h 3) Q: on the production line wastes emissions: Production yield of the plant = 100 % (means there is no waste generation due to operation) Athe cover will be on pan granulators, on belt conveyor and on screen machine, so no more dust will suspend in the air. and the material in the dust collecting system can be recycled again. 4) Qon the granulation rate of our machine: Minimum % of good quality granule production (without recycle). A: the1-4mm size granules can be 90% 5) Q: on the unqualified materials screening: Maximum % of less than 1mm granules which goes into recycle. A: <1mm granules size no more than 3% 6) Q: on the unqualified materials crushing: Maximum % of more than 5 mm granules which goes into recycle (through chain crusher). A: it is about 7% granules size> 5mm 7) Q: On pan granulation system configuration: Can the granulator be of closed pan type instead of the open pan type as we feel that the closed type design has a better control on the granule quality & also controls the dust generation. A: the granulator part can be covered by iron sheet house (reference following pictures) The dust wont generation. Closed pan type design cannot be realized (because if closed, the material cannot be feeding into two granulators). 8) Q: on the dust collect system: The dust collector system should be adequate to ensure the dust level (SPM = suspended particulate matter) inside the plant should be less than 50 mg/m3. A: the cyclone and dust collecting room and dusting fall room and water curtain dust collector can almost remove the dust fully. and as your requirements, the belt conveyors (colorful steel cover) and disc granulator parts (iron sheet house), and screen machine (reference number 16 answer) will have covers to avoid dust suspend in the air. all these designs can meet your standard suspending dust less than 50mg/m3. 9) Q: on the provision: Provision should be shown for the addition of liquid solidum silicate in the mixer in the final drawing. A: you can check it in the final drawing, we designed for you on the granulation line. 10) Q: on the pan granulation lines electric system: Please provide the motors and variable frequency drives of Siemens. A: Yes, will quote machines price with Symons motor (440V, 50HZ) later, you can find them in the quotation later. 11) Q: On the granulation line machines operation: We would like you to let us know the Operation philosophy of the complete plant. A: I think maybe you want to know how to operate and maintained the whole line. When installation, our engineers will be there to instruct installation, commissioning machines, and training your workers how to operate them, how to easy regular maintenance. And we will send you a PDF machine manual and document one when with machine delivery. 12) Q: On the whole organic fertilizer productions automatic system: What is the level of instrumentation & automation considered. Is a completely automated or semi-automated plant. A: except raw materials loading & finished granules packing & shifting which will be done through mono rail system, only 1 person need to feeding agricultural waste pellet to furnace.) the line is completely automated. 13) Q: on the workers costs of the 5 ton per hour organic fertilizer production line? How many people are required to operate the plant (include all the operations)? Mention the maintenance operations separately. A: 3-4 workers will be needed: 1 for batching machine material feeding; 1 for furnace, 1 or 2 for packing machine. 14) Q: on the screening machines maintenance: On How frequently the rotary screen meshes needs to be changed. Do you recommend that we buy the spare mesh from you or you provide us with the drags for us to procure local? A: half a year need to change the screen mesh for your material. we will provide a set SUS304 stainless steel spare mesh for you, its price is about 600USD. 15) Q: on the Cyclone system: We wanted to know if the Cyclone system will be effective in maintaining the dust levels inside the plant. A: yes, the cyclone collecting dust effect is better than bag system (once your referred). you can see the dust collecting system effect in the video on WhatsApp.
16) Q: on the dust collect system configurations to different machines: You have only indicated dust collector system to be connected to the outlet of the rotary drier ,but we feel that there are other points of dust generation (like Granulator ,Rotary screen, Conveyors) which also needs to be removed through dust collector system. Therefore, we would like you to evaluate the sizing of the dust collection system. We wanted an ambient space where the dust level should not be more than 50 mg/m3. A: For the granulator, conveyor, please reference number 7&8 answer. we can design a cover for screen machine, like this one to avoid dust generation. 17) Q: on the belt conveyors functions and configurations: Please confirm if the all the conveyors will be fully covered & sealed to control the dust from getting into the surrounding atmosphere. A: reference number 8 answer. 18) Q: on the whole granulation plants components configurations: In view of the dust generation in running such plants, we would prefer that you use all the sealed bearings wherever possible, preferable of SKF, FAG, NTN makes. A: No need to use the sealed bearings. because all the machines (machines that dust will generation) will be have a cover to avoid dust generation. using SKF, FAG or NTN sealed bearing will largely increase your budget. Please consider our advice. 19) Q: on the fertilizer machines electric motors supplier: What are the makes of the motors, can it be Siemens IE-3 motors. A: yes, motor can be designed as your requirements. but the machine price will float up relatively. 20) Q: on materials processing and allocating: Can you please explain how the quantities & proportion will be controlled using the system provided. A: the belt conveyor motor of the batching machine is inviter motor, so the belt conveyor moving speed can be regulated on the control box. It means you can control every belt conveyor running speed to control three material quantities & proportion. you can check the dynamic batching machine working video in WhatsApp. 21) Q: on additional tailored configurations to organic materials granulation line: Please include the Liquid sodium silicate storage tank in your scope. A: You can check it in the drawing 22) Q: on the labor costs reduction to the production line: Kindly include all the equipment in your scope which is required to run this plant automatically with minimum manpower (except raw materials loading & finished granules packing & shifting which will be done through mono rail system). Please note that we will go for semi automation only if the automation system becomes more expensive. Kindly indicate the operations which the manpower is required to undertake so that we are very clear about the operating requirements. A: except raw materials loading & finished granules packing & shifting which will be done through mono rail system, only 1 person need to responsible for furnace. other parts of this line are fully automatically. 23) Q: on the batching system operations: As this is a batch granulation therefore how will you control & modulate the continuous flow. Can you explain the operation? A: by batching machine (material feeding parts), you can reference number 20 answers. 