thickener machine start

what is dielectric grease and how to use it? | the drive

Dielectric grease is not an automotive necessity like oil or coolant, but its a popular product used in garages across the country. Most commonly applied on spark plug boots, lightbulbs, and battery terminals, dielectric grease is, in theory, a protectant like car wax. Its not required, but it could help extend and maintain the life and quality of your vehicle and its parts.

Dielectric grease is just one of the numerous types of lubricants found in and around your automobile, and each one has a specific purpose. If you choose to pick up some dielectric grease, you cant use it interchangeably with wheel bearing grease, or vice versa.

Dielectric grease is most commonly made of a silicone base and a thickener. It typically has a slightly translucent grayish or milky clear color. Permatex dielectric grease lists polydimethylsiloxane and silicone dioxide.

Dielectric grease and lubricating grease are designed for different purposes, and as such, they are made differently. While dielectric grease is typically made of silicone and a thickener, the lubricating grease is made of a lubricating oil, a thickener, and other additives.

Lubricating grease is a specific type of product designed for the lubrication of industrial, automotive, and other mechanisms. It is formulated from lubricating oil (petroleum, vegetable, or synthetic), performance additives, and a thickener.

Although the dielectric grease does insulate the metal and wiring from external invaders, the contacts are tight enough to still maintain a connection, the grease is just displaced. That said, you do not need to squirt huge globs of dielectric grease into your connectors as you see in some videos out there.

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Spartan Controls is the leading provider of automation, valves, measurement, process control, solutions and servicesinWestern Canada. For over 55 years, Spartan has provided customers with high performance solutions, industry expertise, lifecycle support, and technical training delivering value our Customers want. Our automation solutions are used in all process industries including oil and gas, oil sands, mining, pulp and paper, power, pipeline, and municipal. We are dedicated to providing exceptional customer experiences and delivering superior business results where expertise and collaboration come together.

The name 'Spartan' was selected as a reflection of the Spartans of ancient Greece, who were noted for their efficiency, competitiveness, and organization abilities. Today, we are organized across three provinces where local teams work to understand Customer challenges and deliver value the Customer wants.

Workplace innovation and differentiation is important and Spartan supports a thriving workplace that incorporates healthy living, fun, energy, effective spaces, and technology. We keep Spartans energized by providing a great place to work! read more

As an Emerson Impact Partner, we are a local, single point of contact for sales, service and applied engineering for Emersons automation solutions business. We combine our local capabilities with Emersons global reach and scale enabling Customers to achieve Top Quartile performance by providing control, reliability, safety and optimization solutions.

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Many of the industry's standard approaches were created decades ago, long before today's innovative technologies. Doing more of the same yields incremental benefits, while today's trends are to digitize and deliver better results. With a partner like Northeast Controls, you can. Our automation expertise can help you hit your targets and move into Top Quartile performance.

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thickener startup & shutdown procedure

An EXAMPLE Startup of the thickener may occur under two sets of very different circumstances: After a major plant shutdown orthe initial plant start-up, when the thickener is completely empty OR/AND After a shutdown whereby the thickener has been left full of pulp, and rakes and underflow pumps have been inoperative (such as after a power failure).

In the case that the thickener is empty, the thickener must be filled with barren solution or water prior to restarting any part of the process. No attempt should be made to put pulp into an empty thickener. The underflow lines must be clean.

After the thickener has been brought up to normal operating conditions, the operator must monitor the process variables and alarms. The operator is also required to sample and analyse process streams and read local indications.

Flocculant is added to the thickener feed pipe. The operator must adjust the addition rates to give optimum solid settling with minimum flocculant consumption. Flocculant must also be used to give a clear overflow from the thickener.

The thickener should be run to give 60% solids or as high an underflow density as can conventionally be achieved. The thickener underflow density recorder should be monitored frequently. If the thickener is operating smoothly, the recorder monitoring the underflow density should almost be a straight line. The underflow pump speed will automatically change to maintain the set underflow density.

ThickenerEmergency Shutdown Procedure In the event of an emergency, the equipment in the Thickening Circuit can be shut down with locally mounted STOP switches from the MCC located in the mill control room.

thickening

ANDRITZ offers a range of thickeners with different machine concepts in order to meet highest demands as to consistency, throughput and availability. Our thickeners are perfectly suited for the processing of virgin and recycled fibers, broke as well as mechanical pulp.

With over 600 units in operation, the vacuum-assisted ANDRITZ DiscFilter is regarded as key equipment when it comes to handling most demanding thickening applications. A series of technical innovations have been incorporated into the new ANDRITZ PrimeFilter D to deliver superior throughput and operation with reduced energy costs:

The performance of the gravity drum thickener is based on decades of experience in thickening. The ANDRITZ Drum Thickener is a simple, cost efficient, and reliable filter for applications in a consistency range of 0.55.0%.

The ANDRITZ MicraScreen is a versatile, pressure-fed bow screen for various separation and fractionation applications in the pulp and paper industry. It can be used for fiber recovery, thickening, solids removal, fractionation, and fiber/filler separation.

