The worlds top 10 largest coal mining companies continues to steer the steady growth of the global coal mining industry in 2020. Coal is currently one of the most commonly used energy resources on earth, with the continuously increasing demand driven by coal requirements for several purposes and rise in electricity generation at large, many worlds largest coal mining companies are investing heavily on R&Ds of mining techniques and efficiency of coalmine sites. BizVibes industry factsheet shows that the global coal mining industry is expected to maintain a CAGR of over 2% till 2022.
Bizvibes smart B2B marketplace solutions can effectively help buyers and suppliers in the global coal mining industry to find and connect with each other, shorten the sourcing and purchasing cycles, and maximise their profit growth. Join today to see how BizVibe can help your business grow!
According to the latest industry report from IEA, the global coal production recorded as 7813.3 million tonnes (Mt) in 2018, representing a 3.3% year on year growth. Four of the worlds six largest coalproducing countries increased their output, with three of them India, Indonesia and the Russian producing their largest outputs ever. Indonesia and Russia recorded all-time high coal exports. Average prices in 2018 were more than 60% higher than in 2016, making coal very profitable. Export revenues of USD 67 billion the highest ever made coal Australias top commodity export.
IEA also reports that coal remains a major fuel in global energy systems, accounting for almost 40% of electricity generation and more than 40% of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. China, India, the US, Germany, and Russia were the top-five coal-consuming countries, accounting for over 75% of global consumption. Demand in China and the US declined due to measures implemented by their respective governments to reduce dependency on coal for generation of electricity. Over the forecast period, the global consumption of coal is expected to grow at a CAGR of 2.2% to reach 8.4Bnt in 2021, supported by robust demand from India and Indonesia, with nominal growth across South Africa, the US, and Russia.
China, which is home for several worlds largest coal mining companies, is currently leading the chart of the worlds largest coal producing countries. Meanwhile, China is also the worlds largest coal consumer. Rapid growing electricity consumption and infrastructure development have pushed coal use up in the last few years. IEA points out that the decline of coal use in the residential and small industrial sectors continues because of air pollution concerns. Coal use in heavy industry also drops, driven by structural changes in the economy as well as macroeconomic conditions in the coming years. Chinas coal power generation continues to grow, although at a slowing rate. Its share of the power generation mix is expected to fall from 67% in 2018 to 59% in 2024. Overall, coal demand in China is expected to plateau by 2022 and then starts to decline slowly.
Established in 1995, Chinas Shenhua Group is a state-owned coal mining organization. It is one of the largest enterprises featuring the one-stop business of production, operation, and transportation, with coal business being its foundation, and electricity, port, aviation, railroad, coal-to-chemical, as well as coal-to-liquid operations, all being integrated. Shenhua is currently one of the largest coal mining companies in the world with the highest level of modernization and the largest distribution worldwide. Recently, the government of China approved the merger of Shenhua group corp., with power major China Guodian Corp. With assets of $271 billion, the new organization will be the worlds second-largest company by revenue and largest by installed capacity.
BHP Group engages in the natural resources business worldwide. It operates through Petroleum, Copper, Iron Ore, and Coal segments. The company engages in the exploration, development, and production of oil and gas properties, and mining of copper, silver, zinc, molybdenum, uranium, gold, iron ore, and metallurgical and energy coal. It is also involved in mining, smelting, and refining of nickel; the provision of towing, freight, marketing and trading, marketing support, finance, administrative, and other services; and potash development activities. BHP Group was incorporated in 1885 and is headquartered in Melbourne, Australia.
Coal India Limited (CIL) is a state-owned coal mining organization based in India. It one of the largest coal producers in the world. Operating through 82 mining areas with seven wholly owned coal making subsidiaries, CIL crossed the threshold of half-a-billion tons in 2016, both in coal off-take and production. The company is pursuing initiatives to acquire high CV thermal and metallurgical coal assets abroad to enhance the energy security of the country. Since 2018, the company has announced its list of possible destinations for investment, including the US, Canada, Columbia, and Indonesia, the coal mining giant has decided to focus on South Africa and Australia for the current acquisitions.
Shaanxi Coal Industry Company Limited, together with its subsidiaries, mines, produces, washes, processes, and sells coal in China and internationally. It primarily explores for power, chemical, and metallurgical coal. The company has coal reserves of 16.433 billion tons; and recoverable reserves of 10.269 billion tons. Its coal properties are primarily located in Northern Shaanxi and Huanghua of China. The company was founded in 2008 and is based in Xian, China.
Teck Resources Limited was founded in 1906 and is headquartered in Vancouver, Canada. It researches, explores and produces natural resources in the Asia Pacific, the Americas, and Europe. It operates through five segments: Steelmaking, Coal, Copper, Zinc, Energy, and Corporate. In addition, the company holds interest in oil sands projects and other interests in the Athabasca region of Alberta; and owns interest in exploration and development projects in Australia, Chile, Ireland, Mexico, Peru, Turkey, and the United States.
China Coal Energy Company Limited mines and processes coal products. The Company produces thermal coal and coking coal products. China Coal Energy also conducts coal chemicals production, coal mining equipment manufacturing, pit mouth power generation, and coal mine design businesses. It owns 12 coal mines, 13 coal processing plants, 5 coking plants, 4 coal mining equipment manufacturing plants, and 2 mine design institutes, making it one of the leading coal mining companies in the world
Yancoal Australia Ltd (Yancoal) is Australias largest pure-coal producer and one of the worlds largest coal mining companies. Operating five mines and managing five others across New South Wales, Queensland and Western Australia, Yancoal also has a ~50% share in the Middlemount joint venture. Yancoal currently employs approximately 3,000 people, sourcing the majority of its people from the local communities in which it operates.