24) Q: on the manufacturing materials of pan granulators: What is the material of the surfaces of the granulator & drier which comes in contact with the quartz dust. Is there a possibility of Iron addition in the granules due to the same? A: Both granulator and dryer material are Q235B boiler steel, which has high strength and not easily deformed characteristics. 25) Q: Regarding the combustion system, we do not have a source of natural gas therefore we would request you to give the option for combustion system which uses agricultural waste, sugarcane waste, cow dung waste, pet coke etc. Based on your recommendations we will try to source the fuels locally. The natural gas, furnace oil, diesel will be very costly to operate we prefer agricultural waste pallets with calorific value of 4000 kcal/kg. A: the agricultural waste pellet is good fuel for dryer. can be used on this system. 26) Q: on the combustion system refectory materials. Your offer for the combustion system should include the refractory. However, additionally you can also give the quote for the refractories separately so that we can also try to see if the same can be sourced locally. A: the refractory material of the furnace is fireproof cement and fireproof bricks. you can find it in your country 27) Q: on the fuel consumption of the 5 ton per hour granule making line. We would also like to know the fuel consumption of the recommended system for this 5 ton/hr. line. A: for your 4000Kcal/kg agricultural waste pellet fuel, about 350kg pellet will be need for one hour for this line granules drying. 28) Q: on the dust accumulated system. Please indicate how the dust accumulated from the dust collector system can be reused & necessary conveying system for the same. A: for the cyclone dust recycling, you can use a bag on the cyclone discharge port to collecting dust. and for the dust fall room, your worker just needs to clean it regularly (1 time for a week) 29) Q: on the complete fertilizer production line machines technical specifications: Please send the specifications sheet for the different equipment selected for our line. A: yes, will send you the quotation with detailed specifications. 30) Q: on the packing machine specifications: Please details the scope of the packing machine along with the operations. Is it automated, semi-automatic & whether the manpower is required etc.? A: you can find the packing machine details in the quotation later. packing weight range 500-2000kg. Just need 1-2 workers. 31) Q: on the battery limits of the machine: Kindly define the battery limits of your scope & also mention our scope of work. A: you need to provide: i. cutting machine ii. crane iii. welding machine iv. 7-8 worker for installation. 32) Q: on the quality warranty of the granulation line: Please mention the performance guarantees for this complete granulation line. A: One-year guarantee (Exclusive wearing spare parts). If any parts are found defectively in quality within guarantee, we shall replace them for free. Client should responsible for their own operation mistakes and man-made problems. After guarantee, we can provide all the machine parts with Ext price. 33) Q: on the payment terms of the fertilizer granule line: Also, the payment terms should have 50% advance & 50% after commissioning. A: No, the payment term is 50% T/T deposit, the balance should be paid before delivery. When installation, our engineers will be there to instruct installation, commissioning machines until machines can work normally, and training your workers how to operate this line, how to easy regular maintenance. You just need to pay the round air tickets and 100USD salary /day, and accommodation. 34) Q: on engineer onsite technical supports: Please note that we need your engineers presence for at least 30 days in our plant after the successful commissioning to teach our Operators in operation & fine tuning the quality parameters. A: please reference number 33 answers. 35) Q: on qualifications: Your system should be CE certified. A: Yes, CE certificate can be had, you need to pay extra costs: 910USD. 36) Q: on engineer technical support costs: Your offer should consider a consolidated Installation & Commissioning charges & not on per day basis. A: 100USD salary per day including the instruct installation costs, machines commissioning charges, and worker training costs. 37) Q: on the fuel power and manpower consumption of the total granule fertilizer plants. We would like to know the total power, fuel and manpower requirement to run this line. A: Total powder of this line, you can find it in the quotation. fuel, reference number 25 and 27 replies. 38) Q: on total costs on the granules production: We would also like to know the approx. cost of producing the granules if it cost Rs 500 per man /day, power at Rs 7/kwHr, Agricultural waste fuel at Rs 10/kg, Furnace oil at Rs 45/kg etc. A: approx. cost for one day: 38668.8Rs= 500Rs*4 workers+ 154.8 Kw*Rs7/KwHr* 8Hr+350kg*Rs 10*kg *8Hr
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This week two F16s were shot down over Yemen. When the wreckage was examined, both were found to be of types never supplied to an Arab nation, not Saudi Arabia, not anyone. The only buyer in the region for that type of plane is Israel.
With two Israeli planes downed this week, fresh Saudi markings painted on them, and a strong confirmation of a tactical thermonuclear attack on a Yemeni airbase, a neutron bomb attack (NRR No Residual Radiation), the Yemen war is now clearly an Israeli war.
Yemeni air defense forces shot down a Saudi marked fighter jet in the northwestern province of Sanaa in Yemen as it was conducting airstrikes. This is the second F16 shot down this week clearly the strength of the Yemeni air defences has been grossly underestimated. The Saudi F-16 fighter jet was shot down and subsequently crashed in the Bayt Khayran area of the district of Bani Harith in the northern part of Sanaa.
On May 11, Yemens Al-Masirah television reported that Ansarullah fighters brought down a Moroccan marked fighter jet violating the countrys airspace in the Noshour Valley in the northern province of Saada. The aircraft shot down today had reportedly conducted a number of airstrikes against Yemens Al-Dailami airbase. Saudi jets have been carrying out military strikes against Yemen since March 26.
According to Yemeni media outlets, on Sunday Saudi fighter jets targeted a factory in the western Yemeni province of Al-Hudaydah, killing three civilians and injuring 19 others. The Saudi fighter jets also targeted residential areas, a military airbase and a police headquarters in the province in separate attacks.
Now we come to the interesting part analysis of the wreckage shows these planes to be of unknown origin. While they carried Saudi paint jobs, we know that they cannot be Saudi aircraft and in fact are Israeli aircraft flown by Arabic speaking Israeli Air Force pilots, members of a special Kamikaze unit that flies specially modified F16, nuke carriers tasked for doomsday operations against Iran, Russia or Western Europe.
One of these aircraft was most likely responsible for dropping the neutron bomb on Yemen a few days ago. Yemeni media reports that two of the rockets carried by the fighter jet remained unexploded and were found in the wreckage; these are most likely the Sidewinder missiles carried for defence against other aircraft. We do not know what other ordnance the aircraft was carrying.
