tertiary crushing of iron ore america

iron ore dressing_iron ore processing_iron ore production line - shanghai sanme mining machinery corp., ltd

Iron usually exists in compound, especially in iron oxide. There are over 10 kinds of iron ore in nature. The iron ore with industrial application mainly consists of magnetite ore, hematite ore and martite; secondly in siderite, limonite, etc. The iron ore is one of the most important raw materials for steel production enterprise.

The grade of iron ore refers to the mass fraction of iron element in iron ore, say, the iron content. For example, if the grade of iron ore is 62, the mass fraction of iron element is 62%. Through crushing, grinding, magnetic separation, flotation separation and re-election, the iron can be selected from the natural iron ore.

According to the kind and characteristic of ore, there are many different processes for iron ore dressing. In general, ore dressing plant may use primary, secondary and tertiary crushing processes for crushing iron ore. Jaw crusher is usually used for primary crushing; cone crusher is used for secondary and tertiary crushing. Through primary crushing, and then by secondary and tertiary crushing, ore will be crushed to the suitable size for feeding ball mill.

Iron ore will be evenly conveyed by vibrating feeder to jaw crusher for primary crushing, the crushed material will be conveyed by belt conveyor to cone crusher for further crushing, material after being crushed will be conveyed to vibrating screen for screening, and material with qualified particle size will be conveyed by belt conveyor to final product pile; material with unqualified particle size will be back from vibrating screen to cone crusher for secondary and tertiary crushing, to achieve a closed circuit. Particle size of final product can be combined and graded according to the requirement of client.

The iron ore dressing and crushing production line has the features of high automation, low operation cost, fine particle size, energy saving and environment protection. Sanme can provide customers with comprehensive process solution and technical support, and also can design non-standard parts according to the actual installation conditions of customer.

4. SANME can provide technological process plans and technical support according to the actual requirements of customers, and can also design non-standard supporting components according to the actual installation conditions of customers.

tertiary screening and crushing of iron ore

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tertiary crushed ore screen The Roy Hill Project is a 55 million tonne per annum Mtpa iron ore mining rail stockpiling screening and exporting 55Mtpa wet of direct shipped iron ore as tertiary crushing three trains complete with gyratory cone crushers and belt

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2014-04-03 For beneficiation of a particular iron ore the emphasis is usually to develop a cost effective flow sheet incorporating necessary crushing, grinding, screening and beneficiating techniques which are necessary for the upgrading of the iron ore.

Iron Ore Primary Ary And Tertiary Gold Ore. Iron ore primarysecondary and tertiary crusher Iron Ore Exxaro Presently only material with an iron content of greater than 60Fe is fed to the plant Open pit ore is crushed via a primary gyratory crusher and two secondary is conveyed overland to the closed circuit tertiary crushing and screening plant Crusher Get price Live Chat

Iron Ore Tertiary Crushers - ia-Suknie . Iron ore tertiary crushers.Iron ore tertiary crusher tertiary crusher mining machinery tertiary crusher is widely used for the fine crushing of many kinds of minerals such as granite basalt limestone river cobble cement clinker quartz stone iron ore and bauxite and at the same time it can also be used for producing excellent stone materials in ...

Iron Ore Primary 2 Secondary And Tertiary Crusher. Portable iron ore primary crushing and screening plant 2 days ago sanme mining machinery crushers in general ore dressing plant may use primary secondary and tertiary crushing processes for crushing iron oreaw crusher is usually used jaw crusher is used as primary crushern the iron ore crushing plant it can crush iron ore

crushing and screen circuits iron ore - YouTube. Aug 29, 2016 The most commonly used crushers and grinding mills in iron ore crushing and grinding process for horizontal shaft impactor for iron ore crushing, SBM SBM is one of the biggest manufacturers in.

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Primary to tertiary crushing, wet screening, jigging, WHIMS, HPGR, ... Mining equipment for iron ore crushing and screening - Stone Crusher In the iron ore crushing and screening process, mining equipment can be divided two stage iron ore of primary crushing and secondary crushing.

Iron Ore Tertiary Crushers - ia-Suknie . Iron ore tertiary crushers.Iron ore tertiary crusher tertiary crusher mining machinery tertiary crusher is widely used for the fine crushing of many kinds of minerals such as granite basalt limestone river cobble cement clinker quartz stone iron ore and bauxite and at the same time it can also be used for producing excellent stone .

Iron Ore Tertiary Crushingin Uganda. Tertiary iron ore crushing as a leading global manufacturer of crushing grinding and mining equipments iron ore screening crushing united arab emirates page 1 secondary and tertiary ball milltertiary screening and flotation machine of iron ore for secondary and tertiary crushing in the mineral and iron ore tertiary.

Tph Iron Ore Screen And Crushing Plant Grinding Mill China. We are a professional mechanical equipment manufacturer, we provide original parts, service solutions, extensive training and extensive wear, crushing chambers and screening media solutions to reduce operating costs, improve product quality and maximum productivity.