Whitehaven Coal Limited develops and operates coal mines in New South Wales and Queensland. The company operates five mines in North West New South Wales; four open cut mines at Maules Creek, Tarrawonga, Werris Creek, and Sunnyside; and one underground mine at Narrabri. It offers thermal and metallurgical coal. The company sells its coal primarily in Japan, Taiwan, Korea, India, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, New Caledonia, and internationally.
Alliance Resource Partners, L.P. is a diversified coal producer and marketer with significant operations in the eastern United States. The Company operates its main facilities in Kentucky, Illinois, and Maryland. In addition, the company offers various industrial and mining technology products and services, such as miner and equipment tracking systems, and proximity detection systems. As of December 31, 2019, it had approximately 1.69 billion tons of proven and probable coal reserves in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia
The introduction of improved electricity generation technology will be one of the major factors driving the coal mining industry growth in the near future. Countries across the globe are emphasizing on reducing carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption for cost reduction through the use of better electricity generation technologies. Subcritical boiler technology is one of the significant technologies being used globally in coal-fired power fleet plants, with efficiencies of ~30%. Some coal-fired power fleet plants are also using supercritical plants, which has higher efficiency than subcritical boiler technology, while research on ultra-supercritical units is also underway. The usage of liquid coal as fuel and electricity is a key coal industry trend which is likely to propel the industry growth in the future.
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There are many lithium battery manufacturers. With the rapid development of new energy vehicles and UPS storage, the market demand for lithium batteries has increased, and more and more companies have begun to enter the lithium-battery industry.
Ningde Times New Energy Technology Co., Ltd. (CATL) was established in 2011, and the companys headquarters are in Ningde, Fujian. It focuses on providing energy storage solutions for global green energy applications through battery technology.
The company develops and produces lithium batteries for electric vehicles and energy storage systems, electric-vehicle battery modules, electric-vehicle battery systems, powertrains, large-scale grid-energy storage systems, smart grid energy storage systems, distributed home energy storage systems, and battery management system (BMS).
CATL has established complete R&D and manufacturing capabilities in the field of power and energy storage batteries and has the core technology of the entire industry chain of materials, batteries, lithium-battery systems, and battery recycling. In energy storage, the company has undertaken large-scale energy-storage projects for key clients with the total annual project volume exceeding 40 MWh.
BYD Co., Ltd. was founded in 1995, and it spans the three major industries of IT, automobiles, and new energy. It is Is one of the worlds largest manufacturers of lithium battery and nickel-cadmium batteries. its cell-phone lithium batteries sell well too. BYDs main product is its lithium iron phosphate battery.
In the field of new energy, BYD has successfully launched new energy products, such as solar power stations, energy-storage power stations, electric vehicles, LEDs, and electric forklifts, which all have been promoted and applied in many countries and regions around the world.
With the worlds leading iron-lithium battery technology, BYD is the leading global entity for the new energy industry. The current effective production capacity is 4.5Gwh, including 1Gwh in Huizhou and 3.5Gwh in Shenzhen Kengzi.
Guoxuan mainly engages with suppliers and service providers of lithium-battery materials and battery-cell design technology. It specializes in the research and development, production, and operation of new lithium-ion batteries and their materials. The main products are lithium iron phosphate materials, batteries, power battery packs, BMS systems, and energy-storage lithium-battery packs.
Guoxuan Hi-Techs current effective production capacity is at 1.5Gwh with its square and cylindrical power lithium battery cells mainly. Guoxuan Hi-Techs main customers include Nanjing Jinlong, Jianghuai Automobile, Ankai Bus, Zoomlion, Shanghai Shenwo, Dongfeng Motor, Hebei Yujie.
Tianjin Lishen Battery Co., Ltd., founded in 1997, is one of the famous lithium battery manufacturers in Tianjin and an industry-standard drafting unit. It is committed to providing customers with overall power solutions, and it focuses on new energy vehicles and energy storage. It is the main supplier in the equipment supporting market.
Lishen battery products include nearly 1,000 models in six series, which include roundbattery(pillar), rectangle battery, power and polymer lithium batteries, photovoltaic systems, and supercapacitors. Its product applications cover three major areas: consumer electronics, new energy vehicles, and energy storage.
AVIC Lithium Battery Co., Ltd., a subsidiary of Aviation Industry Corporation of China, is a high-tech new energy enterprise specializing in R&D and the production of lithium-ion power batteries and lithium battery management systems.
The companys main product is lithium-ion power batteries with a monomer capacity ranging from 10Ah to 500Ah. The main application areas include electric vehicles, power storage, military applications, rail transit, and mining equipment.
The companys products have passed the test of the National 863 Project Power Battery Test Center and have entered the international market with CE, UL, TUV, Rohs, and other certifications. The company and its products have a great reputation and influence in foreign markets and military products.
Huizhou Battery is mainly engaged in small and medium-sized lithium battery packaging and integration while Huizhou Blue Micro is mainly engaged in small and medium-sized ones. In the mobile power-management system business, the secondary subsidiary, Huizhou Lanwei Xinyuan Technology Co., Ltd., is mainly engaged in the power management system and packaging integration of large-scale power batteries and energy storage batteries.
Shenzhen Waterma Battery Co., Ltd. was established in 2002 and is located in Pingshan New District, Shenzhen. Shenzhen Waterma Battery Co., Ltd. is the first in China to successfully develop lithium iron phosphate new energy vehicle power batteries, vehicle starting power supplies, and energy-storage system solutions. It is also one of the first lithium iron phosphate battery manufacturers to put large-scale production and batch application in place.
Its products cover 31 provinces and cities in China and are exported to more than 40 countries and regions on six continents with a market share of 26.6% in China. The companys products comply with CE, UL, RoHS, and other safety and environmental protection requirements along with other relevant certifications and tests.
