the shaking table uc berkeley

what to do during and immediately after an earthquake - los angeles times

Do not run out of a building. Running outside is not a good idea, experts say, as the exterior of a building is one of the most dangerous places to be as objects fall. During the 2003 Paso Robles earthquake, bricks came crashing down on two women fleeing a building; experts say that if they had stayed inside, they would have survived. In the Mexico City earthquake of 1985, desks remained standing at one building even as the ceiling caved in.

The shutoff is usually outside, frequently on a sideyard. If you smell gas after an earthquake, turn the valve a quarter turn so that its perpendicular to the pipe coming out of the ground. More about what to do during and immediately after the shaking >>

In a store: Drop and take cover under anything that can provide protection, such as a shopping cart or inside clothing racks. If you need to move away from heavy items on high shelves, drop to the ground first and crawl the shortest distance away. Whenever you enter a retail store, take a moment to see what could fall on you during an earthquake.

Near the ocean: If severe shaking lasts 20 seconds or more, head to high ground in case a tsunami has been generated. Move inland two miles or to land that is 100 feet above sea level. Dont wait for a warning; start walking. And dont drive.

On public transit: Stay on the bus unless the driver tells you to get off; listen for instructions from the driver. A train is likely to stop during the shaking. The train operator will make announcements and work to get passengers to a safe place to exit the train.

People are much more important than kits. People will help each other when the power is out or they are thirsty. And people will help a community rebuild and keep Southern California a place we all want to live after a major quake.

Check for injuries and immediate danger: Make sure you and the people around you are OK. Provide first aid for anyone who needs it. Put out small fires or call for help. Send someone for help if you cant reach emergency services on the phone.

Check for damage: Check water, gas and electric lines for damage. If any are damaged, shut off the valves or breakers. Smell for gas; if you do smell it, open all the windows and doors, leave immediately and report it to authorities. Do not turn on your kitchen stove or use matches or anything with a flame if you suspect a gas leak. Clean up spills of anything hazardous.

The Los Angeles Times and KPCC/LAist are teaming up to show you how to prepare for and survive a major earthquake in Southern California. This online community forum is free to attend.When: Thursday, June 24, 6 p.m.Where: Live streaming on YouTube, Facebook and TwitterWho: Earthquake expert Dr. Lucy Jones, Times reporter Rong-Gong Lin II, Times columnist Patt Morrison, KPCC/LAist reporter Jacob Margolis, KPCC/LAist host Austin Cross

Water: If your home doesnt have water service after the quake, youll need to break into your emergency water supply. Is it undamaged? A good source of fresh water is your water heater tank. If youre unsure about the safety of water, two to five minutes of boiling will kill anything that may make you sick. The water may not smell good, but if boiled it will be safe to drink and cook with.

Food: Begin by eating whats in the refrigerator because that will spoil first. After that, pantry food can be eaten, followed by the disaster supply. Do not eat or drink from any open containers near shattered glass.

targeted delivery of crispr-cas9 and transgenes enables complex immune cell engineering - sciencedirect

Lentivirus-like particles transiently deliver Cas9-guide RNA complexes (Cas9-VLPs)Cas9-VLPs mediate genome editing, with or without co-delivery of a transgeneCas9-VLPs enable simultaneous gene insertion and knockout for Tcell reprogrammingPseudotyping Cas9-VLPs drives cell-type-specific genome editing of CD4+ Tcells

As genome engineering advances cell-based therapies, a versatile approach to introducing both CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) and therapeutic transgenes into specific cells would be transformative. Autologous Tcells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) manufactured by viral transduction are approved to treat multiple blood cancers, but additional genetic modifications to alter cell programs will likely be required to treat solid tumors and for allogeneic cellular therapies. We have developed a one-step strategy using engineered lentiviral particles to introduce Cas9 RNPs and a CAR transgene into primary human Tcells without electroporation. Furthermore, programming particle tropism allows us to target a specific cell type within a mixed cell population. As a proof-of-concept, we show that HIV-1 envelope targeted particles to edit CD4+ cells while sparing co-cultured CD8+ cells. This adaptable approach to immune cell engineering exvivo provides a strategy applicable to the genetic modification of targeted somatic cells invivo.

california earthquake early warning system vs. japan, mexico - the san diego union-tribune

California and the U.S. have long neglected the development of such a system. The alarm system we do have still isnt integrated into as much infrastructure as it might be. And the concept is still not universally understood by the public.