Fully designed, constructed, and installation of Iron Ore Crushing plant (Secondary & Tertiary sections) Design of plant to produce 1200 TPH of Iron Ore Engineering & Design of the complete Screen Structure 6 off Screens

Sep 25 2018 The crushing grinding and screening system for the beneficiation of the iron ore is to be designed taking into account the requirements of the downstream beneficiation processes The crushing units may include primary secondary tertiary and quaternary crushing units Jaw gyratory cone and roll crushers are used for ore crushing

5 5 ft iron ore crushing equipment. New used rock crushers for saleiron ore crushing savona equipment is a new and used iron ore crushing equipment supplier for large primary ore crushing secondary and tertiary fine material as well as crushing equipment for aggregate production we hav...

Iron Ore Screening And Crushing Companies. We are a professional mechanical equipment manufacturer, we provide original parts, service solutions, extensive training and extensive wear, crushing chambers and screening media solutions to reduce operating costs, improve product quality and maximum productivity.

Iron Ore Crushing Primary/Secondary ... Tertiary Crushing Cone High Pressure Grinding Roll (HPGR) Crushing Techniques. Cone Crushing vs. HPGR ... performance HPGR Better liberation in tertiary capacity Crushing Techniques. Iron Ore Screening. Hematite Coarse (-32+8mm) Medium (-8+1mm) Fine (-1mm+212 / 75mm ...

10 Most Popular Iron Ore Beneficiation Machines | The ball mill is the key equipment for the grinding of iron ore after crushing, and the grinding process is the important process of iron ore sorting. Ball mill can grind iron ore from 25mm to mesh, and with high grinding efficiency, it .

Open pit ore is crushed via a primary gyratory crusher and two secondary .. is conveyed overland to the closed circuit tertiary crushing and screening plant. iron ore secondary crushing equipment . primary iron ore crusher . Iron ore mining process, iron ore mining equipment, iron ore mining machine, Iron ore crusher,,2014414-About primary ...

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Not only were there fewer natural fines in the ROM stockpiles than expected, but the concentration of iron within the ore was also proving lower than expected. This meant that many of the 170ton stockpiles produced would not be accepted by the smelter, making all the crushing and screening being done on-site was not producing sellable product.

Iron Ore Tertiary Crushing In Malaysia. Alat peremuk tertiary crusher indonesia. A crusher is a machine designed to reduce large rocks into smaller rocks gravel or rock dust When used with jaw crusher it can be used as secondary tertiary or quaternary crushing Generally speaking the standard type of eniths cone.

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Mobile Crushing and Screening Plant Appliions for Small to . Sized Iron Ore Projects. Presented by Damian Cone or impact crushers are used for secondary/tertiary crushing Source: Mining Technology website (2012 ). Get Price; Paraburdoo Iron Ore Mine, Pilbara - Mining Technology. The Paraburdoo iron ore project is an open-pit operation which Get ...

Iron ore mining process and iron ore mining equipments Mining and processing of iron ore involves coarse crushing and screening Iron ore is beneficiated by crushing and then separating the iron from the gangue minerals through screening This is usually so efficient that lower grade ore can be treated especially when the magnetite is quite ...

iron ore crusher price, crushing machine for iron ore beneficiation

Iron ore beneficiation begins with the milling of extracted ore in preparation for further operations to recoveriron values. Milling operations are designed to produce uniform size particles by crushing, grinding,and wet or dry classification. The capital investment and operation costs of milling equipment are high.

Crushing is a multistage process and may use dry iron ore feed. Typically, primary crushing andscreening take place at the mine site. Primary crushing is accomplished by using jaw crusher or gyratorycrushers. Primary crushing yields chunks of ore ranging in size from 6 to 10 inches. Oversize material is passed through additional secondary crushers and classifiers to achieve the desired particlesize.

In iron ore beneficiation operation, the raw iron ore materials will be first reduced to small particle size. It may require crushing the material tomaximize the production of minus 2mm. According to SBMs experience in crushing technology, we recommended the installation of acone crusher to reduce the minus 100mm pebblesand a VSI crusher machine to fine crush the cone crusherproduct.

The iron ore crushers with low price are also used in the industrial minerals, mining, recycling and general quarrying industries. A widerange of materials are processed through SBM iron crushers worldwide. SBM experts can customize crushing solution in iron ore beneficiation according to your requirements. Here are some popular iron ore crusher machine types. Please contact us for more information.

According to different final products applications, varioustypes of crusher equipment are required, such as jaw crusher for primary crushing, impact crusher and hammer crusher for secondary crushing, cone crusher for secondary and tertiary crushing. Iron ore crusher prices are different according to crusher types and production capacities.