Shandong Weineng Environmental Protection Power Technology Co., Ltd. was established in August 2006 and is located in Dongcheng Industrial Park, Shouguang City with a registered capital of 14.02 million yuan and an area of 500 acres.
It specializes in the research, development, and production of low-temperature lithium iron phosphate batteries for military use. Vaillant Power has national-level military qualifications, such as certifications in Weapon Equipment Quality System and Equipment Contractor Qualification.
The lithium-ion power battery developed and produced by the company has established long-term cooperative relations with many well-known companies, such as Zhongtong Bus, Nanjing Jinlong, Sunwo Bus, Zotye, China FAW, Foton Ouhui, Yixing, and Vaillant exports to Europe and America.
Zhejiang Nanyang Technology Co., Ltd. was established in November of 2001. Nanyang Technologys business scope covers lithium battery diaphragms and other materials for lithium-ion batteries. It plans to build a lithium-ion battery diaphragm project with an annual output of 15 million square meters. This company is one of the largest professional electronic-film manufacturing enterprises in China.
Lithium battery products are widely used in traditional fields, such as home appliances, electronics, electric power, and other emerging fields like energy-saving light sources, communication systems, and hybrid vehicles. The companys main products lead the industry in terms of their technical level and product quality.
Shenzhen Grepow Battery Co., Ltd. was founded in 1998. We are an advanced technology company specializing in the research and production of NiMH, LiPo, and LiFePO4 batteries and the development of power management systems.Is one of the worlds leading lithium battery manufacturers.
After decades of development, Grepow is now one of the largest manufacturers of batteries with a high C-rating and high capacity in China. Our self-owned brands ACE, GENS ACE, and TATTU are renowned in China and abroad.
Our company is based in Shenzhen, China with a total of 4 factories that cover an area of 15.2 hectares. We have roughly 3000 employees, 200 of them in our R&D department, and we have engineers and technicians who have won several national patents.
Grepow has independent and advanced facilities, each equipped with laboratories, where research and tests of different materials and new products are carried out, including over 30 different types of reliability and safety tests. Our quality management system runs standards like ISO9001, ISO14001, OHSAS18001, and IATF16949 to ensure quality, stability, and reliability in our products.
Scientific operation standards are also set up and executed during our process of purchasing, inspecting, and producing raw materials, as well as outgoing quality control and warehouse management. International certifications, such as GB, CE, UN, and UL can be provided for related products.
Grepows expertise in batteries has generated multiple products widely used and acknowledged in different areas, such as unmanned aircraft systems, R/C hobbies, consumer electronics, medical instruments, portable power systems, electronic tools, and military-related projects. We offer high-class OEM/ODM services to domestic and overseas clients.
Our sales network covers all areas of China; most areas of Asia, Europe, North America, Austria; and some areas of Africa. We also have established offices in Xinjiang, Germany, and the U.S.A. for more efficient delivery and after-sales service.
We are proud to be the leading voice of Canadas mineral exploration and development community since 1932. With over 7,200 members around the world, PDACs work centres on supporting a competitive, responsible mineral sector.
Geo Connect Asia looks to host their ASEAN neighbours and build on a vibrant community as new technologies add new application tools to enable the Industry 4.0 Revolution. The emergence of AI, blockchain, IoT, robotics and UAVs create a new dynamic and platforms for a region well equipped to take on the challenges ahead.
By visiting Mongolia Mining expo, Mongolian business people from mining and infrastructure sectors are able to see the latest technologies and find their partners from Europe, Russia, China, Australia, New Zealand, Turkey, Switzerland, Japan, North America and Asian other countries, which has only been possible by having to travel abroad before.
MiningWorld Russia is the an internationally-recognized trade show servicing the mining & mineral extraction industry. As a business platform, the exhibition connects equipment and technology manufacturers with buyers from Russian mining companies, mineral processors, and wholesalers interested in buying the latest mining solutions.
This virtual conference will be delivered on an interactive platform offering a high visibility venue in which to bring industry professionals together from around the globe, said Harvey. Through this new platform, we will continue to provide world-class technical content and access to thought-leaders from various sectors of our industry.
In 2021 there will be a brand new, digital conference held for the mining industry called Euro Mine Connect. This spinoff from Euro Mine Expo will bring a competent conference filled with interesting and inspiring talks, workshops and discussions around hot topics in the mining industry.
Together with our organization committee, technical program group, partners, and collaborators we feel confident that Euro Mine Connect 2021 will be a good addition and spinoff and that Euro Mine Expo 2022 till keep its position as one of Europes most important meeting places for the mining industry, Sinnika Sjunnesson concludes.
In 2020, we are transforming into a hybrid model by introducing of virtual sessions in addition to local physical presentations in Santiago to capture wider LATAM and global audience in the new global environment we are facing right now.
This edition, under the motto Mining: Science, Innovation, Technology and Education, proposes the use of these tools to guide our country vision and work generating opportunities for everyone in the 21st Century.
MINExpo International is a trade show sponsored by the National Mining Association. The show exhibits the latest mining and minerals processing technologies, and state-of-the-art machinery and equipment for the coal, metal and nonmetal mining processing industries.
Listen to leaders in the mining industry who continue to tackle the big challenges facing our industry today. IMARC as ever, will highlight global and national trends and provide you with a macro outlook of the industry. You will hear from industry leaders about minings continuing role in the global economic recovery post COVID-19. Programme development for IMARC 2021 starts now, to contribute or, to learn more contact the IMARC team today.
AIMEX isthekey event on the mining calendar and is an internationally renowned platform which showcases the latest mining technology, equipment and services, offering a unique opportunity for leading suppliers and buyers to conduct face-to-face business, learn about the latest trends and network in an interactive forum.