The aircraft was shot down by an updated BUK system supplied by Russia Yemen is well-equipped with modern Russian weaponry including MiG-29s and advanced air-defence systems, a fact that has clearly been overlooked by the Saudis and their Israeli allies; they have grossly underestimated the capabilities of their enemy and as we have seen before, most notably in southern Lebanon against Hezbollah Israel does not do so well when its victims are prepared and capable of fighting back; perhaps they thought they were bombing undefended civilians in Gaza?
Photo analysis of the shot down F-16 in Yemen show that they are the early model; block A/B F-16 ground attack configuration version (it has the small or what is called the short tail) with Royal Saudi Air Force markings being newly painted on the air frame. All of the so-called Arab coalition aircraft are block C/D not A/B.
So this is probably one of the 50 surplus US F-16 A models given to Israel during the Clinton administration or it is a recently surplus ex-NATO aircraft either from Italy or Portugal. The only other option is that they were directly supplied from the US covertly. We need a serial no. or tail number to confirmwhich production block they came from.
I forgot it was carrying the 300 gal center line long range bolt on conformal drop tank with no air to air refueling capability or ECM equipment. This is why it was shot down. Too slow and no countermeasures. It was also using the older APG-66 radar. Riyadh or UAE to Yemen is only 600 miles.
However Israel to Yemen is 1200 miles. An F-16 with 3 drop tanks, 4x 1000 lb bombs and 2 sidewinder missiles for self defense is do-able from Israel. The very same distance and mission configuration as needed to hit Iran.
Yemeni army has shot down a Saudi warplane northeast of the northern city of Saada, as Al Saud regime continues its aerial attacks against its southern neighbor unabated.According to Yemens al-Masirah television, the Saudi plane was downed in Kataf district of the province.
Earlier in the day, another Saudi F-16 fighter jet was downed in the Bayt Khayran area of the district of Bani Harith in the north of the northwestern province of Sanaa. The fighter jet had reportedly conducted a number of airstrikes against Yemens al-Dailami air base.
Saudi jets have been carrying out military strikes against Yemen since March 26. On May 11, Ansarullah fighters brought down a Moroccan fighter jet violating the countrys airspace in the Noshour Valley in the northern province of Saada.
A few hours later, theSaudi-led intervention in Yemen (2015present)began. The Yemeni Air Force did not completely join the Houthi rebels, as most of the personnel refused to take orders from their former enemy. Also the maintenance of the air-frames was mostly halted since the ousting of the Saleh regime in 2012and thus, at the beginning of 2015, the situation of the Air Force seemed chaotic with most of the personnel deserted and air-frames lacking maintenance, effectively preventing the Yemeni Air Force to enter in the fight, remaining grounded during the Saudi-led intervention.
During the opening strikes in March 2015, it appeared that the Coalition strikes did not hit the main combat assets of the Yemeni Air Force, with limited attacks on the runways, secondary airport structures and logistics air-frames, even in face of fighter jets parked in the open. During the initial strikes at al-Dailami airbase, pictures of the single CN-235-300M, one Beechcraft Super King Air, one AB-412 and one UH-1H destroyed or damaged on the ground emerged.
It is not clear if the Saudi coalition decided to spare the military aircraft in the opening hours and then this decision changed, or the initial strikes failed to hit the military planes which were subsequently hit by the following strikes.Other sources reported that the initial strikes also targeted a number of Su-22s and F-5 jet fighters.
Indeed, in the following few days, the coalition strikes started targeting the structures and air-frames to a more severe extent. On 15 April 2015, a Saudi debriefing showed the Arab coalition strikers destroying two Su-22 and one F-5 jet fighters while they were sitting on the tarmac.
The F-5 looked covered by a net, while the Su-22s were parked in the open.Another picture showing the wrecks of two Su-22 and one F-5 jets emerged on 30 April 2015.On 4 May 2015, evidence of a Yemeni Il-76TD at Sanaa International Airport engulfed in flames emerged. The fate of the Yemeni MiG-29 fleet remains unknown while the assessment on the actual number of other air-frames destroyed is difficult to establish.
The Air Defense, once separated from the Air Force, according to the standard Soviet segregation of armed forces, was merged into the Air Force.Up to more than six hundredSurface-to-air missilelaunchers may have been procured over the time, including MANPADS, mostly if not all of Soviet and Russian origin. 12Tor missile systemswere ordered and tested in 2007.
As of 2015, their status is unknown, if ever delivered. At the start of the 2015 Saudi-led intervention in Yemen, similarly to the status of the rest of the Air Force, the Air Defense looked in a bad shape with a small fraction of missile batteries at limited to none readiness status, hampered by obsolescence, lack of spare parts and desertions. As the rest of the armed forces, a number of installations were reported switching sides, siding with the Houthis rebels.
Nevertheless, the Saudi coalition reported hitting a number ofS-75,S-125and2K12 KubAir defense installations in the opening strikes in March 2015.Strikes on Air Defense units were reported as late as early May 2015.Defensive Anti-Aircraft Artillery (AAA) fire was clearly visible at night over Sanaa till mid April.
The Israel Defense Force/Air Force ordered a total of 362 F-16s, from early F-16A/Bs to the latest F-16I. Fifty of these aircraft were surplus USAF aircraft, given to Israel by the US as payment for restraint during the 1991 Gulf War despite Scud attacks. All Israeli F-16s are fitted with custom Israeli electronics.
The Israel Defense Forces/Air Force (IDFAF) got its first chance to test the Fighting Falcon with the 388 TFW at HillAFB, which was the first USAF unit operational on type. The IAF test pilot team recommended the purchase of the airplane. Referring to the decisions leading to the acquisition of the F-16s, former IDFAF commander Brigadier David Ivri explains:
The decision to buy the General Dynamics F-16, resulted mostly from the very high price of the McDonnell-Douglas F-15 Eagles. At the F-16 hand-over ceremony (which was held on January 31st, 1980, right after the Iranian F-16 deal was cancelled because of the fall of the Shah), Ivri explained: After all quantity counts, and it is a major factor in the chances to win, so we chose a solution combining quantity and quality.
In August of 1978, when the Carter Administrations arms sales restrictions policy had reached its zenith, the government of Israel announced plans to acquire 75 F-16A/Bs. The fact that Israel had just signed the Camp David agreements withEgypt, however, had established an Israel-friendly climate in Washington, and the acquisition plans were approved.