The VSI crusher for iron ore beneficiation uses a unique rock-on-rockcrushing action whereby the feed materialgrinds and impacts against itself, minimizingwear costs and maintenance down-time. Thisis especially important in applications such asiron ore processing where the feed material istypically hard and abrasive and wear costs arepotentially very high.

Jaw Crusher Jaw crusher is available with stationary, mobile and portable applications. The jaw crushers combine a high reduction ratio and increased capacity with any feed materials: from extra hard rock to recycled materials. This is achieved through several unique features such as higher crushing speed, optimized kinematics, a longer stroke and easy adjustment.

Impact Crusher Impact crushers are based upon several decades of experience with the impact method. We offer a complete range of impact crushers for stationary, semi-mobile fully mobile applications in both primary and secondary crushing.

Cone Crusher Cone crusher is a stationary crusher. These crushers are hydraulic pressure crushers designed to crush a high ratio for high productivity. Cone crushers are ideal for secondary and fine crushing.

jaw crusher and cone crusher used in bolivia mineral mobile crushing plant

Bolivia is one of the world famous commodity exporters and the industry is not developed. Agriculture and animal husbandry products can meet most of the domestic demand. It is one of the poorest countries in South America. Since 1985, Bolivia successive governments push new liberal economic policies to stable macroeconomic and to adjust the economic structure. Reducing state intervention and legislation of major state-owned enterprises implement capitalization. Economic reform to achieve a certain result, national economy maintains growth and inflation is contained.

Mining is an important part of Bolivia national economy. As one of the commodity exporters, Bolivia is rich in mineral resources, tin, antimony, tungsten, silver, zinc, lead, copper, nickel, iron, etc. Tin reserves of 1.15 million tons, and iron reserves of about 45 billion tons. It is the second only after Brazil in Latin America. Proven oil reserve is 929 million barrels, 52.3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. Forest covers an area of 50 square kilometers, accounting for 48% of the land area. Proven oil reserve has 188 million barrels and 1.13 trillion cubic meters of natural gas. Coca cultivation in Bolivia occupies the important position in national economy.

Bolivia iron ore mining industry needs the high quality and efficient crushing plant to process iron ore into the final products. Mobile mineral crushing plant is popular in Bolivia. The mobile crushing plant can be divided into 150-300 tph crushing line, 350-450 tph crushing line, 500-600 tph crushing line and the 600-800 tph crushing line. Depending on the different working machine, it has the mobile jaw crushing plant, mobile cone crushing plant and mobile impact crushing plant.

Mobile crushing plants are built ready-mounted on their own travel equipment. It is SBM that pioneered mobile crushing plants, thereby making it possible to crush minerals directly at the site of extraction and synchronize to the rate of mining advance, into sizes ready for conveyor transport. Each crushing plant comes ready to operate with its own feed hopper, feed conveyor, discharge conveyor and material transfer belt. The size and design of the crusher naturally depends upon the work that it is intended for.

600-800 tph mobile crushing production line is definitely kind of large-scale stone crushing plant. PE series jaw crusher has the capacity 250-800 tph is used as primary crushing machine. Besides this crushing plant, SBM also produces other types for the high production requirements. What's more, you can also choose our new European jaw crushing machine. Secondary crushing equipment adopts the HPC cone crusher whose capacity is 150-450 tph. Tertiary crushing equipment adopts VSI crusher as tertiary crushing equipment.

As the above mentioned, Bolivia has abundant iron ore. Of course, it will need lots of jaw crusher in the mobile crushing plant. Almost every ore mining, it will be used jaw crusher, which is the first step for ore crushing, and jaw crusher has a great crushing ratio, uniform end products, simple structure, reliable operation, easy maintenance, operating costs and economic etc. In order to adapt to different types of mineral resources, SBM is one of jaw crusher manufacturers in China and it has developed different types of jaw crushers: with PE jaw crusher and PEW jaw crusher. With over 25 years as a reputable jaw crusher manufacturer in China, SBM solemnly state that our jaw crusher and a range of other products have reliable quality.

Besides iron ore, gold ore is the other wide mineral in Bolivia. Gold ore's hardness decides that it will be processed by cone crusher. As we all know, cone crusher is the most widely used crushing machine for ore mining industry. Cone crusher can process the gold ore in the secondary crushing stage for the whole line.

Gold ore mobile cone crusher used in Bolivia has high capacity and yield. Easy and cost-effective maintenance and flexibility application decide that this kind of crusher machine got high reputation from local clients. SBM also provides the durable original equipment manufacturer wear parts for you all to ensure that your production line will be successful.

iron processing | britannica

iron processing, use of a smelting process to turn the ore into a form from which products can be fashioned. Included in this article also is a discussion of the mining of iron and of its preparation for smelting.

Iron (Fe) is a relatively dense metal with a silvery white appearance and distinctive magnetic properties. It constitutes 5 percent by weight of the Earths crust, and it is the fourth most abundant element after oxygen, silicon, and aluminum. It melts at a temperature of 1,538 C (2,800 F).