AIMEX features more than 500 suppliers including companies such as Contitech, ESS Engineering Services, Alfagomma, Cummins, Hitachi, Volkswagen and many more. No other event will give you access to as many suppliers, a comprehensive free-to-attend conference and access to networking opportunities across the 3 days.
The global construction machinery market has long been ruled by several worlds largest construction machinery manufacturers over the decades. These reputable heavy-duty machinery and construction equipment suppliers are offering different construction machineries that are used for various purposes during construction projects. Led by the worlds largest construction machinery companies like Caterpillar of the United States and Hitachi and Komatsu of Japan, these top 10 largest construction machinery manufacturers in the world are expected to continue their dominance in the global construction machinery market over the near future, mainly attributed to the strong growth in sales generated from the rapid development of construction and infrastructure sectors around the world.
According the latest market research report from Technavio, the global construction machinery market size is forecast to grow by $47.65 billion from 2019 to 2023, and the markets growth momentum will accelerate with an estimated CAGR of over 65 throughout the forecast period. The increasing investments in the infrastructure industry to improve facilities in the government and private sectors will boost the growth of the construction machinery market in the earthmoving machinery segment. The rising trend of urbanization in developing nations, such as India, China, and South Africa will fuel the demand for earthmoving machinery during the next five years.
In recent years, investments in infrastructure projects are increasing rapidly across the world. For instance, China has invested heavily in the development and construction of Beijing International Airport. Similarly, the Government of India has made significant investments in several infrastructure development projects, including industrial corridors, Dedicated Freight Corridor (DFC), Bharatmala Pariyojana, the Sagarmala Programme, and UDAN schemes. Several countries are also investing significantly in the development of sports infrastructure and facilities. The increasing spending on such capital-intensive projects and infrastructure development will fuel the demand for construction machinery during the next five years.
Caterpillar Inc is an America based heavy machinery manufacturing company, that designs, develops, manufactures, markets and sells industrial machinery, engines, financial products and insurance to customers around the world. It is not only one of the largest heavy machinery manufacturers in the US, but also a Global Fortune 500 company. Caterpillars 2018 revenues reached to $54.7 billion, making it the worlds largest machinery manufacturer, and the number one manufacturer of construction and mining equipment, diesel and natural gas engines, industrial gas turbines, and diesel-electric locomotives.
JCB is one of the worlds top manufacturers of construction equipment. Headquartered in Rocester, UK, JCB has over 14000 employees on four continents. It produces over 300 types of construction machineries and industrial machines, including diggers (backhoes), excavators, tractors and diesel engines. It has 22 factories across Asia, Europe, North America and South America; its products are sold in over 150 countries. In 2018 JCBs annual revenue totalled $4.24 billion. Today, JCB has become one of the worlds top industrial machinery suppliers to serve various of industries such as construction, agriculture, logistics, waste and recycling, power generation and OEM solutions.
CNH Industrial is one of the worlds largest capital goods companies with headquarters in London, UK and Amsterdam, Netherlands. CNH Industrial N.V. is currently one of the worlds largest manufacturers for agricultural equipment and construction machineries. It is also engaged in the manufacturing and suppling trucks, commercial vehicles, buses and specialty vehicles for firefighting, defense and other uses, as well as engines, transmissions and axles for vehicles and engines under marine and power generation applications.
Hitachi Construction Machinery Co. Ltd a Hitachi Group company is a leading construction equipment manufacturer based in Japan. It is a first-class company, providing both small and large-scale equipment to clients throughout the world for a varied range of tasks. Hitachis major heavy equipment and construction machinery products include Hydraulic Excavators, Forestry Equipment, Mechanical & Hydraulic Cranes, Mining Dump Trucks, Crawler Dump trucks and Wheel Loaders.
Deere is one of the leading American industrial and construction machinery manufacturers headquartered in Moline, Illinois, United States. It mainly manufactures agricultural, construction, and forestry machinery, diesel engines, drivetrains (axles, transmissions, gearboxes) used in heavy equipment, and lawn care equipment. The 2nd biggest heavy machinery companies in the USA, Deere was also a Global Fortune 500 company and sells its industrial machines to all parts of the world dominating global trade as a key strategy against the competition.
Kobelco Construction Machinery is today a leading manufacturing company of excavators and cranes. Founded in 1999 and headquartered in Japan, Kobelco Construction Machinery is one of nine business domains of the Kobe Steel Group. Globally, the group, which was first established in 1905, employs close to 40,000 workers worldwide. Included among the main products and services provided by the Kobelco Construction Machinery are hydraulic excavators, mini excavators, wheel loaders and road construction equipment. The Companys main products include crawler cranes, wheel cranes, work vessels, and other construction machines. Kobelco Construction Machinery markets their products worldwide.
Komatsu Ltd is a Japanese multinational corporation that manufactures construction, mining, and military equipment, as well as industrial equipment like press machines, lasers, and thermoelectric generators. Its headquarters are in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It has manufacturing operations in Japan, Asia, Americas and Europe. It has manufacturing operations in Japan, Asia, Americas and Europe. Komatsu among the most recognized for their excellent performance among the top 10 largest construction machinery manufacturers in the world.
The Liebherr Group is a multinational heavy equipment manufacturer based in Switzerland. It has over 100 companies structured into ten Divisions: Earthmoving, Mining, Mobile Cranes, Tower Cranes, Concrete Technology, Maritime Cranes, Aerospace and Transportation Systems, Machine Tools and Automation Systems, Domestic Appliances, and Components. It has over 42,000 employees worldwide and ranked as the worlds largest crane manufacturer in 2019.