The ANDRITZ HydraScreen is a static bow screen for various dewatering and cleaning purposes. It can be used for fiber and solids recovery, thickening process and waste waters, dewatering of chips, washing, and barker drum water.

how to operate a thickener

Running a thickener properly isnt as easy as it looks. True enough, a thickener doesnt make a racket like a ball mill, or spew out froth like a flotation machine, or bounce up and down like a jig, but down inside that big tank there is a lot going on just the same.

You, as operator of a thickener, or group of thickeners, will find out, if you havent already, that your machine is as slow and deliberate in operation as a sleepy elephant, and just about as hard to control if you let it get out of hand. We want to suggest some ways by which you can keep your thickener headed in the right direction. To be able to do that is a good idea for two reasons: first, because your job as thickener operator is just as important to the success of the company as any other job in the mill; second, your job is more fun and is easier when you do it well. If you study thickener operation a little and think about it, you can make a really interesting job out of it.

To start at the beginning, lets see what a thickener is. We have fixed up a couple of diagrams on this page to show you the inside of one,and, as you see, the main elements are the tank, the rake arms, and the drive mechanism. In operation, the tank is full ofwhatever it is you are thickening, usually a pulp of ground ore, or tailing, and water. The liquid overflows around the edge of the tank, and the solids, also called the slime or the sludge, settle to the bottom of the tank. The rake arms go around very slowly, and the plows set on the arms gradually work the sludge over to the center of the tank bottom, along with lime sacks, old shoes, your lunch box, or anything else you drop into the tank that wont float.

The main idea in running a thickener is to get the sludge that comes out of the bottom of the tank as thick as you can, and, at the same time, keep the overflow clear. Also it is important just to keep her going, and there are times when that may not be so easy.

The purpose of a thickener is to thicken, which is simple enough, but it isnt enough for you just to know that. You also ought to know why and how this thickening is to be done. We cant tell you the whole story here, but we can give you a start on it, and then well ask you to finish the story for you.

The simplest use of a thickener in a metal-mining operation is to get water out of a pulp; for example, in a desert country where water is too valuable to be thrown away with the tailings. There you have a thickener treating the tailings and recovering some of the water to be sent back to the mill and used over again. The partially dewatered tailings are then easily stacked up. Other similar uses are to recover water from concentrates, or to cut down on the water content of a flotation feed.

Another use of thickeners is in the operation known as counter-current decantation, or C.C.D., for short. Here you have a string of thickeners that are not just recovering water, but are acting as big washing machines. In a cyanide plant, after the pulp has been treated in the agitators, the gold has dissolved in the solution and the problem is to get the solution separated from the solids, because if you lose any solution with the solids when they go out as tailing, you lose gold, too, and that isnt good business.

So you start the mixed solids and solution in at one end of a line of thickeners, and start clear weak solution in at the other end. The solids go from the bottom of one thickener to the top of the next; the solution overflows from one thickener to the next, but in the opposite direction to the way the pulp is travelling. As the solids go up the line, more and more gold-bearing solution is washed out of them by the solution which is headed down the other way. The result is that the solids that come out of the bottom of the last thickener have so little gold in them that they can be thrown away; and the solution that overflows the first thickener now has recovered a lot of gold.

If that sounds a little complicated right now, dont worry about it, but if you are in a C.C.D. plant treating gold ore, or perhaps aluminium, manganese, or nickel ore, it will pay you to study out what is going on and why. But no matter whether you are doing C.C.D. or straight thickening, remember that the main idea is still to get the sludge as thick as you can, and to keep the overflow clear.

Since slime layers have not been much studied, the remedies proposed in the following are conjectural and not part of established industrial tradition or know-how. Where segregated slime layers form, they almost surely govern and limit thickener capacity, so something should be done about them. Since they almost surely arise from segregation of fines in the feed layer, anything that can be done to decrease the segregation should help. Deep feedwells should help, and indeed substantial capacity increases have been claimed in South Africa when deep-slotted feedwells were installed. Remixing, either internally or externally, of material from the slime layer back into the feed should help. It might be conjectured that deep-slotted feedwells were helpful precisely because they cause such recirculation to occur internally. Further, since the slimes are teetered on the total overflow emerging from the feed layer, they must settle against the entire overflow rate. Perhaps if materials were constantly withdraw n from the slime layer and were fed to a small auxiliary thickener, the solids throughput per unit of combined thickener areas would be increased.

It will help you understand what is going on in a thickener if you get a milk bottle and fill it with the thick- how the slime all settles together, leaving clear liquid behind; and how the slime line comes down rapidly at first, and then slows down and finally stops altogether. Look closely at the sludge after it seems to have stopped settling, and you will see little channels twisting up through the slime. Every so often a little squirt of water will run up one of these channels,and the slime will settle a little farther. You see, liquid has to be squeezed out to make room for the slime to pack down more tightly, and this liquid pushes out along those channels. The rakes travelling around help squeeze out liquid in just that way in the thickener.

Notice the difference between the way the slimes look when you stir up the bottle, and the way they look when they are all settled and packed down in it. The first way, the slimes are settling down, and the slime line comes down in the bottle pretty rapidly; the second way, the slimes are packed up like so much mud and the slime line stays put. Heres how you can use that bit of information:

Suppose you come around to the thickener and find a lot of slime coming off in the overflow. That means you are either feeding morepulp than the thickener can handle, or not pumping sludge out of the bottom fast enough. But how can you tell which? One quick way is to take a sample of the pump discharge. If the sludge is thicker than the boss has told you to hold it at, you should pump faster and pull it down. But if the slime level does not drop down, then the tonnage must be cut and quick. Going still further, you may find that even with a dilute pump discharge slimes continue to overflow, and this means that you have run into a bad- settling ore. All that you can do tonnage increases the settling area per ton to be handled.