Iron is allotropicthat is, it exists in different forms. Its crystal structure is either body-centred cubic (bcc) or face-centred cubic (fcc), depending on the temperature. In both crystallographic modifications, the basic configuration is a cube with iron atoms located at the corners. There is an extra atom in the centre of each cube in the bcc modification and in the centre of each face in the fcc. At room temperature, pure iron has a bcc structure referred to as alpha-ferrite; this persists until the temperature is raised to 912 C (1,674 F), when it transforms into an fcc arrangement known as austenite. With further heating, austenite remains until the temperature reaches 1,394 C (2,541 F), at which point the bcc structure reappears. This form of iron, called delta-ferrite, remains until the melting point is reached.

The pure metal is malleable and can be easily shaped by hammering, but apart from specialized electrical applications it is rarely used without adding other elements to improve its properties. Mostly it appears in iron-carbon alloys such as steels, which contain between 0.003 and about 2 percent carbon (the majority lying in the range of 0.01 to 1.2 percent), and cast irons with 2 to 4 percent carbon. At the carbon contents typical of steels, iron carbide (Fe3C), also known as cementite, is formed; this leads to the formation of pearlite, which in a microscope can be seen to consist of alternate laths of alpha-ferrite and cementite. Cementite is harder and stronger than ferrite but is much less malleable, so that vastly differing mechanical properties are obtained by varying the amount of carbon. At the higher carbon contents typical of cast irons, carbon may separate out as either cementite or graphite, depending on the manufacturing conditions. Again, a wide range of properties is obtained. This versatility of iron-carbon alloys leads to their widespread use in engineering and explains why iron is by far the most important of all the industrial metals.

There is evidence that meteorites were used as a source of iron before 3000 bc, but extraction of the metal from ores dates from about 2000 bc. Production seems to have started in the copper-producing regions of Anatolia and Persia, where the use of iron compounds as fluxes to assist in melting may have accidentally caused metallic iron to accumulate on the bottoms of copper smelting furnaces. When iron making was properly established, two types of furnace came into use. Bowl furnaces were constructed by digging a small hole in the ground and arranging for air from a bellows to be introduced through a pipe or tuyere. Stone-built shaft furnaces, on the other hand, relied on natural draft, although they too sometimes used tuyeres. In both cases, smelting involved creating a bed of red-hot charcoal to which iron ore mixed with more charcoal was added. Chemical reduction of the ore then occurred, but, since primitive furnaces were incapable of reaching temperatures higher than 1,150 C (2,100 F), the normal product was a solid lump of metal known as a bloom. This may have weighed up to 5 kilograms (11 pounds) and consisted of almost pure iron with some entrapped slag and pieces of charcoal. The manufacture of iron artifacts then required a shaping operation, which involved heating blooms in a fire and hammering the red-hot metal to produce the desired objects. Iron made in this way is known as wrought iron. Sometimes too much charcoal seems to have been used, and iron-carbon alloys, which have lower melting points and can be cast into simple shapes, were made unintentionally. The applications of this cast iron were limited because of its brittleness, and in the early Iron Age only the Chinese seem to have exploited it. Elsewhere, wrought iron was the preferred material.

Although the Romans built furnaces with a pit into which slag could be run off, little change in iron-making methods occurred until medieval times. By the 15th century, many bloomeries used low shaft furnaces with water power to drive the bellows, and the bloom, which might weigh over 100 kilograms, was extracted through the top of the shaft. The final version of this kind of bloomery hearth was the Catalan forge, which survived in Spain until the 19th century. Another design, the high bloomery furnace, had a taller shaft and evolved into the 3-metre- (10-foot-) high Stckofen, which produced blooms so large they had to be removed through a front opening in the furnace.

The blast furnace appeared in Europe in the 15th century when it was realized that cast iron could be used to make one-piece guns with good pressure-retaining properties, but whether its introduction was due to Chinese influence or was an independent development is unknown. At first, the differences between a blast furnace and a Stckofen were slight. Both had square cross sections, and the main changes required for blast-furnace operation were an increase in the ratio of charcoal to ore in the charge and a taphole for the removal of liquid iron. The product of the blast furnace became known as pig iron from the method of casting, which involved running the liquid into a main channel connected at right angles to a number of shorter channels. The whole arrangement resembled a sow suckling her litter, and so the lengths of solid iron from the shorter channels were known as pigs.

Despite the military demand for cast iron, most civil applications required malleable iron, which until then had been made directly in a bloomery. The arrival of blast furnaces, however, opened up an alternative manufacturing route; this involved converting cast iron to wrought iron by a process known as fining. Pieces of cast iron were placed on a finery hearth, on which charcoal was being burned with a plentiful supply of air, so that carbon in the iron was removed by oxidation, leaving semisolid malleable iron behind. From the 15th century on, this two-stage process gradually replaced direct iron making, which nevertheless survived into the 19th century.