Manitou is a French heavy equipment manufacturer that makes forklifts, cherry pickers, telehandlers, and other heavy equipment. It designs, manufactures, distributes and ensures the service of handling, access platform and earthmoving equipment for construction, agriculture and industries. The groups main products include telehandlers, forklifts, skid and track loaders, articulated loaders, backhoe loaders, aerial work platforms, storage equipment and attachments. Today, Manitou has become one of top construction machinery manufacturers in the world.
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. is a Japanese multinational engineering, electrical equipment and electronics company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. It is now one of the worlds largest industrial and construction machinery manufacturers. Its main products also include aerospace components, air conditioners, aircraft, automotive components, forklift trucks, hydraulic equipment, machine tools, missiles, power generation equipment, printing machines, ships and space launch vehicles.
Over the recent years, many top construction machinery manufacturers are focusing on expanding their manufacturing facilities and launching new products to increase their share in the global market. Though the accelerating growth momentum will offer immense growth opportunities, the growing secondhand machine market will challenge the growth of the market participants. To increase their construction machinery market share, companies should focus more on the growth prospects in the fast-growing segments, while maintaining their positions in the slow-growing segments.
To help clients improve their market position, this construction machinery market forecast report provides a detailed analysis of the market leaders and offers information on the competencies and capacities of these companies. The report also covers details on the markets competitive landscape and offers information on the products offered by various companies. Moreover, this construction machinery market analysis report also provides information on the upcoming trends and challenges that will influence market growth. This will help companies create strategies to make the most of future growth opportunities.
Leading Chinese equipment OEM XCMG will soon start operating the largest fleet of high tonnage autonomous rigid mining trucks in the country. The first automation ready XDE240 220 t trucks recently started arriving at the Xiwan coal mine in Shaanxi province, being developed by Shaanxi Shenyan Coal, part of Chinas coal mining giant China Energy Investment Corporation (CEIC, also known as CHN Energy, created from the merger of China Guodian Corporation and Shenhua Group in 2017). The trucks will be loaded by Taiyuan Heavy Industry (TYHI) WK-35 65 t payload electric rope shovels.
The fleet consists of 32 220 t XDE240 trucks, equipped with MTU 16V4000C23R 2,500 hp engines and Wabtec AC drives. IM understands that while XCMG has supplied the trucks with an automation interface, the tender for a third party supplier to supply the unmanned technology was separately put out to bid by CEIC in September and was recently won by CRRC-owned company Zhuzhou National Engineering Research Center of Converters. CRRC is a huge company best known for its rail equipment and technology but which also makes mining equipment and supplies mining technology through CRRC Yongji it helped develop an FCEV mining truck with engine group Weichai while CRRC Datong started building its own electric drive CR240E mining haul trucks recently.
On Thursday, Beijing-based mining giant Bitmain launched its latest AntMiner S19 and S19 Pro models, boasting computing power as high as 110 terahashes per second (TH/s) and an energy cost of 29.5 watts per terahash (W/T).
Going by the firms specifications, the two models would currently be the most profitable bitcoin mining devices if available, closely followed by the WhatsMiner M30S from Bitmains Shenzhen-based rival, MicroBT, according to a miner profitability index from f2pool.
The launch comes on the back of a heated battle between Bitmain and MicroBT, which has gained a significant share of the mining equipment business after selling about 600,000 units of its M20 series in 2019, chipping away at Bitmains long-time market dominance.
MicroBT, which launched its flagship M30 models in December, has started taking pre-orders for the latest and most powerful product line since last week, with deliveries of sample units starting as early as next month.
According to MicroBTs major distributor Pangolin Miner, the M30S priced at $2,430 apiece touts a computing power of 86 TH/s with an energy cost of 38 W/T and uses 8-nanometer chips supplied by Samsung. The firm said some devices will ship from March to May, but large pre-orders would have to wait until as late as June.
On the other hand, prices and the pre-order/delivery dates for Bitmains S19 models have not yet been announced. Adding to the uncertainty is whether Bitmain can deliver production on a large scale, since the latest models adopt 7-nm chips that come in limited supplies from its vendor, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company.
It also remains to be seen how the industry will react to the releases of top-notch but more expensive mining equipment, as bitcoins price has retracted from its recent growth momentum above $10,000.
Further, the coronavirus outbreak in China has affected the countrys manufacturing and logistics businesses, causing delays for those that were looking to expand or upgrade existing mining facilities.
In fact, data from mining pool BTC.com shows bitcoins mining difficulty a measure of how hard it is to compete for mining rewards has stagnated for a month and is currently around the same level seen on Jan. 28.
But with bitcoins halving event approaching in May, a programmed-in change that will reduce the networks mining rewards from 12.5 BTC per block to 6.25, older models like the S9 will become unprofitable unless bitcoins price increases significantly. As such, miners may have to either upgrade or get out of the industry.
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Cryptocurrency mining giant Bitmain Technologies Ltd. filed for an initial public offering (IPO) in September 2018. Although Bitmain closed its pre-IPO round with $1 billion (valuing the firm at $15 billion post-deal), the company ultimately failed in its attempt to go public on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange (HKEX). The company's application lapsed in March 2019 and it was not re-filed.
The company had raised approximately $450 million from investors between 2013, when it was founded by Jihan Wu and Micree Zhan, and 2018, and it was valued at $12 billion in private markets during its funding round in June 2018. The failed offering was underwritten by China International Capital Corporation.
At the end of 2019, it was reported that Bitmain confidentially filed for an initial public offering (IPO) with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). However, as of January 17, 2021, Bitmain is still a private company.
In November 2019, Canaan Creative, the Chinese bitcoin-mining machine manufacturer, became the first cryptocurrency company to be listed on the Nasdaq. Canaan, a Cayman Island-registered company, is one of the largest manufacturers of the Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) devices that are used to mine cryptocurrency. Because Canaan and Bitmain both filed for an IPO with the SEC around the same time, the successful listing of Canaan was considered a kind of "coup" by some in the cryptocurrency community.