You can explore the inside of a thickener some evening when you havent much else to do and learn a lot about what goes on. To do this, fix up a sampler which is nothing but a milk bottle tied to a long stick marked in inches and feet. There has to be a cork in the bottle, and a string tied to the cork. Put the bottle down into the thickener as deep as you want it, then pull out the cork with the string. Wait a second for the bottle to fill, then pull it up, and theres your sample. Then measure the distance on the stick, and this will show you how deep down the sample was taken in the thickener. In this way you can explore all parts of the thickener.

In general, the best indicator to tell you how the thickener is doing is the condition of the sludge being pumped out of the tank bottom. You will undoubtedly be required to take regular samples of the sludge, and probably record the weight of the samples you take, but it doesnt do any harm to take a few more samples just to see how things are going. A great many skilful operators -take samples in a pint milk bottle (Doesnt anybody drink anything but milk around here?), and they can tell by looking at the sample whether or not the thickener is on the beam. You cant be expected to do that right away, but you may be able to in time. Of course, if you are made to take samples in a special container and weigh them on a special pulp balance, you probably wont develop an eye for it, because you wont have to. It wont do any harm to try, though.

With segregating pulps, flushing out the underflow line becomes more of a problem. The fines wash away, leaving heavy sands in the line, and they are hard to move. For this reason it is often unwise to try to push the plug with wash water to the underflow lines destination. Drains that can be opened to discharge the plugging material should be provided at judicious points.

Segregating pulps also may give start-up problems that, in extreme cases, can be severe. The coarse segregates away from the fines and drops to the bottom at small diameters. There the rakes move slowly, and so do not have the sand-raking capacity to move all the segregated sands on into the discharge. Sand raked in soon forms a reef at small diameters that buries the rakes. Torque runs away. If the rakes are not shut down by a high torque cutout, enough force may be developed to crumple the innermost blades or otherwise damage the rake arms. Torque arms are of little benefit for this problem. Since they are hinged to the drive cage, they do not raise much at their inner ends where the problem develops. Rake-lift mechanisms are better, permitting a longer lime for a steady-state to be approached, in which settling fines raked in from large diameters are incorporated back into the segregating sands settlings at smaller diameters. These start-up problems are aggrevated in countercurrent decantation processes since the initial wave of segregated sand moves ahead of fines down the system. There are initially few fines even in the feed to downstream stages.

It is easier to say what not to do during start-up than what to do with segregation pulps. One of the worst things is to fill the thickener with water before starting solids feed. The feed stream becomes partially diluted while plunging to the bottom, and segregation is increased. The large volume of liquid holds back segregated fines longer, so it takes longer to attain a steady operating state. Ideally; feed should be introduced near the bottom of the empty thickener through a temporary distribution system. It usually suffices to run it in through the regular feed lines. Feed should not be abnormally dilute, as often happens during start-up, since segregation is thereby increased. When the torque starts to rise, dont increase the underflow- rate so excessively that the strata of settling fines above the segregated sands arepulled out by rat-holing. Addition of flocculating agents during start-up will alleviate the problem, since they tend to hold the solids structure together and decrease segregation.

Extreme segregating pulps are not common, and all the difficulties described above are seldom met. If in a batch test a gritty layer of segregated solids build up in the bottom of the graduate within an hour or so, one that has to be spooned out of the graduate, such start-up problems should be anticipated.

In any case, the shift boss will start you out by showing you, or telling you, how thick the sludge is supposed to be, and all you have to do is to keep it that way. If it gets thinner than it ought to be, slow up the diaphragm pump. If it gets thicker than it ought to be, speed up the pump. As to just how much to change the pump setting, all we can do is tell you to go easy until you learn by experience. If you shift the setting too much, you may run the thickener away over in the wrong direction and then youll have to coax it back again. This sort of see-saw operation is bad for any piece of mill equipment, but it is particularly bad in thickeners used in counter-current decantationwork. Handling flotation machine upsets is childs play by comparison, because the thickeners take so long to make up their minds.

What happens if you do let the thickener underflow (the sludge) run too thin? If it is a tailings thickener, you are wasting water, which is unforgiveable in the desert. If it is a concentrate thickener, you . may be handing the filter operator a headache, which he may return with interest. If it is a C.C.D. thickener, you are only making trouble for yourself farther along the line.

Suppose you let the thickener underflow run too thickwhat then? You may cause the overflow to become slimy, for one thing, but the big danger is that you may overload the thickener. It was builtto handle just so much sludge, and if you crowd it beyond that point, you are in for trouble.