By the middle of the 16th century, blast furnaces were being operated more or less continuously in southeastern England. Increased iron production led to a scarcity of wood for charcoal and to its subsequent replacement by coal in the form of cokea discovery that is usually credited to Abraham Darby in 1709. Because the higher strength of coke enabled it to support a bigger charge, much larger furnaces became possible, and weekly outputs of 5 to 10 tons of pig iron were achieved.

Next, the advent of the steam engine to drive blowing cylinders meant that the blast furnace could be provided with more air. This created the potential problem that pig iron production would far exceed the capacity of the finery process. Accelerating the conversion of pig iron to malleable iron was attempted by a number of inventors, but the most successful was the Englishman Henry Cort, who patented his puddling furnace in 1784. Cort used a coal-fired reverberatory furnace to melt a charge of pig iron to which iron oxide was added to make a slag. Agitating the resultant puddle of metal caused carbon to be removed by oxidation (together with silicon, phosphorus, and manganese). As a result, the melting point of the metal rose so that it became semisolid, although the slag remained quite fluid. The metal was then formed into balls and freed from as much slag as possible before being removed from the furnace and squeezed in a hammer. For a short time, puddling furnaces were able to provide enough iron to meet the demands for machinery, but once again blast-furnace capacity raced ahead as a result of the Scotsman James Beaumont Nielsens invention in 1828 of the hot-blast stove for preheating blast air and the realization that a round furnace performed better than a square one.

The eventual decline in the use of wrought iron was brought about by a series of inventions that allowed furnaces to operate at temperatures high enough to melt iron. It was then possible to produce steel, which is a superior material. First, in 1856, Henry Bessemer patented his converter process for blowing air through molten pig iron, and in 1861 William Siemens took out a patent for his regenerative open-hearth furnace. In 1879 Sidney Gilchrist Thomas and Percy Gilchrist adapted the Bessemer converter for use with phosphoric pig iron; as a result, the basic Bessemer, or Thomas, process was widely adopted on the continent of Europe, where high-phosphorus iron ores were abundant. For about 100 years, the open-hearth and Bessemer-based processes were jointly responsible for most of the steel that was made, before they were replaced by the basic oxygen and electric-arc furnaces.

Apart from the injection of part of the fuel through tuyeres, the blast furnace has employed the same operating principles since the early 19th century. Furnace size has increased markedly, however, and one large modern furnace can supply a steelmaking plant with up to 10,000 tons of liquid iron per day.

Throughout the 20th century, many new iron-making processes were proposed, but it was not until the 1950s that potential substitutes for the blast furnace emerged. Direct reduction, in which iron ores are reduced at temperatures below the metals melting point, had its origin in such experiments as the Wiberg-Soderfors process introduced in Sweden in 1952 and the HyL process introduced in Mexico in 1957. Few of these techniques survived, and those that did were extensively modified. Another alternative iron-making method, smelting reduction, had its forerunners in the electric furnaces used to make liquid iron in Sweden and Norway in the 1920s. The technique grew to include methods based on oxygen steelmaking converters using coal as a source of additional energy, and in the 1980s it became the focus of extensive research and development activity in Europe, Japan, and the United States.

crusher - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Roll crushers are generally not used as primary crushers for hard ores. Even for softer ores, like chalcocite and chalcopyrite they have been used as secondary crushers. Choke feeding is not advisable as it tends to produce particles of irregular size. Both open and closed circuit crushing are employed. For close circuit the product is screened with a mesh size much less than the set.

Fig. 6.4 is a typical set up where ore crushed in primary and secondary crushers are further reduced in size by a rough roll crusher in open circuit followed by finer size reduction in a closed circuit by roll crusher. Such circuits are chosen as the feed size to standard roll crushers normally do not exceed 50mm.

Cone crushers were originally designed and developed by Symons around 1920 and therefore are often described as Symons cone crushers. As the mechanism of crushing in these crushers are similar to gyratory crushers their designs are similar, but in this case the spindle is supported at the bottom of the gyrating cone instead of being suspended as in larger gyratory crushers. Fig. 5.3 is a schematic diagram of a cone crusher. The breaking head gyrates inside an inverted truncated cone. These crushers are designed so that the head to depth ratio is larger than the standard gyratory crusher and the cone angles are much flatter and the slope of the mantle and the concaves are parallel to each other. The flatter cone angles helps to retain the particles longer between the crushing surfaces and therefore produce much finer particles. To prevent damage to the crushing surfaces, the concave or shell of the crushers are held in place by strong springs or hydraulics which yield to permit uncrushable tramp material to pass through.