Coindesk, which claimed to have seen filing documents for the IPO, stated that Bitmain had earned a total of $2.3 billion in profits across 2016, 2017, and the first quarter of 2018. Skyrocketing prices in cryptocurrency markets garnered a profit of $1.1 billion for the company in 2017. Industry analysts have a more optimistic take on Bitmains prospects. In February this year, Bernstein Research estimated that Bitmain is generating profits of as much as $3 billion per year.
Bitmain is a dominant player in the mining equipment business. It has been estimated that Bitmain controls as much as 80% of the market for bitcoin mining equipment. The companys Application-ASIC chips are the industrys favored workhorses for cryptocurrency mining.
In fact, any of Bitmains announcements regarding the development of ASICs for specific cryptocurrencies are generally considered indicators that the coins numbers in the market will multiply in the coming months. The company also runs two of the largest bitcoin mining pools in the world, BTC.com and Antpool. Those pools together account for somewhere between 42% and 51% of the total mining capacity for bitcoin.
Cryptocurrency markets exert a strong influence on Bitmains revenues. A run-up in crypto prices in 2017 had a positive impact on Bitmains revenues. This is because it translated to an increased demand for its machines and greater profits from its mining operations. During the surge in crypto markets in 2017, Bitmain increased prices for its mining machines. Conversely, a slide in prices means less demand for Bitmains machines and lower profitability from its mining operations.
To that extent, Bitmain has diversified its revenue base. It announced a major foray into artificial intelligence in 2018: the Sophon BM1680, a chip that promises to speed up machine learning algorithms. In an interview with Bloomberg in May 2018, Wu said that as much as 40% of Bitmains revenue will come from AI chips in 5 years.
That is not all. Researchers have predicted that ASIC chips will be the building blocks for ASIC clouds that can provide a glimpse into planet-scale computings future. According to Michael Bedford Taylor at the University of Washington in Seattle, ASIC chips herald the next wave of distributed computing. In a paper, he outlined the concept of bespoke silicon, a customized form of silicon that leverages specialization to outperform high-volume general-purpose System on Chips (SoCs) by industry giants. As a major industry player in ASIC chips, Bitmain is well-positioned to benefit from these predictions.
According to Coindesk, Bitmain outlined its plans to go head-to-head with the U.S. and Chinese semiconductor giants in its investor prospectus. In half a decade, Bitmain has captured 8% of the domestic chip design market where Huawei HiSilicon has taken 14 years to achieve 17%. At this rate, Bitmain could near or overcome Huawei HiSilicons local stronghold very soon.
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Ultra-thick seams in this article refer to those equal to or greater than 6-m (20-ft) thick, but the majority are seams that are 7-m (23-ft) thick. For seams that are this thick, there are two major mining methods; one is top coal caving that was first adopted in the 1980s, while the other is the ultra-thick whole seam one-slice longwall mining that was launched at the end of 2009.
In top coal caving mining, the bottom 2.5-4 m (8.1-13.1 ft) of the seam is extracted by the conventional longwall mining method and the remaining roof (top) coal is naturally caved behind the shield. In this method, there are two armored face conveyors (AFCs) at the longwall face, the front one located in front of the shield legs is operated like conventional longwall mining, while the rear one is located behind the lemniscate links and under the caving shield. Each caving shield has a door for drawing the broken top coal onto the rear AFC. Top coal drawing can either follow every longwall cut or every other or more cuts. The ratio of mining height-to-top coal caving height ranges from one to three times the mining height at the bottom. The disadvantages of top coal caving are that the recovery rate of top coal at both ends of the face is very low and the coal left in the gob is the source for spontaneous combustion.
Therefore, the ultra-thick whole seam one slice longwall mining was developed to increase the recovery rate and safety of ultra-thick coal seams in 2009. Up until then, top coal caving was almost exclusively used for the extraction of ultra-thick seams. At the end of 2009, China successfully developed the 7-m two-leg shield (See Figure 2) and put them into production at the Bulianta mine (See Figure 2) where the coal produced was transported via an underground belt conveyor to the nearby coal-to-liquid (CTL) plant for making diesel fuel. Subsequently, the whole seam 7-m mining height longwall was also adopted by the neighboring Shang Wan and Daliuta mines. Those three mines are producing from 15 million to 25 million mt annually. This article will feature the typical mine layout and mining technique used in these three mines.
According to statistics compiled by ZMJ (Zhenghou Mining Machinery), there are now approximately 60 longwall faces employing the ultra-thick whole seam one slice mining method of 6 m-7 m (19.7-23 ft) thick. The shields are all made by Chinese manufacturers with ZMJ accounting for more than 90% of the market. The shearers are either domestic-made or imported, mainly Joy and Eickhoff, while AFCs are also either made in China or imported, mainly Caterpillar. For this article, the first three authors toured and studied all the mines with annual production of more than 10 million mt in Figure 1, plus three mines in southeastern Shanxi Province and northwestern Henan province.
Due to its favorable geological conditions, both state and private investors converged in the Ordos coalfield in the past 10 years and opened more than 1,000 coal mines. Metropolis such as Ordos and Dongsheng popped up overnight in the middle of desert, creating hundreds of coal boss millionaires.
GeologyThe Ordos coalfield located in the semi-arid western region of China was discovered in the early 1980s with more than 200 billion mt probable reserve, accounting for approximately 25% of the Chinese total. It is listed as one of the seven largest coalfields in the world. Its coals are uniform in thickness and near horizontal, low in sulphur and ash, high in heating value and shallow in depth (as compared with other coalfields in China). Undoubtedly, it is the key source location of coal energy for future development in China.