In Japan, earthquake early warnings have become well-integrated across society, with warnings automatically piped to cellphones, television and radio. In Mexico City, a ubiquitous network of sirens blares moments after a large temblor is detected to give residents time to seek safety before shaking arrives.

Yet California and the rest of the West Coast are still figuring out what exactly to make of the U.S. Geological Surveys ShakeAlert earthquake early warning system. It began issuing public alerts in L.A. only about 2 years ago; expanded to the rest of California a year later; and then this year expanded to Oregon and Washington state.

The shutoff is usually outside, frequently on a sideyard. If you smell gas after an earthquake, turn the valve a quarter turn so that its perpendicular to the pipe coming out of the ground. More about what to do during and immediately after the shaking >>

Ironically, one of Californias blessings is that earthquakes are less frequent here than in Japan and Mexico. The last time an earthquake and resulting fire killed thousands of people in California was the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. By contrast, Japan and Mexico have had much more recent devastating quakes and related natural disasters that each killed thousands of people Mexicos 1985 earthquake and, in Japan, the 1995 Kobe earthquake and the 2011 magnitude 9.1 earthquake and tsunami.

Our earthquake rates are generally lower. And so its not really top-of-conscious for a lot of the public along the West Coast of the U.S., said Elizabeth Cochran, seismologist for the U.S. Geological Survey, who has spent many years as the chief scientist for the agencys earthquake early warning project. And so we essentially have to develop ways to make sure that were getting our messages out regularly so people know what to do with the system when the eventual earthquake happens. And I dont think thats as necessary in either Mexico or Japan.

The Times embarked on an effort to understand how earthquake early warning systems have changed how the public anticipates earthquakes in Japan and Mexico. First, well look at how the public interacts with the systems in both nations. Then, well explain how the science of the U.S. West Coast system differs from theirs and the particular challenges the U.S. system faces.

A few seconds later, the strong shaking arrived. The magnitude 7 temblor toppled a glass and swirled around the broth in the nabe dish he was cooking but otherwise left most of his home, and nerves, intact. He and his daughter proceeded to sit down to dinner.

His nearly instantaneous reaction, built on a decade of experience, was second nature in a way it wasnt in 2011, when his city was hit with the most severe earthquake in Japans modern history. At the time, he spent precious seconds wondering what that piercing sound was coming from his cellphone and those of his colleagues.

His phones alert is part of a nationwide earthquake early warning system Japan implemented in 2007 and has been improving ever since, a process that has involved devastating quakes, major false alarms and one of the most extensive public education campaigns in the countrys history.

Japans experience shows that getting the system up and running is only half the battle; the other half is getting the public to familiarize themselves with the alerts, what they signify and what to do when they receive them.

Uzurahashi, who had a friend who worked on earthquake warnings, said he was more aware of the system than the average person. Even so, the first few times he heard the alarm, he found himself disoriented and confused.

Knowing about the system on paper is quite different from experiencing it, said Uzurahashi, 63, a university administrator from Sendai, where more than 15,000 people were killed in the earthquake and tsunami in 2011.

The first few years, nobody paid attention, said Masumi Yamada, assistant professor at Kyoto Universitys Disaster Prevention Research Institute, who has worked on technical improvements to Japans system since 2011.

A 2010 survey found that only half of those queried in the Tokyo metropolitan area said they were aware of the alerts and what they meant and less than 40% knew to anticipate that strong shaking was about to hit. That dramatically changed after the 2011 earthquake and the numerous aftershocks that followed. By the summer of 2011, 90% of those surveyed said they were aware of earthquake early warnings and their significance. Those who were completely unaware dropped to less than 2%, from 15%.

The warnings remain popular in Japan despite false alarms and errors. In 2011, the alert underestimated the magnitude of the main earthquake and inaccurately forecast some of the aftershocks because some of the sensors lost power or misinterpreted data.

Mitsuyuki Hoshiba, an earthquake scientist with the Japan Meteorological Agency, which runs the system, said on about three occasions over the years, officials have had to apologize to the public for false alarms and explain what went wrong. The public seemed to understand and to continue supporting their efforts, he said.

Tomomi Higuchi, a 40-year-old university employee and a colleague of Uzurahashis, recalled being on a business trip in Kobe with three students in the summer of 2013 when she received a warning for a 7.8 magnitude quake in nearby Wakayama prefecture. She ran out of the hotel and waited for the shaking to arrive. None came.

It turned out to be a magnitude 2.3 earthquake, misinterpreted due to inaccurate GPS data and time stamp. Trains were stopped, cellphone signals jammed and websites crashed. One official said it was probably the biggest misreading in the systems history.