The secondary crushers are designated as Standard cone crushers having stepped liners and tertiary Short Head cone crushers, which have smoother crushing faces and steeper cone angles of the breaking head. The approximate distance of the annular space at the discharge end designates the size of the cone crushers. A brief summary of the design characteristics is given in Table 5.4 for crusher operation in open circuit and closed circuit situations.

The Standard cone crushers are for normal use. The Short Head cone crushers are designed for tertiary or quaternary crushing where finer product is required. These crushers are invariably operated in closed circuit. The final product sizes are fine, medium or coarse depending on the closed set spacing, the configuration of the crushing chamber and classifier performance, which is always installed in parallel.

For finer product sizes, i.e. less than 6mm, special cone crushers known as Gyradisc crushers are available. The operation is similar to the standard cone crushers except that the size reduction is caused more by attrition than by impact, [5]. The reduction ratio is around 8:1 and as the product size is relatively small the feed size is limited to less than 50mm with a nip angle between 25 and 30. The Gyradisc crushers have head diameters from around 900-2100mm. These crushers are always operated in choke feed conditions. The feed size is less than 50mm and therefore the product size is usually less than 6-9mm.

Crushing is accomplished by compression of the ore against a rigid surface or by impact against a surface in a rigidly constrained motion path. Crushing is usually a dry process and carried out on ROM ore in succession of two or three stages, namely, by (1) primary, (2) secondary, and (3) tertiary crushers.

Primary crushers are heavy-duty rugged machines used to crush ROM ore of () 1.5m size. These large-sized ores are reduced at the primary crushing stage for an output product dimension of 1020cm. The common primary crushers are of jaw and gyratory types.

The jaw crusher reduces the size of large rocks by dropping them into a V-shaped mouth at the top of the crusher chamber. This is created between one fixed rigid jaw and a pivoting swing jaw set at acute angles to each other. Compression is created by forcing the rock against the stationary plate in the crushing chamber as shown in Fig.13.9. The opening at the bottom of the jaw plates is adjustable to the desired aperture for product size. The rocks remain in between the jaws until they are small enough to be set free through this opening for further size reduction by feeding to the secondary crusher.

The type of jaw crusher depends on input feed and output product size, rock/ore strength, volume of operation, cost, and other related parameters. Heavy-duty primary jaw crushers are installed underground for uniform size reduction before transferring the ore to the main centralized hoisting system. Medium-duty jaw crushers are useful in underground mines with low production (Fig.13.10) and in process plants. Small-sized jaw crushers (refer to Fig.7.32) are installed in laboratories for the preparation of representative samples for chemical analysis.

The gyratory crusher consists of a long, conical, hard steel crushing element suspended from the top. It rotates and sweeps out in a conical path within the round, hard, fixed crushing chamber (Fig.13.11). The maximum crushing action is created by closing the gap between the hard crushing surface attached to the spindle and the concave fixed liners mounted on the main frame of the crusher. The gap opens and closes by an eccentric drive on the bottom of the spindle that causes the central vertical spindle to gyrate.

The secondary crusher is mainly used to reclaim the primary crusher product. The crushed material, which is around 15cm in diameter obtained from the ore storage, is disposed as the final crusher product. The size is usually between 0.5 and 2cm in diameter so that it is suitable for grinding. Secondary crushers are comparatively lighter in weight and smaller in size. They generally operate with dry clean feed devoid of harmful elements like metal splinters, wood, clay, etc. separated during primary crushing. The common secondary crushers are cone, roll, and impact types.

The cone crusher (Fig.13.12) is very similar to the gyratory type, except that it has a much shorter spindle with a larger-diameter crushing surface relative to its vertical dimension. The spindle is not suspended as in the gyratory crusher. The eccentric motion of the inner crushing cone is similar to that of the gyratory crusher.

The roll crusher consists of a pair of horizontal cylindrical manganese steel spring rolls (Fig.13.14), which rotate in opposite directions. The falling feed material is squeezed and crushed between the rollers. The final product passes through the discharge point. This type of crusher is used in secondary or tertiary crushing applications. Advanced roll crushers are designed with one rotating cylinder that rotates toward a fix plate or rollers with differing diameters and speeds. It improves the liberation of minerals in the crushed product. Roll crushers are very often used in limestone, coal, phosphate, chalk, and other friable soft ores.

The impact crusher (Fig.13.15) employs high-speed impact or sharp blows to the free-falling feed rather than compression or abrasion. It utilizes hinged or fixed heavy metal hammers (hammer mill) or bars attached to the edges of horizontal rotating discs. The hammers, bars, and discs are made of manganese steel or cast iron containing chromium carbide. The hammers repeatedly strike the material to be crushed against a rugged solid surface of the crushing chamber breaking the particles to uniform size. The final fine products drop down through the discharge grate, while the oversized particles are swept around for another crushing cycle until they are fine enough to fall through the discharge gate. Impact crushers are widely used in stone quarrying industry for making chips as road and building material. These crushers are normally employed for secondary or tertiary crushing.