This brings us to the most important indicator of thickener operation, the overload alarm. There is a spring arrangement attached to the drive mechanism up on top in such a way that when the arms begin plowing into sludge more than they were meant to, the spring pulls over a pointer on a scale put up where you can see it. The tougher the going, the more the pointer comes over; until finally a bell rings to warn you to get busy and do something about the overload. If you should leave things alone after that, the pointer moves a little farther, closes a contact, and shuts the thickener down. The fat is now really in the fire. The rake arms are buried in mud, and the feed will have to be cut until the thickener has been unloaded. When unloaded, the arms have to be raised until the thickener mechanism will again turn. Following this, the pump must be speeded up to help draw down the sludge load as fast as possible. While this is going on, the thickener arms must be lowered slowly until they finally reach their normal operation location. And then after you have done probably more than your share of this dirty job, you will be hauled up on the carpet to explain where you were when the bell rang.

And yet there have been thickener operators who stuffed paper in these warning bells because they didnt like to be startled out of a sound sleep, by loud ringing noises. Just remember that pointer and the bell are there for a purpose, and that when they indicate an overload, the changes are about 100,000 to 1 that the thickener really is overloaded. You will save yourself an awful lot of trouble by paying attention to these warnings.

For those people who are still operating one of theold-style-hair- on-the-chest belt-driven thickeners, let us add this warning: If your thickener bogs down, there isnt any fancy cut-out switch, and you may be tempted to start the thickener by main strength. You slap on belt dressing, maybe you even tighten the belt, and give it everything youve got. Sure enough, you may get the central shaft to turning, but the rake arms wont turn. You will discover before long that your strong-arm stuff has turned the central shaft into a poor imitation of a barber pole, which is a very difficult thing to explain away.

What to do when the pointerbegins to show an overload? Look at the discharge to see whether or not you areover-thickening, whichmeans pumping sludge too slowly. Also, run a pole down into the thickener over near the centre of the tank. You can tell by the feel when the end of the pole reaches the layer of thick sludge. This thick layer ought to be about two feet thicknot much more and not much less. In case of overload, it will probably be more, and you can cut it down by pumping faster. If the slimes are away up, you may be feeding too fast.

In the case of the belt-driven thickener with the stuck rakes, the thing to do is to raise the rakes until they clear the sludge. Instead of slapping on the dope, run them around by hand a complete revolution to make sure they are clear; then start up again, gradually lowering the rakes every hour or so until you work the load off. Never stop the diaphragm pump when the thickener cuts out or gets stuck. If anything, hurry it along.

The foregoing are the main items to remember in thickener operation, but there are a few other points worth mentioning. For example, there is this matter of dropping things into the tank. It is a safe bet that there would have been no tool shortage at the beginning of the war if all the thickeners in the country could have been drained and the lost tools recovered from them. And what is worse, a tool may be shoved by the rakes over into the center of the tank bottom, where it will jam the outlet and perhaps choke off the sludge. Digging it out is the only remedy, unless you can fish it out; so the moral is, hang onto your pipe wrenches when you work near a thickener.

In a really big thickener, it is sometimes difficult to tell if the arms are moving. Not just for that reason, but because it is a pretty good idea anyway, some companies have had their men fasten a thin pole in an upright position to the end of one rake arm. This pole should be long enough to reach the surface of the water, and on top of the pole is fastened a red ball, a decoy duck, a model of the Queen Mary, or whatever you like. Then as the arms go around, the duck goes around, too, and because it is out at the end of the arm, it swims fast enough to leave a wake.

Sometimes a washboard condition may develop the thickenergravel roads, and the tame duck will give this condition away instantly by beginning to travel like A porpoise. The washboard effect may sometimes be stopped by changing the speed of the arms, just as you can find a car speed that will stop the bouncing over washboard roads.

If islands tend to form, they can usually be kept under control by raising and lowering the rakes once a shift. If this fails, they can often be broken up without shutdown by poling or by the use of water or air lances. If island formation is anticipated, raking mechanisms with a minimum of structure down in the compression zone should be used. In one class of designs the rake arm is arranged above the mud level and the blades are carried on stilts (Fig. 29). More recently, units have been offered in which the rake arms are a minimal structure and are towed around by cables from rotating drag arms located above the liquid level (Fig. 30). The arms also raise at high torque. They are pivoted at the center so that the plane defined by the rake arms and the towing cables can rotate hingewise along a line drawn through the central pivot and the cable tow point b. The rake arms thus torque up in an arc whose center is the hinge line. In the original design developed in South Africa, the rake pivot is doubly-hinged to create a universal joint. The rake arm is then free to follow the arc that maintains constant cable length and tensions, while still preventing rotation of the arm and tilting of the rakes.

Cable-towed rakes have proven most advantageous for applications in which scaling is a problem. Their minimal submerged rake structure collects scale at a much lower rate than conventional ones, and they can be operated for substantially longer times between shutdowns for descaling. They are rapidly replacing conventional units for red mud washing in alumina plants, where scaling is severe.

If the sludge slows down or suddenly stops coming into the pump, the pipe is probably plugged. You have no doubt already been shown how to blow air and water through the pipes to clear them. If the pipe doesnt seem to be plugged, there may have been a snowslide of pulp over into the center of the tank, and you may have been the victim of island formation. Islands are big collections of sludge that ride around on the rake arms and refuse to be scraped out of the tank. You can tell by sounding with a pole whether you have a snowslide or an island, and if it is a slide, treat it like an overload. If it is an island, try to break it up by shoving a water jet down into the center of it.