Even so, Higuchi said the false alarm didnt diminish her faith in the system because officials explained what went wrong and that it was just 15 minutes of anxiety standing on the curb outside the hotel something she felt was a small price to pay for the warnings benefits.

Hoshiba, the JMA researcher, said scientists working on Californias earthquake early warning system repeatedly asked him about what cost-benefit analyses Japan had gone through before the extensive investment in developing what is now by far the worlds most extensive and sophisticated system.

This city, built atop an ancient lakebed drained centuries ago by Spanish colonizers, is particularly susceptible to earthquakes, even those that strike hundreds of miles away. Thats because many of the citys densest neighborhoods sit atop layers of sand and clay, which magnify shaking, instead of bedrock.

It was a simple mental exercise, said Gerardo Surez, a seismologist at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. If we could detect earthquakes on the coast, we could send a signal to the city.

The alert system started running in 1991. Three decades later, the creepy, low drone of the earthquake warning alarm, which blares from loudspeakers the moment a large temblor is detected, has become a normal part of life in the capital and has even been remixed into a dance song and a cumbia. When people hear it, they rush out of their homes and buildings out of fear that the structures wont withstand the shaking.

The system in Mexico is less complicated than the USGSs ShakeAlert, which sends out an alarm based on an algorithm that seeks to predict how strong shaking will be in any given place. The Mexican system simply alerts for every large earthquake it detects. That means that sometimes it alerts for earthquakes that dont pose a real threat to the city. But many say they prefer to be alerted even if there is no real danger rather than missing an alert when the danger is real.

Honestly I prefer the anger of saying, It failed again, than when there really is an earthquake, the alarm doesnt ring and youre caught off guard, said Edgar Beltrn, a 52-year-old businessman in Mexico City.

The early warning system, however, can prove disappointing if an earthquake begins rupturing a fault too close to your location. Mexicos devastating 2017 earthquake occurred too close to Mexico City to allow for most people there to get enough advance warning to take useful action, Cochran said. And in some areas of the capital, no warning came before heavy shaking hit.

But scientists do expect that the warning system will prove immensely helpful when a huge earthquake ruptures in the ominous Guerrero seismic gap, a 125-mile-long zone that hasnt ruptured in a major earthquake since 1911, which could provide substantial warning to Mexico City before heavy shaking waves arrive and resonate and slosh in the capitals basin.

By contrast, two of Californias largest metro areas the Greater L.A. region and the San Francisco Bay Area are perilously close to the world-famous San Andreas fault, capable of generating earthquakes greater than magnitude 8. The San Andreas runs directly through the Inland Empire and Palm Springs.

Thats the real difficulty with the system for California, because the faults obviously crisscross right underneath our feet across L.A., across San Francisco, Cochran said. So part of the focus of the design for the ShakeAlert system is how we can very, very quickly detect the events, and use ... as little data as possible to get a quick estimate of what the shaking is going to be across the area and update that as the earthquake unfolds.

The Los Angeles Times and KPCC/LAist are teaming up to show you how to prepare for and survive a major earthquake in Southern California. This online community forum is free to attend.When: Thursday, June 24, 6 p.m.Where: Live streaming on YouTube, Facebook and TwitterWho: Earthquake expert Dr. Lucy Jones, Times reporter Rong-Gong Lin II, Times columnist Patt Morrison, KPCC/LAist reporter Jacob Margolis, KPCC/LAist host Austin Cross

Right now, the alerts can get to you fastest if youve downloaded an app on a smartphone, such as the MyShake app developed by UC Berkeley or the QuakeAlertUSA app by Santa Monica-based Early Warning Labs. Googles Android cellphone software system is automatically linked up to the earthquake early warning system, but no such feature exists for iOS on Apple devices.

It would also be more helpful to get the earthquake early warning system integrated with more infrastructure. Public transit systems, for example, could prompt bus drivers and train operators to slow down or stop before shaking arrives. Elevators could be programmed to stop at the nearest floor, sparing occupants from being trapped for hours.

Even if you had a few seconds to kind of make sure your elevator gets to the next floor and opens the doors, youre saving a whole lot of resources once the main quake has ended, such as freeing up firefighters to make other rescues, Cochran said.

Times staff writers Victoria Kim and Kate Linthicum reported from Seoul and Mexico City, respectively. Staff writer Rong-Gong Lin II reported from San Francisco. Cecilia Sanchez from the Times Mexico City bureau contributed to this report.

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