In the three mines where the ultra-thick whole seam 7-m single-slice longwall mining is employed, there are 5-10 minable coal seams ranging from less than 1-m to 9.4-m (<3.3-31 ft) thick with seam interval of 2.6 m-110 m (8.5-361 ft). All seams are either flat or dip less than 3. Major coal seams being mined at the three mines of interest vary from two to three seams. The depth of the top seam being mined in each mine varies from 80 m to 280 m (262-918 ft).
The coals in these three mines are of good quality with low sulphur (<1%), low ash (6-9%), low in phosphorous, very low methane, median water content (10-16%), high volatile matters (35-40%) and median heating value (10,260-12,600 BTU). However, they are predisposed to spontaneous combustion.
Figure 2: Typical 7-m (23 ft) high two-leg shields manufactured by Zhengzhou Mining Machinery (ZMJ), the largest shield manufacturer in China and the world, producing annually more than 22,000 units of various types of shields.
The overburden in the Ordos coalfield has the following common features: the bedrock above the coal is thin; it is overlain by thick loose or unconsolidated sands or pebbles; and the overall depth is shallow. So if the mine is not properly designed and operated, severe hazards, such as the entire overburden from the mine level to the surface collapses suddenly, or the loose sands quickly flood the mine once the thin bedrock is accidentally broken through. This problem may occur and actually has happened in the past. This type of hazard is especially critical in the 7-m high longwall operation. This is one of the subjects of the authors current research sponsored by the Chinese Natural Science Foundation.
The roof consists of alternating layers of claystone, sandy claystone, clay sandstone and powdered sandstone. In particular, the roof stratigraphic sequence in ascending order from the coal top is sandy claystone (false roof), 0.12-m (0.4 ft) thick; claystone (immediate roof), 3.4-m (11.2 ft) thick; and sandy claystone or powdered sandstone, 44-m (144.3 ft) thick. The loose sands above the bedrocks ranges from 10-m (33 ft) to 60-m (197 ft). The immediate floor is claystone or powdered sandstone, 0.5-m (1.5 ft) thick. In general, with well-developed planes of weakness, the roof caves properly with moderate periodic weighting, even though some of the rock units are fairly thick. When dry, the floor is firm enough for normal shield advance and pan push. On the contrary, when wet, the floor can be weakened dramatically. The sandstone can be clay-cemented or calcite-cemented.
Mine and Panel LayoutsAll mines are located on both sides of the approximately northwest-southeast oriented Wulan Mulun River (Fig. 1). Mine and panel layouts are similar to those employed at U.S. longwalls with a few modifications/improvements. From the surface face-up area, three drift tunnels are driven horizontally, some by a full-face tunnel boring machine (TBM) 7.3 m (24 ft) in diameter, in the roof for some distance and then continue to dip down about 5, until they reach the seam level. From there, the mains consist of three to four entries. Panels are developed by two-entry gateroad perpendicular or at some angle to, and on either one or both sides of, the mains.
Figure 3: Shield layout and shearers cutting profile illustrating the transition zones 2.8-m (9.2 ft) height difference between shearers full-seam cutting height 7 m (23 ft) at mid-panel and entry height 4.2 m (13.8 ft).
Each longwall needs either one or two units of continuous miner (CM) units. Entries are driven by conventional Joy CMs or Voist-Alpine ABM miner-bolters. The rate of development ranges from 800 m (2,624 ft) to 1,500 m (4,920 ft) per month. Entry dimensions and support pattern vary slightly not only from mine to mine, but also depend on entry function within a mine. The headgate and tailgate are rectangular in shape, 5.5- to 6.1-m (18-20 ft) wide by 4- to 4.2-m (13.1-13.8 ft) high. They may or may not be of the same dimension. Note the height of gateroads is about 2.8 m to 3 m (9.2-9.8 ft) shorter than the longwall cutting height. The large offset in entry height and panel cutting height was considered necessary in order to make the rib stability manageable.
The large offset between entry height and panel cutting height demands a special shearer cutting sequence and shield layout. Figure 3 shows that the mid panel from Shield No. 9 to No. 141 is 7 m (23 ft) full seam height cut; from Shield No. 8 to No. 4 (or from No. 142 to No. 145) is the transition zone where the cutting height is reduced from 7 m (23 ft) to 6.2 m (20.3 ft). So the offset between Shields No. 3 and No. 4 on the head side (and Shields No. 146 and No. 147 on the tail side) is 2 to 2.2 m (6.6-7.2 ft). In order to prevent this large exposed vertical offset from spalling, Shields No. 4 and No. 146 are equipped with a specially-designed side shield to protect it.
Face EquipmentSimilarly, the types and layout of equipment resemble those used in U.S. longwalls (See Figure 4). However, there are several notable differences including: (1) The 7-m (23 ft) high shield with the largest yield load in the world, plus the use of side shield to stabilize the large vertical offset at both ends of the face; (2) all roadways are paved with concrete floors of 200-mm (8-in) thick or more for convenience of all rubber-tired transportation vehicles including passenger cars; (3) panel belt conveyor and mule train are laid side by side in the headgate even though some headgate are only 5.5-m (18 ft) wide; (4) Self-advancing entry supports are installed immediately outby the headgate and tailgate T-junctions (See Figure 5) to cope with the abutment pressure; and (5) the AFC tailpiece is extended into the tailgate partially or fully making it necessary to remove the tailgate supports ahead of the advancing panline, if the self-advancing outby entry supports are not used.
The double-ended ranging arm shearers with a lump breaker are either Joys 7LS8 or Eickhoff SL1000. Their specifications are: mining height of 3.5-7 m ( 11.5-23 ft), drum diameter of 3.5 m (11.5 ft), cutting web of 865 mm (34 in), maximum traveling speed of 25m/min (82 fpm), 3,300 volts power supply with total power of 2,925 KW (3,920 HP). Bidirectional cutting is used exclusively. Daily face advance averages 15 m (49.2 ft).