The first F-16 deliveries to Israel (all 75block 10aircraft, except for 18 F-16As and 8 Bs that were originally built as block 5but had already been converted to Block 10) took place under thePeace Marble IForeign Military Sales program. These planes were originally intended for the Imperial Iranian Air Force, but the demise of the Shah in 1979 and the consequent rise of the Islamic fundamentalist regime caused these planes to be diverted to Israel.
They had a number of internal changes that were unique to Israeli requirements, including the fitting of chaff/flare dispensers. The first IDFAF F-16, together with some other Vipers, was flown to Hill AFB, where initial pilot and ground crew conversion took place.
The first four F-16s, known asNetz(Hawk) in IDFAF service and wearing standard sand/brown/green camouflage colors, arrived in Israel in July of 1980 after an 11 hour delivery flight. IOC was achieved a few weeks later. Although the last 22 of these aircraft were put on hold by the Reagan Administration following the Raid on the Osirak reactor, final deliveries took place in 1981.
UnderPeace Marble II, theTsvah Haganah le Israel / Cheil Haavir(Israel Defense Force/Air Force) was supplied with late-model F-16C/Ds (block 30), the first F-16C of which arrived in October 1987. The first F-16D was received by the IAF on December 21, 1987, and was seen in First Combat squadron colors, carrying the tail number#031. A total of 75 Block 30 aircraft was delivered: 51 F-16Cs and 24 F-16Ds (locally known asBarakor Lightning) and 24 F-16Ds.
Following the cancellation of the indigenous Lavi fighter project in May of 1988, a follow-on order was placed for 60 F-16C/Dblock 40aircraft (30 F-16Cs, 30 F-16Ds), plus an option for 15 more. This was underPeace Marble III. The first of these Fighting Falcons, all nicknamed Barak II, arrived in Israel in August of 1991.
As payment for restraint during the 1991 Gulf War, Israel was provided with 50 surplus USAF F-16A/Bs, all Block 10 aircraft. Contrary to earlier deliveries, these aircraft retained their USAF air superiority gray color scheme at that time. The aircraft are calledNetz IIlocally. The first of these (ex- DO 907th FG and MI 127th FW aircraft) were delivered on August 1st, 1994 under thePeace Marble IVprogram. The delivery was completed in late 1994.
About half of these aircraft were ex-ANG/AFRes aircraft, with the remainder being brought out of storage at Davis-Monthan AFB. The largest batch delivered to Israel were 12 F-16A/Bs from the 157th Fighter Interceptor Squadron from the South CarolinaANG.
These F-16A/Bs will be used primarily for training, but will undergo a number of modifications prior to entering IDFAF service. Further purchases of F-16s by Israel appear likely, probablyblock 50aircraft that are LANTIRN-capable. Some of these might be built under license in Israel by IAI.
IDFAF F-16B #979 was one of 50 surplus USAF F-16A/B block 10s provided to Israel under Peace Marble IV, as compansation for its restraint during Gulf War I. These aircraft originally retained the air superiority grey color scheme and are locally known as Netz II [IDF/AF photo]
On July 1st, 1997, Ilan Biran, director-general of Israels Ministry of Defense, declared Israel intends to purchase a new batch of US fighters (either F-16s or more F-15Is) in early 1998, with deliveries shortly after 2000. The acquisition would proceed under a buy-now, pay-later scheme that essentially will drain Israels annual $1.8 billion US aid account through 2005 or 2006.Three days later, the IDFAF commander Maj. Gen. Eitan Ben-Eliahu declared the IDFAF has a need for 50 to 100 new fighters during the next seven or eight years to replace A-4, F-4 and older F-16 fighters.
Range and quantity are the top two priorities in the estimated $3 billion fighter competition. The latest rumors at that time suggested that Israel planned to buy a supposed number of 30 new F-16, probablyblock 60s with partially-Israeli avionics. Around the same time, F-4Es (that were not upgraded), would phase out from service. The rest of the order would consist of F-15Is then, but if a 2nd batch of F-15Is would prove to be too expensive, then the obvious alternative would be to buy improved F-16Ds.
On September 22nd, 1998, the US Government proposed two alternatives to Israel: either 30 F-15I or 60 F-16C/D aircraft could be acquired. Total value of either deal would be around USD $2.5 billion. In case the IDFAF cannot make up its mind, the US also proposed a mix of the two types. The aircraft will replace the remaining Sky Hawks and Phantoms in service, as well as some of the oldest F-16s. Both F-15Is and F-16C/Ds would be equipped withLANTIRNpods andAIM-120AMRAAM. A final decision was expected end 1998 or beginning 1999, but was repeatedly postponed.
In February 1999, however, Israel raised the stakes in its tender for fighter planes, telling Lockheed Martin Ltd. and Boeing Co it would spend up to $4 billion on the order expected by May, which translates roughly into 110 F-16s. Some air force officials speculated then that Israel would ultimately split the contract, buying some planes from Boeing and some from Lockheed. Aircraft industry sources said Israels Defense Ministry had made a similar request for prices from Boeing. Both companies will issue their final offers in April. Israels Defense Ministry said it expected to award the contract in May of 1999.
Lockheed, which lost the last Israeli aircraft tender to Boeing in 1994, said its single-engine F-16 aircraft could now fly as far as the twin-engine F-15I offered by Boeing. Lockheed has developed attachablefuel tanksthat increased the range of the F-16s radius of operations to 1,500 km (800 miles). Israeli pilots tested the F-16 in the United States in 1999 fitted with the newfuel tanks.
At the end of the tender, on January 14th, 2000, the Israeli government decided to buy 50 F-16Dblock 52, with an option of 60 more, in a purchase worth approximately $2.5 billion. The option, reduced to 52 planes, was exercised on September 4th, 2001, bringing the total to 102 F-16D Block 52s, worth an astonishing $4.5 billion.
On November 14th, 2003, the first (actually the fourth) F-16I (#253) was presented in a roll-out ceremony at LMTAS Fort Worth facility. On February 19th, 2004, the first two F-16Is (#407and#408) landed at the Mizpe Ramon Israel Air Force base in the Negev, after a ferry flight from Forth Worth via the Azores.