Just a word about thick pulps. Dont be afraid that a thick pulp will plug up the diaphragm pump or the sludge lines. Actually a thin pulp will plug the line much quicker than a thick pulp will, thereason being that sand settles out of a thin pulp faster than it does out of a thick one. If you try to pump a thin pulp from a thickener, sand may settle out and plug the pipe lines.

This may seem to be rather late in the game to tell you how to start a thickener, but we do want to get it in. Dont start a nice clean thickener by filling it with fresh water and then running in pulp. If you do, the chances are that sand will settle out so fast in the clear water that it will bury the rakes before they do any raking, and you are licked before you start.

The thing to do is start the arms going with the thickener empty, men run in pulp, and let the thickener fill up with it. Run the diaphragm pump slowly for as long as is necessary to bed the thickener down with a couple of feet of thick sludge, then bring the pump up to what seems to be the proper speed for steady operation.

Now for a few mechanical details, and that will be all. Keep all the bolts tight around the drive mechanism, and clean regularly the screen on the feed launder sothat wood chips dont get into the tank. Waterlogged wood helps form islands. Sluice out the sludge line once a week, and test the overload alarm daily. Keep the worm chamber on the drive mechanism full of oil, and take care of the grease fittings daily. The lifting screw gear ought to be greased well, and it is a good idea to keep grease on the central shaft for about a foot below the worm gear. And dont fall into the thickener; it doesnt look well.

This Robert Ramsey article, now in the Public Domain, is based largely on information furnished by C. K. McArthur, of The Dorr Co., Inc., New York, N. Y., and further information and suggestions were furnished by H. L. Hazen and Wayne C. Hazen, of Manganese Ore Co., Boulder City, Nev. Their assistance is gratefully acknowledged.

advanced thickener control - metso outotec

The control of the thickener must accommodate fluctuations in the process stream. This control is achieved by manipulating both the flocculant addition and the rate of underflow pumping. However fluctuations in ore type cause random changes in the required flocculant dosing.

With PID loop control the thickener inventory can be controlled through feedback from either bed level or Clarometer and flocculant dosing can be controlled against mass flow with feedback from bed level. By controlling flocculation and solids inventory, the thickening process is stabilized and consistent, optimum; underflow density can be achieved through manual optimization.

Flocculant dosing should be matched to the mass flow to the thickener with the rate adjusted to suit the ore being processed. Once the optimum flocculant or coagulant is selected the correct range of dosing can be determined. Simple cylinder tests indicate the effect of dosing on the initial settling rate and give a good guide to the effects on the settling rate and overflow clarity, the effects of flocculants on the underflow properties are less obvious.

For flocculant to be controlled the dosing should be well designed and tailored to the site needs. The location of the injection point should be such that turbulence will ensure a good dispersion of the flocculant with the dilution liquor and feed. Multiple points of addition may be require as this usually improves the contact of the flocculant with the system, coagulants should be added early and where froth is present care should be taken to avoid stabilizing the froth with flocculant. Dilute solutions very often give better results however over dilution will increase the up flow rate overriding the benefits of the enhanced settling rate.

Thickener underflow density is a function of the solids ability to settle and the residence time in the thickener. Systems that attempt to control density from the density measurement tend to cause cyclic instability. By selecting inventory control that controls the underflow pumping to maintain a constant mass the underflow density can be stabilized, then adding underflow density as a feedback to modify the inventory set point consistent high underflow density can be achieved within the limits of the thickener itself. Increasing underflow density results in a material with a higher yield stress being raked increasing the rake torque and limiting the achievable underflow density. In a similar way the depth of the bed is also limited by the thickener geometry.

Typically, thickener controls are implemented as single loop controllers in DCS/PLC systems. These systems are challenged by long response dynamics and interaction between variables, leading to difficulties in maintaining underflow density. Underflow pumps and flocculant dosing pumps must be manipulated to control the thickener at the desired operation point in varying situations and quality targets. Whilst some classical techniques can handle these situations, regular operator intervention is required. The tuning becomes difficult, typically requiring high-level experts to remain onsite. Another challenge is in allowing for process constraints and the desired prioritization between controlled variables.

Automation Control Tools (ACT) overcomes the inability of Proportional, Integral, Derivative (PID) loops to handle slow response dynamics and cross actions between controlled variables. An appropriate control system architecture is required. Here, the advanced control calculations can take place on a Higher Level ACT system that sits above the sites process control system (PCS).

Separating advanced control from sequences and the general human machine interface (HMI) on the PCS makes both systems easy to maintain and troubleshoot. Figure 2 shows the results that have been achieved after installing ACT-based advanced control on a concentrate thickener. This compares favorably with PID based approaches that can take many months to fine-tune to an acceptable level of control.

thickener - mineral processing

Thickeners are recognized as one of the most cost-effective technologies for water recovery from concentrate and tailings streams. The concentrated slurry from the thickening process is transported to the tailings dam for disposal and the recycled water is returned to the processing plant.In the process of thickening (also called sedimentation), the solids in a suspension settle under the influence of gravity in a tank and form a thick pulp. This pulp, and the clear liquid at the top of the tank, can be removed continuously or intermittently.In comparison with filtration, thickening offers the advantage of low operation costs; on the other hand, it has the disadvantage of leaving a higher moisture content in the pulp. For this reason, the dewatering of pulps containing fine particles often involves a combination of thickening and filtration. The thickening of finely grained pulps is often aided by the use of flocculating agents.