If size reduction is not completed after secondary crushing because of extra-hard ore or in special cases where it is important to minimize the production of fines, tertiary recrushing is recommended using secondary crushers in a close circuit. The screen overflow of the secondary crusher is collected in a bin (Fig.13.16) and transferred to the tertiary crusher through a conveyer belt in close circuit.

Primary jaw crushers typically operate in open circuit under dry conditions. Depending on the size reduction required, the primary jaw crushers are followed by secondary and tertiary crushing. The last crusher in the line of operation operates in closed circuit. That is, the crushed product is screened and the oversize returned to the crusher for further size reduction while the undersize is accepted as the product. Flow sheets showing two such set-ups are shown in Figs. 3.1 and 3.2.

Jaw crushers are installed underground in mines as well as on the surface. When used underground, jaw crushers are commonly used in open circuit. This is followed by further size reduction in crushers located on the surface.

When the run of mine product is conveyed directly from the mine to the crusher, the feed to the primary crusher passes under a magnet to remove tramp steel collected during the mining operation. A grizzly screen is placed between the magnet and the receiving hopper of the crusher to scalp (remove) boulders larger than the size of the gape. Some mines deliver product direct to storage bins or stockpiles, which then feed the crushers mechanically by apron feeders, Ross feeders or similar devices to regulate the feed rate to the crusher. Alternately haulage trucks, front-end loaders, bottom discharge railroad cars or tipping wagons are used. In such cases, the feed rate to the crusher is intermittent which is a situation generally avoided. In such cases of intermittent feed, storage areas are installed and the feed rate regulated by bulldozers, front loaders or bin or stockpile hoppers and feeders. It is necessary that the feed to jaw crushers be carefully designed to balance with the throughput rate of the crusher. When the feed rate is regulated to keep the receiving hopper of the crusher full at all times so that the volume rate of rock entering any point in the crusher is greater than the rate of rock leaving, it is referred to as choke feeding. During choke feeding the crushing action takes place between the jaw plates and particles as well as by inter-particle compression. Choke feeding necessarily produces more fines and requires careful feed control. For mineral liberation, choked feeding is desirable.

When installed above ground, the object of the crushing circuit is to crush the ore to achieve the required size for down stream use. In some industries, for example, iron ore or coal, where a specific product size is required (iron ore 30+6mm), careful choice of jaw settings and screen sizes are required to produce the minimum amount of fines (i.e. 6mm) and maximum the amount of lump ore within the specified size range. For hard mineral bearing rocks like gold or nickel ores where liberation of minerals from the host rock is the main objective, further stages of size reduction are required.

A gold ore was crushed in a secondary crusher and screened dry on an 1180micron square aperture screen. The screen was constructed with 0.12mm diameter uniform stainless steel wire. The size analysis of the feed, oversize and undersize streams are given in the following table. The gold content in the feed, undersize and oversize streams were; 5ppm, 1.5ppm and 7ppm respectively. Calculate:

The self tuning control algorithm has been developed and applied on crusher circuits and flotation circuits [22-24] where PID controllers seem to be less effective due to immeasurable change in parameters like the hardness of the ore and wear in crusher linings. STC is applicable to non-linear time varying systems. It however permits the inclusion of feed forward compensation when a disturbance can be measured at different times. The STC control system is therefore attractive. The basis of the system is:

The disadvantage of the set up is that it is not very stable and therefore in the control model a balance has to be selected between stability and performance. A control law is adopted. It includes a cost function CF, and penalty on control action. The control law has been defined as:

A block diagram showing the self tuning set-up is illustrated in Fig. 18.27. The disadvantage of STC controllers is that they are less stable and therefore in its application a balance has to be derived between stability and performance.

Bone recycling is a simple process where useful products can be extracted. Minerals such as calcium powder for animal; feed are extracted from the bone itself. The base material for cosmetics and some detergent manufacturing needs are extracted from the bone marrow.

The bone recycling process passes through seven stages starting from crushing and ending with packing. Figure 13.14 gives a schematic diagram showing the bone recycling process which goes through the following steps:

Following the standard procedures in the Beijing SHRIMP Center, zircons were separated using a jaw crusher, disc mill, panning, and a magnetic separator, followed by handpicking using a binocular microscope. The grains were mounted together with the standard zircon TEM (417Ma, Black etal., 2003) and then polished to expose the internal structure of the zircons. Cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging was conducted using a Hitachi SEM S-3000N equipped with a Gatan Chroma CL detector in the Beijing SHRIMP Center. The zircon analysis was performed using the SHRIMP II also in the Beijing SHRIMP Centre. The analytical procedures and conditions were similar to those described by Williams (1998). Analytical spots with 25m diameter were bombarded by a 3nA, 10kV O2 primary ion beam to sputter secondary ions. Five scans were performed on every analysis, and the mass resolution was 5000 (at 1%). M257 standard zircon (561.3Ma, U=840ppm) was used as the reference value for the U concentration, and TEM standard zircons were used for Pb/U ratio correction (Black etal., 2003). Common Pb was corrected using the measured 204Pb. Data processing was performed using the SQUID/Isoplot programs (Ludwig, 2001a,b). Errors for individual analyses are at 1, but the errors for weighted average ages are at 2.