Roll-out of the first F-16I Sufa ( #253) for Israel at LMTAS Fort Worth facility on November 14th, 2003. Note the CFTs, dorsal spine, GBU-31 JDAMs, and the numerous bulges and fairings for undisclosed equipment. [ LMTAS photo]
Seventeen technical modifications, designed by the IAF and Israeli military industries, were made to the Israeli F-16A/Bs. Most of them in the software and in the mission computers, which enabled the F-16 to operate the unique weapon systems. Fin-root fairings on early F-16As house the Rapport system.
In 1992 all IAF F-16A/Bs (excluding the latest batch of Netz 2 aircraft) went into an upgrade phase at Israeli Aircraft Industries (IAI), where wings were structurally reinforced, and Elbits advanced flight and mission management system was installed. By the end of this phase, all F-16A/Bs were system equaled with the F-16Cs; however, the engine remained the original F-100.
Externally, the Israeli F-16C differs from other F-16Cs by having an extension to the base of its vertical stabilizer, similar to theNorwegianF-16s parachute brake compartment; however, no parachutes are used on IAF F-16s. Israeli F-16s have extensive local modifications, with different avionics fits and higher gross weights, requiring changes in the landing gearand the use of new wheels. The maximum all-up weight of an Israeli F-16 is 48,000 pounds, as compared to 42,300 pounds for a USAF Block 40 F-16C.
The third batch of F-16C/Ds is fitted with Eltas EL/L-8240 ECM, replacing Lockheed Martin Defense Systems (LMDS, formerly Loral) AN/ALQ-178 Rapport III internal ECM. F-16Cs appear to have largernavigation lightsmountings on the intake. These most likely house electronics. The F-16C/Ds ordered to compensate for the cancelled Lavi Project received Israeli ECM systems (manufactured by Elisra), and flight management computers (made by Elbit).
While the F-16B is a two seat version of the F-16A used for pilot conversion, the Israeli F-16D is completely different from the F-16C. The back seat is reserved for the F-16s Weapon System Operator, just as one can find at the F-4 Phantom. Externally, this fighter differs from other F-16Ds by having a boxlike extension from the cockpit to the vertical stabilizer, referred to as a dorsal spine.
The dorsal fairing was designed, mocked up, fabricated and installed during regular routine assembly while these aircraft were on the production line in Fort Worth. At no time has IAI had anything to do with initial design, fabrication of assemblies or production installation of any dorsal assemblies. The dorsal spine is believed to accommodateWild Weaselequipment (amongst others ElisrasSPS-3000 self-protection jammer) which detects emissions from enemy radar sites and pinpoints their locations, and specialized weapon delivery systems, such as smart bombs guided using the back seats side stick for control. The IDFAF would confirm only that this space is filled with various electronic systems.
According to the IDFAF Magazine, this version of the F-16D is much heavier than the standard production F-16Ds. Its empty weight is 9,525 kg, while the standard version weighs just 7,900 kg. The maximum takeoff weight was extended to 21,770 kg 4,760 kg more than the standard version, a fact made possible by modifications made to thelanding gear. The extent of the modifications called for a different (non-official) model designation, hence the Israeli F-16D was designated IF-16D. As the F-16Cs in service by the IDFAF, the IF-16D is powered by a General Electric F110-GE-100 engine, with an enlarged air intake.
IDF/AF F-16D block 40 #612, showing the enlarged spine and enlarged navlight mounts on the intake. These aircraft were the first production aircraft with the dorsal spine and are supposedly used in a Wild Weasel role [IDF/AF photo]
The F-16I looks radically different from other F-16s, with ConformalFuel Tanks, dorsal spine, and numerous fairings and bulges for undisclosed equipment. Rumor has it that a lot of the equipment is only installed after delivery to Israel.
IDF/AF F-16C/D Fighting Falcons were originally fitted with the Martin-Marietta Sharpshooter pod, which is a downgraded version of the Martin MariettaAN/AAQ-14LANTIRN targeting pod. The Sharpshooter pods were later replaced by the Rafael Litening infrared targeting and navigational pod, and the Sharpshooter pods were transferred to the F-15I Eagles. During the roll-out ceremony, the F-16I carried both Lantirn pods.
In May 1989, the IDFAF revealed an F-16D at Hatsor AFB carrying a AGM-78D Standard ARM missile which was used to attack SyrianSAbatteries during the Peace of Galilee operation in Lebanon, confirming the suspicion that F-16Ds were used in a Wild Weasel role.
The latest batch of IDFAF F-16D Block 52 will be equipped to carry a wide range of modern weapons, including domestically developed ECM equipment. All of the planes will be in a dual-seat configuration with a Weapon Systems Officer in the backseat to operate all of the electronics.
Since the American government had not been consulted in advance about the Osirak attack, the Reagan administration publicly denounced the raid as militarily reckless and temporarily held up a final batch of 22 F-16A/Bs to Israel. However, the embargo was lifted in August of 1981 and deliveries of F-16s to Israel were allowed to continue.
The first fighter kill of the F-16 in the world, took place at July 14th, 1981, when Lieutenant-Colonel Amir Nachumi, the squadrons leader (leader of the second formation during Operation Opera), downed a Syrian MiG-21. During 1982, the period before the Lebanon war, 3 Syrian MiG-21s and 2 Syrian MiG-23s were shot down.
In 1983-84, F-16s played a key role in OperationDrugstore-Artzav 19, an attack on Syrian missile sites in the Bekaa Valley in Lebanon. Numerous missile sites were attacked and destroyed and fierce air battles with Syrian fighters took place. A total of 92 Syrian fighter (more than 30% of total inventory) were shot down, and Israeli F-16s achieved a 44-0 kill ratio.
One aircraft reportedly shot down four Syrian fighters in a single sortie. There is at least one IDFAF F-16 with four Syrian kill-markings on its fuselage.First combat activity of the F-16Cs in the IDFAF took place on April 22nd, 1988, when according toIDFspokesman:
Compared to any other fighter I know, the Barak maintains a very good operational profile, even, as usually is the case, it is flown in a dirty aerodynamically configuration. This fighter is a true breakthrough in power/weight ratio, that allows the airplane to achieve high penetration speeds while keeping high maneuverability.