To start with, mineral thickener works on the principle of Gravity sedimentation and the most common construction of a thickener would be of iron or steel.The continuous thickener consists of a cylindrical tank. Pulp is fed into the centre of the tank via a feed-well placed up to 1 m below the surface of the suspension. The clarified liquid overflows a trough, while the solids which settle at the bottom of the tank are withdrawn as a thickened pulp from an outlet at the centre. One or more rotating radial arms are there within the tank, from each of which are suspended a series of blades, shaped so as to rake the settled solids towards the central outlet.

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LONDON The resale market is roaring ahead the last month alone saw resale platform Vinted valued at $350 billion while Depop sold to Etsy last week for $1.6 billion with new players joining the race, and changing the rules.

According to Cupi, the key is to move away from the retail business model and toward a personal finance model, helping people understand that their closet is part of their wealth and enabling them to liquidate the assets they no longer use as quickly as possible.

The model also moves the resale conversation forward by offering customers instant cash which will be an irresistible prospect for many. With other resale or rental platforms, people are often forced to wait weeks or even months before their pieces are priced, sold or auctioned off.

There has been a tectonic shift in how people view consumption. They are checking how much theyd be able to resell an item before even buying it and a good portion of the purchases are made by selling older items they own. So, consumers already have that mantra of paying for new things using their old things. We just want to streamline the process and make it very simple for them to do it all on a single platform, said Cupi, a former investment banker and venture capitalist, who has founded three other start-ups across the upcycling, resale and blockchain authentication fields.

Theres a new perception about the items that we have at home and personal wealth. The traditional definition of wealth doesnt include the value of a wardrobe. When people thought about their own wealth, they thought about the largest assets they owed, like a house or car. But with Bitcoin and the tokenization of assets, we started to rethink what money really is, and if a Gucci Marmont bag can help you pay your mortgage or enable you to travel, then thats money as well. Its this whole idea of having a bank of things and using them as payment currency.

Twig works by sending sold items to its logistics partner to confirm the authenticity, and then looks at reselling each item at one of the 40-plus secondhand marketplaces it works with. Whatever doesnt sell within eight weeks is either upcycled the company works with over 1,000 upcycling facilities or donated to charity.

Our ethos is that sustainability and capitalism can co-exist, with the big common enemy being the landfill, said Cupi. People have thrown away over $7 trillion worth of items in the last 15 years, and this has a negative impact on the planet but also on peoples wallets. We want to enable consumers to use us as a banking provider in a way that does good to their wallets, but also to the planet.

The opportunity is two-fold as far as Cupi is concerned: Twig can fill in a gap that the new generation of banks doesnt provide by helping users cash in on the fashion items they already own, and offering a big point of difference in the reselling experience itself.

The app allows people to upload an item within 30 seconds and get an instant price offer, generated by an algorithm that uses machine-learning to identify the items current market price. Once the person accepts the offer, they get paid instantly, even before shipping the item.

At the moment, if you want to sell an item, theres a lot of friction, the whole process is quite complex: You need to spend time doing market research and listing the item, then you wait for weeks for it to be sold. Our solution is the fastest way to get paid for your items, argued Cupi.

You have a luxury consumer who buys basics from fast-fashion brands and you have fast-fashion consumers who buy secondhand luxury. The traditional user personas have shifted, so its difficult to position. Our duty is to be as open as possible, and to make sure as few items as possible end up in landfills, added Cupi.

New features are also being developed on the app, including a carbon offsetting tool and a new checkout tool that will appear on e-commerce platforms of brands and retailers, to enable users to pay with money earned from Twig instead of tapping into their bank accounts. The company said its now in the process of piloting the feature with both independent and mainstream retailers, with a launch to market slated for the end of 2021.

It doesnt get more circular than that. You get to replace your old things with new things, said Cupi, adding that, from the retailer perspective, this is an opportunity to become more circular and also get closer to the end consumer. We want to make peoples lives easier and give them the tools to behave in a sustainable manner.

The company is focused on offering these services to the U.K. market at the moment, but expansion in key European territories and the U.S. is also on the cards for the end of the year, following a $5.5 million investment round at the start of 2020 from investors including finance-focused fund Fasanara Capital; Andrea Molteni, who was an early Farfetch investor, and shoe designer Nicholas Kirkwood.

Megan Fox is speaking out about the double standards she faces on a regular basis. The "Transformers" star, who appears in the new thriller "Till Death," spoke to InStyle this week about the unfair expectations placed upon her as a mother. The actress, who shares three children with her estranged husband Brian Austin Green, told the outlet that she is held to a different standard when it comes to co-parenting.