A stockpile can be used to blend ore from different sources. This is useful for flotation circuits where fluctuations ingrade can change the mass balance and circulating loads around the plant. Blending can also be done on the ROMpad.

The lowest cost alternative is to have no surge at all, but rather to have a crushing plant on line. This is workable for small-scale plant with single-stage jaw crushers as the availability of these simple plant is very high provided control over ROM size is maintained.

The second alternative is to use a small live surge bin after the primary crusher with a secondary reclaim feeder. Crushed ore feeds this bin continuously and the bin overflows to a small conveyor feeding a dead stockpile. In the event of a primary crusher failure, the crusher loader is used to reclaim the stockpile via the surge bin, which doubles as an emergency hopper.

For coarse ore, the next alternative is a coarse ore stockpile. Stockpiles of this type are generally 1525% live and require a tunnel (concrete or Armco) and a number of reclaim feeders to feed the milling circuit.

Multi-stage crushing circuits usually require surge capacity as the availability of each unit process is cumulative. A fine-ore bin is usually required. Smaller bins are usually fabricated from steel as this is cheaper. Live capacity of bins is higher than stockpiles but they also require a reclaim tunnel and feeders.

saudi arabia mining industry: gold ore and copper ore mining

Saudi Arabia is abundant with oil and the output is 526 million tons. Besides oil, natural gas is also very rich and it is in the fourth in the world. There are other ore mineral resources in this country, such as gold ore, copper ore, iron ore, tin ore, aluminum ore and zinc ore etc. Learn the ore mineral materials and how to mine them will bring high profits for the whole country.

Gold ore is one of the most common ore mineral resources in Saudi Arabia. It has enough gold content and this gold ore can be used for industrial mineral processing. The gold ore in Saudi Arabia can be mined to get pure gold materials. Gold deposit is formed by mineralization and it can be of a certain scale industrial gold ore accumulation. Gold in the earth's crust and mantle is low abundance and scattered.

As the above mentioned, gold ore is rich in Saudi Arabia and the copper ore is also abundant in this country. Copper ore is mined from copper rock mountains. After processing, it can be the high grade copper or copper ore sands. The copper ore can be divided into pyrite, chalcopyrite, barite, chalcocite, blue copper, copper blue and malachite etc. It is mainly used in metallurgical industry as the raw material.

Ore mining processing line refers to the stone mineral materials processed by the mining equipment. The main stages include crushing stage, grinding stage and beneficiation process. Ore mining production line starts with the feeding stage. Feeding equipment will be used to send materials into crushing machine. For the crushing stage, it can be divided into primary crushing process, secondary crushing stage and tertiary crushing process. These crushing stages cooperate with each other to get the large scale ore materials be small ones.

The most used crushing machine has jaw crusher, cone crusher, impact crusher, hammer crusher, gyratory crusher and so on. Jaw crusher belongs to the primary crushing machine and is used in the first crushing stage. Cone crusher, impact crusher can be used as the secondary crushing equipment. Gyratory crusher is the high efficient and large scale crusher machine.

Grinding equipment is after the crushing machine working process. In this stage, ore mineral materials will be grinded into smaller size related with the crushed materials. Beneficiation process will help get the clean and high grade ore materials. It mainly refers to the screening, washing and so on.

Ore crusher machine and grinding mill are the necessary machines used in mineral production line. SBM is a professional mining and construction machine manufacturer from China and we can provide high quality and high efficiency equipment for the Saudi Arabia clients. Here will introduce the gold ore cone crusher and copper ore ball mill for you all.

In gold ore mining process, cone crusher plays the important role in the line. SBM gold ore cone crusher features a unique combination of crusher speed, cavity and throw. The combination can provide customers the superior product quality and higher capacity. This crushing machine has been proved that it has wide application ranges, such as limestone, basalt, iron ore sand etc. In some working situation, it provides unbeatable performance in secondary, tertiary and quaternary applications.

Besides the above gold ore cone crusher, the ball mill is also necessary in the production line. Copper ore ball mill produced by SBM can be widely used for the mineral materials. This ball mill can be used for dry and wet grinding of different materials such as the limestone, copper ore, cement materials etc. Besides, horizontal ball mill has become a reliable part of grinding plants.

SBM copper ore ball mill has low operation and low maintenance. With high capacity and operating reliability, this milling machine is welcomed by clients. If you want to know more information of Saudi Arabia ore mining processing machine, you can contact us for more detailed, such as the price, working principle or others.