This fighter could penetrate at low altitudes at speeds exceeding 500 knots (927 km/h) with external loads, while other fighters would not achieve greater speeds than 450 knots (834 km/h), and this has a significant meaning for the fighters survivability and ability to carry out the mission.
The First Jet squadron carries out daily interception alerts, air patrols, training for air to air and air to ground missions. The squadron leader also revealed, that the squadron carried out two serious missions. One of them was a direct attack with iron bombs. This attack turned out to be so accurate, pilots said it might be the end of the era of the smart bombs.
The other mission was an attack carried out at night, when accurate hits were achieved using a radar assisted attack mode, while nonight vision aids were used. Lieutenant-Colonel Y. concluded his assessment of the F-16C fighter by saying:
Take the flying characteristics, its accurate bombing and interception ability, add to it a unique self defense system to give it exceptional survivability in the combat zone, and youve got a nearly perfect fighter!
Yemen Army, Navy(includes Marines), Yemen Air Force (Al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Jamahiriya al Yemeniya; includes Air Defense Force), Republican Guard.Active66,700 (Army 60,000 Navy 1,700 Air Force 3,000, Air Defence 2,000)Paramilitary71,200
SRAAM1286: 176 R-73/AA-11 Archer (For MiG-29SMT); 72 AIM-9E Sidewinder (United States Aid; for F-5E); 606 R-13R/AA-2C Atoll-C ( For MiG-21MF, MiG-23MF, Su-7B and Su-22); 270 R-13R/AA-2C Atoll-C (For MiG-21MF); 72 R-13S/AA-2 Atoll (For MiG-21F); 90 R-13R/AA-2C Atoll-C ( For Su-22)
Note: Republic of Yemen has 17 airports with paved runways (over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 9 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 1) and 38 airports with unpaved runways (over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 914 to 1,523 m: 14 under 914 m:10)
The F-16A/B was the first production version of the Fighting Falcon, the A being the single-seat version and the B being the two-seat version. Aside from the second seat, the A and B versions are essentially identical and have the same performance envelope and armament fit.
Unfortunately, The USAF decided not to use the tried-and-true shorthand for describing minor changes to the Fighting Falcon that are introduced on the production line. Instead, F-16s are referred to by a rather bewildering set of Block Numbers, MSIP stages, and OCUs. The acronym MSIP stands for Multinational Staged Improvement Program, and is a blanket name for a program in which changes are incorporated in the F-16s as they come off the production line, rather than marrying them to a Multi-Stage Improvement Program, as was done for the F-15 Eagle. The acronyms are the same, but the way that the two programs work is quite different.
The two YF-16s and the eight FSD F-16As were immediately followed by the first operational F-16s, designated Block 1. The first F-16A Block 1,#78-0001, made its maiden flight in August 1978, and was delivered to the USAF in that same month. It was assigned to the 388th Tactical Fighter Wing at HillAFB, Utah. A total of 94 Block 1 aircraft rolled off the production line at the Fort Worth facility; they were all delivered to the USAF and the 4 initial European customers (Belgium,Denmark, TheNetherlandsandNorway).
Block 1 F-16s (and the FSD aircraft) can be distinguished from all subsequent Fighting Falcons by a black radome. Between late-1981 and mid-1984 however, these aircraft were brought up toblock 10standard under projects Pacer Loft I (starting 1982) and Pacer Loft II (1983). These upgrades involved the graying of the radomes. Block 1 (andblock 5, 10) aircraft originally had a small horizontal tailplane and a single UHFblade antennaunder the air intake. The larger tail was retrofitted later.
Pilots flying the early Block 1 F-16As complained that the black radome stuck out like a sore thumb during simulated air-to-air combat and made it easy for the enemy to visually acquire the F-16. On Block 5, the gray radome was introduced, which became standard for all later Fighting Falcons. The Block 5 production batch totaled 197 aircraft. These aircraft were also upgraded to Block 10 specifications under Pacer Loft I and II. Block 5 F-16s have the same blade UHF antenna under the intake as the Block 1, as well as the small stabilator. Differences with the Block 1 are inconspicuous, involving modifications to improve reliability and mission-ready rate.
312 Block 10 aircraft were build through 1980. The F-16s still had the blade UHF aerial and small tail. Differences with Block 5 aircraft are again internal improvements with no apparent external modifications. Some USAF Block 10 aircraft were later (1987-1993) retrofitted toblock 15OCUstandard. 24 F-16A/B Block 10 aircraft from the New YorkANGwere briefly modified to carry the GPU-5/A 30mm gun pod (seeCASF-16s). After seeing limited service in Operation Desert Storm, the were converted back to normal Block 10 aircraft.
In November 1981, the Block 15 introduced MSIP Stage I changes to the F-16A/B starting with subblock 15Y and continuing through subblock 15AZ. More than a year earlier, in February 1980, these modifications were already effective on the F-16C/D production. The changes expanded the F-16s growth potential by allowing improved capabilities in the air-to-ground and BVR missions.
One major modification was the addition of two hardpoints to (and structural strengthening of) the chin of the inlet, designated hardpoints 5L and 5R. To offset the shift in center of gravity caused by the weight of these two additional hardpoints (and eventual stores attached to them), the extended horizontal stabilator (the so-called big tail, 30% increase in area), was fitted. The new tail also provided better stability and more authority for out-of-control situations. It changed lift-off rotation speeds and allowed stable flight at higher angles of attack.
The AN/APG-66 radar on the Block 15 Fighting Falcons was provided with an early version of a track-while-scan mode for greater air defense capability. The F-16s were also equipped with Have Quick I secure UHF radios, and internal provisions for the AIM-7 were made. Additional structural strengthening was performed to allow an extra 1000 pounds of ordnance to be carried on the underwing points. Last but not least, pilot comfort was enhanced by improving the cockpit air conditioning.