AFCs are made by Cat. Their specifications are double center chain strand 60 x 181 mm, running at 1.59 m/sec (313 fpm) and powered by three motors a 3 x 1,600 KW (32,144 HP). The pans are each 1,200-mm wide x 2,050-mm long. High voltage electric, 3300 volts, is used. Maximum carrying capacity is 6,000 mt per hour.
Shields are all made by ZMJ (Zhengzhou Mining Machinery). They are 146 units for a 300-m (984 ft) wide face. Shield are all two-legged, each 2.05-m ( 6.72 ft) wide, weighing 64 mt (70 tons). Their operating height is 3.2-7 m (10.5-23 ft), with yield load capacity 16,800-18,000 KN (1,848-1,980 tons) using 500 mm leg cylinders. They are electrohydraulic controlled with a cycle time of 8 seconds. The tilt cylinder is of large capacity with 280 mm (11 in) in diameter so that it can be used to adjust the canopy tip.
In the 7-m (23 ft) whole seam one slice longwall mining system, the development of the 7m (23 ft) high two-legged shields is the key to the successful operation of the system. Its design requires high-level reliability, stability and manufacturing know-how. It is equipped with a three-staged clipper covering 2/3 of the face height preventing severe face sloughage and hazards. The hydraulic legs are larger and longer; the state-of-the-art largest leg cylinders 500 mm in diameter are used so that it can provide maximum possible working resistance and with the maximum possible working height range, two stage telescopic legs are maintained for the working height. The welding technique is also important for the integrity of the structural components under the heavy-operating condition. The shields must maintain stability for seam undulation within 3-5.
The mines are operating on three shifts/day and seven days/week. Each day, the first two shifts are production shifts, and the third shift is for maintenance. The labor organization varies somewhat from mine to mine. An example is the production shift consists of 17 members: one foreman, two shearer operators, three shieldmen, one each of a headgate and tailgate man, two electricians, four outby repairmen and three cleaning men. The maintenance shift consists of 38 members. So the total daily production crew including management is 82.
Roof SupportsEntry support employs a combination of multiple systems. For the roof, its a combination of roof bolt + steel strap + wiremesh + cable bolt. For the ribs, the panel side is a combination of glass bolts + synthetic mesh + strap, while for the pillar side it is a combination of steel roof bolt + wiremesh + strap.
Figure 5 shows an example of the primary support of the headgate and tailgate. In the roof, resin bolts, 18 mm x 2.1 m (0.7in x 6.8 ft) are installed in 1 x 1 m (3.3 ft) or 1.3 x 1.3 m (4.2 ft) pattern. There are 4 bolts/row in the headgate and 6 bolts/row in the tailgate, supplemented by cable bolts, 17.8mm x 8m (0.7 in x 26 ft) with 1.5 m (4.9 ft) anchor length at 3 x 2.5 m (9.8 x 8.1 ft) pattern. The roofs are wire-meshed and frequently with straps. The rib bolts consists of four rows of tension bolts, 18 mm x 2.1m (0.7 in. x 6.9 ft) on the pillar side and three to four rows of fiber glass bolts on the panel side installed at 0.9 x 0.9 m (35.4 in.) or 1.3 x 1.3 m (4.2 ft) pattern. Fiber glass bolts are used in the panel side for convenience of shearers cutting. The tailgate primary supports are heavier than that of headgate because it is adjacent to the previous gob. Unlike the tailgates in the U.S. longwalls, no standing (supplementary) supports are used except at the T-junction area. Note the floor is paved with concrete slab about 200-mm (8 in.) thick in the headgate and 400-mm (16 in.) thick in the tailgate.
Figure 6 shows the supplementary supports installed out by the T-junctions of headgate and tailgate. They are self-advancing hydraulic supports for supporting the roof at the areas immediately out by the T-junctions. One set of self-advancing support is installed at the headgate and two sets in tandem are installed at the tailgate. The advance of the supports is as follows: the two sets in the tailgate have one double-acting (DA) ram on each side connected to each other. During advancing, the inby support is set against the roof and floor and it uses the DA ram to push the outby support forward. When the outby support has advanced to the preset distance, it is set against the roof and it then uses the DA ram to pull the inby support forward. The single set of support in the headgate is connected to the gate end shields at both sides of the stage loader. So its advance is concurrent with the stage loader. All three self-advancing hydraulic supports are elctrohydraulically controlled. The headgate set, 5.5-m long x 4.05-m wide x 3-m high (1813.39.8 ft) provides a support density of 0.201 MPa (2.1 tons/ft2), while the tailgate sets, 5.03 m long x 2.84 m wide x 2.7 m high (188.8.131.52 ft), have a support density of 0.34 MPa (3.55 tons/ft2).
Summary Through partnership among coal producers, equipment manufacturers, and research institutions, China developed the ultra-thick seam longwall mining system by stages: prior to 2005, development and application concentrated on 4.3- to 5.5-m (14.1-18 ft) thick seams; in 2007, the system applied to 6.3-m (20.7-ft) thick seams was introduced; and in 2009, the 7-m (23-ft) thick system went in operation. After more than three years of operation, it has proven that the system is reliable (See Figure 7) and has expanded to more than 60 longwalls (for the 6-m plus mining height) all over the country. China is now working on, and looking forward to, the introduction of the 8-m (26.2-ft) thick longwall mining system. This research was sponsored by the Chinese Natural Science Foundation under project No.U1261207.
Author InformationSyd S. Peng is a professor from WVUs Mining Engineering department, who specializes in deep mining. Huamin Li Ying Zhou are professors with Henan Polytechnic University, Henan, China, and Jingyi Cheng is a professor with China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou, China.
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