"A Message From the Gay Community," performed by the San Francisco Gay Mens Chorus (SFGMC) and posted to YouTube last week, starts out defiantly: "You think we're sinful, you fight against our rights, you say we all lead lives you can't respect" But not everyone got the joke.

gravity belt thickener controls from fsi machine vision

The FyrEye-5801 machine vision system will continuously monitor the sludge on Gravity Belt Thickeners and similar types of systems. It serves the dual purpose of ensuring the proper operation of the equipment, as well as providing an efficient and effective automated control over the polymer/sludge blending process. Benefits:

Outputs: Various output configurations are available. Two of the most popular configurations are: The first configuration provides for two outputs:

The FyrEye-5801 is a family of systems and solutions adapted and verified for individual applications and objectives. Our APS (Assured Path to Success) roadmap guides the process to 100% success, from inception to long term ownership. The FyrEye5801-02 is an example; a system designed to handle 3 GBT's simultaneously and perform in accordance with the mission and conditions specified in a Vision Application Specification document. (VAS -8501-02). Selective image storage of process deviations permits convenient review at a later time. This particular system includes three separate cameras with water and corrosion resistant enclosures, a 5 foot camera standoff capability, and up to 75 feet of cable between the camera(s) and processing unit. All non-camera components/electronics are integrated into a single enclosure. Please contact FSI for a system and solution that is confirmed for your application. FSI has been a trusted factory automation manufacturer for over 50 years. Our Assured Path to Success methods and programs have a 100% success rate in this field of machine vision. Because our engineers are deeply involved in understanding the application, recommending the products, and supporting the software, these systems are uniquely suited for long term supportability and standardization. For printable version click here

kadant fiber processing - thickening

The Kadant Direct Discharge disk filter is optimal for stock thickening and water return/channeling, removing water from pulp slurry. The pulp slurry is fed to the disk filter at approximatively 1% concentration and is accepted at 10%. The disk filters main advantage over other dewatering equipment is that it retains most of the fibers. Very clear filtrate means that the water can be returned up front in the previous steps of the process without carrying fibers that have already gone through the process.

Direct Discharge Disk Filter Size: 2.77 MB Format: PDF Preview

The DNT pulp washing thickener is a high-speed double nip thickening machine, using a synthetic wire for the most efficient removal of small ink particles, fillers, and other contaminants smaller than 100 mm. The design is simple, compact, and offers high capacity with thorough washing.

The RotoFlex resource recovery strainer uses a unique, patented method of filter media cleaning to keep the filter medium open and to flush contaminants from the surface. The conical media hangs freely from the upper support ring and is not attached or in contact with any part of the strainer below the ring. As the feed flow from the distribution headers impact the media and the media rotates, the synthetic mesh flexes back and forth, shedding the fiber and debris without the aid of a cleaning shower or scraping device.

RotoFlex Resource Recovery Strainer Size: 1.10 MB Format: PDF Preview

Used in applications with a high demand for pulp and paper cleanliness, these low maintenance systems offer cost-efficient fiber processing in a space-saving canister design. The Radiclone BM80 provides inline thickening, requires no additional pumps, and delivers one of the highest removal efficiencies available for lightweight contaminants, such as plastics, Styrofoam, waxes, and shives. Radiclone BM80 Hydrocycloning Systems BR-EN Size: 2.41 MB Format: PDF Preview

The Kadant SaveMaxx screw compactor is used for thickening light rejects, such as plastics, in recycled paper production. It dewaters the rejects from horizontal pulper drums and from the washing drum of conventional pulpers. SaveMaxx Screw Compactor Size: 5.16 MB Format: PDF Preview

A cost-effective dewatering solution for a variety of pulps and fibers as well as industrial waste and sludge. Paper stock furnishes, vegetable and fruit pulps, wheats, grains, and commercial residues can be efficiently dewatered according to your exact application and purpose based upon desired feed, rate, concentration, moisture, and retention time.

thickeners | sepor, inc

The basic function of a thickener is the separation of solids from liquids, and in many cases is used to concentrate very dilute slurries to feed to another process, such as a filter. Typical applications include dewatering concentrates, countercurrent solids washing systems, solids removal from plant effluents, etc.. Often, chemical flocculants are added to the thickener feed to improve the settling rates and quality of the clarified water or liquid.

Sepor specializes in the application, design and manufacture of pilot plant and small commercial size units. Experience in mineral, chemical and water treatment plants thickening and clarifying circuits enable us efficiently design and produce solids/liquids separation equipment. Gear mechanisms are running in oil type. Thickeners are available in mild steel, stainless steel or other corrosion resistant materials.

Gear motor Drive:3 and 4 with v-belt drive and 1/3 HP gear motor; 5 through 7 with 1/2 HP gear motor; 8 and 10 with 3/4 HP gear mo- tor; 12 and 14 with 1 HP gear motor. Motor and gear reducer may be supplied instead of gear motor.

3. Overflow velocities are also controlled, to balance the clear water overflow with the balance of the thickener operations, such as feed inflow, settling zones, compression zones, and compacted solids zones.

The basic function of a thickener is the separation of solids from liquids, and in many cases is used to concentrate very dilute slurries to feed to another process, such as a filter. Much of the time, flocculants need to be used to help the solids settle in a reasonable time frame. Typical types of flocculants are cationic and anionic, named for their charge. Generally, these are high molecular weight polymers of a long chain design to attract many fine particles that would take many hours to settle individually, due to the surface tension of water and liquids, like charge particles continually repelling and dispersing and other forces which are at play in a thickener. These forces are overcome by the flocculants by neutralizing any charges dispersing solids, coagulating the fine solids and allowing gravity to pull them to the bottom of the thickener.