The production run of the Block 15, saw 983 aircraft produced over a 14 year time-span, and took place on 3 production lines. The first Block 15 F-16 (#80-0541, the 330th F-16 built) rolled out in 1982. In 1996, the last block 15 was delivered toThailand, the 11th Block 15 customer. Early USAF Block 15 aircraft were later (1987-1993) retrofitted to Block 15OCU specifications.
214 aircraft from Block 15Y onwards received upgraded systems starting late-1987. Designated Block 15OCU (Operational Capability Upgrade), these aircraft are powered by the more reliable F100-PW-220 turbofan. These aircraft also have structural strengthening and are provided with the enlarged HUD that was first introduced on the F-16C/D.
Also incorporated are the capability to fire theNorwegianPenguin Mk.3 anti-shipping missile (built by Kongsberg, US designation AGM-119) and theAGM-65, provisions for theAIM-120AMRAAM,radar altimeter, expanded computer capacity, data transfer unit, wide-angle HUD, AN/APX-101 IFF, Tracor AN/ALE-40 chaff/flare dispenser and provisions for the AN/ALQ-131 ECM pod. These modifications increased the max. TO weight to 37,500lbs (17,010kg). The first Block 15OCU was delivered in January 1988, and from 1988 onwards, all Block 15s were built to OCU specifications.
The 150 F-16A/B Block 15OCUs forTaiwanare built to MLU standards and are designated Block 20. The Block 20 designation was reserved in the 1980s. It was later assigned to the Taiwanese aircraft and to the MLU program initiated to bring the European F-16s to an enhanced level, comparable with theblock 50F-16s of the USAF.
The early versions of theF-16 Fighting Falconwere equipped with a comprehensive avionics suite, involving a Westinghouse AN/APG-66 pulse-Doppler fire-control radar, a Singer-Kearfott SKN-2400 INS, UHV/VHF comms suite, ILS, TACAN, a Dalmo Victor AN/ALR-69 RWR, GEC Marconi Avionics HUD and a Sperry central air data computer. The F-16A/B was initially powered by the F100-PW-200 turbofan, rated at 12,240 lb.s.t. dry, 14,670 lb.s.t. full military, and 23,830 lb.s.t. with afterburning. Production F-16s have the standard ACES II ejection seats.
As mentioned before, Pacer Loft I & II saw the Block 1 and 5 models upgraded to Block 10 standard. Between late-1987 and late-1993, some USAF Block 10 and early Block 15 aircraft were upgraded to Block 15OCU standard. Between 1991 and 1996, earlier models of the F-16 with the -200 engines had them upgraded to -220E standard, providing capabilities and lifespan comparable to the Block 15OCU -220 engine.
From 1994, British Aerospace Systems & Equipment TERPROM (Terrain Profile Matching) software was installed in ANG and AFRES F-16s. TERPROM minimalizes the ground collision danger. In October 1986, the USAF decided that remaining F-16As would be modified as Air Defence Fighters (F-16ADF) for the Air National Guard.
The four original European customers of the F-16 are now upgrading their F-16 Block 15s in the MLU program, whilst several other countries are also considering this upgrade. Other upgrades are provided byIsraelandSingapore, who developed their own upgrade programs for earlier F-16 models. These upgrade programs are called respectively ACE (Avionics Capabilities Enhancement) and Falcon One. So far, no customers are found for these two programs.
Since 1988, all Foreign Military Sales (FMS) aircraft received some features of the F-16C/D, including a RLG (Ring Laser Gyro)/INS, AN-ALR-69 RWR, the -220 engine and provisions for the AIM-9P-4Sidewinder.
Production for the USAF totaled 674 F-16As and 121 F-16Bs, and was completed in March 1985. Of these two F-16As (#82-0966,#82-0974) were built by Fokker and four F-16Bs (#82-1031,#82-1035,#82-1036,#82-1039) were built by SABCA. The remainder were built by Fort Worth.
Fort Worth built 67 F-16As for Israel, 39 forEgypt, 28 forPakistan, plus a second batch of 11 which have not yet been delivered, 18 forVenezuela, 8 for Thailand, 4 for Singapore, 8 forIndonesiaand 12 for Singapore. Fort Worth also built 8 F-16Bs for Israel, 9 for Egypt, 12 for Pakistan (including four built by Fokker), 6 for Venezuela, 4 for Singapore, 4 for Thailand and 4 for Indonesia.
In the initial European order, SABCA built 96 F-16As for the Belgian Air Force (serials#FA-01till#FA-96) at Gosselies. The last example was delivered on April 28th, 1985, this aircraft being the final aircraft on the originalNATOF-16 order for 348 planes. A second order for 40 (#FA-97till#FA-136) was completed in 1991. Forty six were built for Denmark (serials#E-174till#E-203). SABCA built 24 F-16Bs for Belgium (serials#FB-01till#FB-24) and 16 for Denmark (serials#ET-204till#ET-211,#ET-0197till#ET-199and#ET-022).
Fokker built an initial batch of 40 F-16As for the Netherlands Air Force (serials#J-212till#J-258and#J-616till#J-648). Orders have since been increased to a total of 167 (serials#J-864till#J-881,#J-358till#J-367,#J-136till#J-146,#J-054till#J-063,#J-508till#J-514,#J-001till#J-012and#J-013till#J-021). The last 20 on the order were designated F-16A(R) and were capable of carrying an Oude Delft Orpheus sensor pod on the fuselage centerline station. This variant was first flown on January 27th, 1983.
Fokker also built two F-16As for the USAF, sixty for Norway and an initial batch of 22 F-16Bs for the Netherlands (serials#J-259till#J-271,#J-649till#J-657) plus at least fourteen more (serials#J-882,#J-884and#J-885,#J-208till#J-211,#J-368and#J-369,#J-064and#J-065,#J-515and#J-516). One example was delivered to Egypt and 12 F-16Bs were delivered to Norway. Two of the original batch for the Netherlands were completed as F-16B(R) and were capable of carrying the underfuselage Orpheus reconnaissance pod.
The Saudis are leading a military intervention in Yemen in which the UAE, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Sudan are taking part. This intervention began overnight 25-26/3/2015 with Saudi-led airstrikes against the Houthi rebels. Preliminary reports from Riyadh suggest that a Saudi squadron of 10 aircraft of type F-15 and 12 aircraft of type Tornado launched the first airstrikes against the Houthi rebels in Sanaa.
These airstrikes targeted the headquarters of the Air Intelligence command and destroyed 4 Russian-made ground attack aircraft of type SU-22, an anti-aircraft battery of type SAM-6 and some anti-aircraft guns of type ZSU-23 and ZU-23. The Royal Saudi Air Force (RSAF) is said to have had orders to destroy an anti-aircraft battery thought to have been sent a week ago by Iran to the Houthi groups, but there is no mention if the mission was accomplished.
Houthi sources admit that the airstrikes destroyed an aircraft of type SU-22 and a helicopter of type Mil Mi-8, but deny that the airstrikes destroyed an anti-aircraft missile system. According to the same sources, the results of the first Saudi raids show that the Saudis are lacking accurate intelligence data, notably about the locations of the Houthi political leaders or the security and military commanders.
Yemen is a key battleground in Americas war on terror, and the government of Yemen an important ally.Precision attacks on al Qaeda and its associates are often attributed to the Yemen AirForce. But on closer inspection the countrys air force appears to be barely functional.
Extensive data collected by the Bureau of Investigative Journalism reveals at least eight airstrikes launched against alleged al Qaeda militant targets in southern Yemen, reportedly killing a minimum of 102 people. But local sources and Western experts describe the Yemeni air force as decrepit and inadequate, in part due to corruption.
According to theInternational Institute of Strategic Studies(IISS) the Yemeni Air Force has insufficient equipment and training to defend its own airspace. Yemeni analyst Abdul Ghani Iryani says endemic corruption means the air force has not been functioning in ages.
The stories of corruption are phenomenal, he says. Pilots cannot fly at night because corruption in military procurement means they dont havethe navigation instruments. In 2011, Yemeni officials supported this assertion when they confirmed a July14 strike was carried out by US drones, telling theAssociated Press Yemeni planes are not equipped for night strikes.
Low morale Recent events have shown thatmorale and discipline in the Yemeni Air Force have collapsed almost entirely. On January 22, pilots and ground crew wenton strike. For two months around 2,000 of the air forces 3,000 men took to the streets, protesting against corruption and nepotism.
Yet the Yemeni Air Force carries on claimingUS airstrikes as its own. A diplomatic cable released byWikiLeaksexposes this deception. While discussing the US-Yemeni counterterrorism campaign with General David Petraeus, former President Ali Abdullah Saleh is quoted as saying: Well continue saying the bombs are ours, not yours.
Journalist Sharon Weinberger found the air force was barely functioning while reporting forAviation Weekon the protesting airmen in the capital, Sanaa. My impression was that the air force as a whole is on the verge of breaking down, she later told the Bureau.
The air force is a hodge-podge mix of former Soviet equipment with some from the US, Weinberger told the Bureau: keeping the planes in the air is a challenge, she added. And spare parts for some aircraft are hard to come by a number are so old the manufacturers may no longer exist.
This is despite the US giving Yemen $326m (205m) in security assistance between 2007 and 2011.The majority of this was directed at maintaining transport planes and helicopters, says Katherine Zimmerman of the American Enterprise Institute. But the USGovernment Accountability Officereports some of the aid to Yemens armed forces goes towards sustaining a handfull of its serviceable F-5 fighter aircraft.
The US has provided training and equipment across Yemens armed services. Much of the air forces portion goes towards providing spare and replacement parts, says Zimmerman. But Yemeni personnel travel to the US fortraining, andWeinberger understands American personnel have been in and out of Sanaa to evaluate the Yemen Air Forces C-130 Hercules transport plane.
US special forces are active in Yemen, and last year amid reports of a new drone base being built on the Arabian Peninsula, there wasspeculationthat the Obama administration was building it in Yemen. But Weinberger does not believe American jets or drones are flying out of bases in Yemen.
Alan Warnes, chief correspondent for AirForces Monthly, cites Camp Lemonnier, in Djibouti, as a possible source of US airstrikes. He says the base in the nearby East African state is home to six American F-15 strike fighters.
In 2004 and 2005 Yemen bought 20 Russian MiG-29s. As they were purchased as upgrades rather than new aircraft it is hard to say how much Yemen paid, says Scott Johnson of defence analystsJanes. But he estimates each plane could cost around $40m. Yemens most advanced aircraft are its 16 MiG-29s. The Russian jets can carry the guided weapons so-called smart bombs necessary for precision strikes.
In 2010 Human Rights Watch (HRW)reportedit was not known if Yemen had bought guided weapons; but the same report says the government of Yemen used unguided dumb bombs while fighting Houthi rebels in the north of the country.
Waging a protracted war for secession in north eastern Yemen, Houthi rebels have been battling government forces for the last eight years. In a comprehensive report on the conflict, American defence think tank theRand Corporationdescribes the governments tactics as uncoordinated.
The Yemen government used planes as flying artillery, the report said. Individual aircraft flew sorties against static targets. In several instances, the report says, civilian casualties were caused by aircraft bombing mountainous areas and villages suspected of supporting Houthis.
Yemens air force does not have much capacity for precision strikes against al Qaeda, Warnes believes. Flying night missions would probably be beyond its ability as well. The only aircraft they have capable of night flying would be quite antiquated fighters, he says. I think its the Americans who are doing it rather than the Yemenis.
The bulk of the attacks on militants are carried out by somebody else, agrees Iryani. But according toJanes, Yemen does possess two kinds of guided missiles, carried by helicopters. The Soviet-era AT-2 Swatter, which came into service in the 1960s, and the AT-6 Spiral, first deployed in the early 1970s. It is not known how many the Yemenis have or how old their stockpiles are.
These missiles could be deployed on the Yemenis eight Russian Mi-35 Hind attack helicopters. But there is no indication these are in better shape than the fixed wing aircraft. Furthermore, there are no reports of helicopter strikes in the Bureaus data.
When fighting the Houthi rebellion the Yemeni government was unwilling to use its helicopters for anything other than logistics according to the Rand Corporation report. This was out of fear of losing an aircraft to small-arms fire. And that would be a loss the already depleted Yemeni Air Force would find hard to bear.