In addition to the tank, conventional thickeners have rakes, which slowly push the compacted solids towards the discharge point, typically located in the center. The key to operating a thickener is the settling rate of the solids, if it is too fast, solids will build up too quickly and pile un on the rakes, causing the rakes to stop operating or in serious cases, break. There is a nice range from which thickeners will operate in, and it is necessary to keep them there. By conducting simple settling tests in a 1000 graduated cylinder will give one a ball part settling rate to start with, and adjust it in the thickener as operations dictate. This means if solids build up too fast, decease the settling rate, if solids are in the clear water, increase the settling rate or perhaps investigate the addition of a cationic coagulating polymer.

Sepor, Inc. began business in 1953 with the introduction of the Sepor Microsplitter , a Jones-type Riffle splitter, developed by geologist Oreste Ernie Alessio for his own use in the lab. Sepor grew over the next several decades to offer a complete line of mineral analysis tools, as well as pilot plant equipment for scaled operations.

how to thicken homemade yogurt - luvele us

Barb Hodgens loves to cook alternative, healthy whole food cooking with a focus on gut health, SCD & GAPS diets. Barbs has also been able to overcome her own gut health issues through her journey into alternative eating. Please share your ideas, comments and photos at the end of this post :)

Acommon questionregardinghomemade yogurt is? Why is my yogurt runny? or the flip-side How can I thicken my yogurt?. We want to reassure you that there isnothing wrong with eatingthin yogurt. Traditional homemade animal milk yogurt can be anything from drinkable to thick and creamy.Regardless of where it is on this spectrum, homemade yogurt isabeneficial probiotic food.

Having said that, we do understand the visceral appeal of thick, voluptuous yogurt and if thickening it up still calls to you we have five simple tips below.First though, we'll run through some trouble shooting fundamentals to help with your yogurt making.

Temperature and timeboth play a huge part in the outcome of yogurt. Unless you live ina warm climate youll have no chance of incubating milk into yogurt at a continuous stable temperature.Bacteria remain dormant below 36C/ 96F and right now, its only 14Coutside! While milk can be fermented into yogurt in just 6-8 hours, we favour 24-hours for atherapeutic grade,probiotic yogurtand that is hard to accommodate without the right gear.

There are lots of DIY ways to incubate milk (a low oven, a slow cooker, an Instant Pot) but they are all flawed when it comes to keeping an even temperature for 24-hours. Too hot or too cool will negatively impact the bacteria in youryogurt starter culture. You really need ayogurt maker. A possible cause of runny yogurt is the bacteria fermentation slowing down, becoming dormant or being killed by an uneven heat source. Fermenting for longer always results in a thicker yogurt anyway.

Before you startmaking yogurt, consider themilk that you use.Dairy manufacturing methods effect the structure of milk and this changes the consistency of yogurt. We suggest you experiment with different brands to find the one that produces the consistency you like most.Milk with ahigh fat or high protein content will definitely give you a thicker, creamier yogurt.

Because we want you to benefit from the mosttherapeutic homemade yogurt,we recommend organic milk. Hormones and antibiotics found in conventional milk may interfere with fermentation. Any milk that has been altered beyond simple pasteurization and homogenization - such as skim or lite varieties may not produce the best yogurt.

The type of animal milk you choose will also determine the consistency.Raw milk that has come straight from a cow and is free from processing (pasteurisation and homogenisation) will always result in a thinner finished yogurt.Likeraw milkyogurt,goat milk yogurt is always thinner thancow milk yogurt. Sheep milk yogurt is thicker again.

Differentyogurt startersresult in different yogurt consistencies. We recommend you follow the handling and storage instructions unique to your culture (or probiotic) so that the strains stay fresh and active.

If you inoculate milk with a portion ofhomemade yogurt (as a starter to re-culture) make sure you do not continue this process indefinitely because the strains may be too few or too weak. If you are using store-bought yogurt as a starter, be sure not to choose a brand that contains thickening agents as they sometimes interfere with re-culturing.

Heating denatures the proteins in milk and encourages the proteins to coagulate and thicken. When preparing the milk, gently heat it to 160-180F, (71-82C) and maintain the temperature for 20 to 30 minutes. This can be a complicated and stressful task depending on your stove top. To ensure a continuous, pre-boil temperature, I use a wok ring to create a distance between the flame and pot. A double boiler pot will do the same thing.

The most effective way to get a better firmness in yogurt is to add dry milk powder to your full cream cows milk before heating. This increases the volume of milk solid proteins and results in an enriched and thicker yogurt composition. As a guide add 1/3 cup of dry milk powder to every litre of milk. We also recommendheating and holding the milk at 82 C (180 F)for 10 - 20 minutes to this method.Note: This method is not SCD legal.For a step by step post see 'Recipe for thethickest tub set homemade yogurt ever'

Straining the yogurt removes some of the water content (whey), leaving the fats and proteins behind. The longer you drain away whey, the thicker your yogurt will become. Removing all the whey will result in a thick probioticyogurt cream cheese.

Its the fat in animalmilk yogurt that helps to make yogurt thick and creamy. When making yogurt it is possible to substitute a portion of the milk with pure raw cream. Pure cream is an ideal thickening ingredient when making raw milk yogurt. The steps for makingraw milkyogurtandcultured cream (sour cream, crme fraiche) are the same.

From a gut health perspective, we love the benefits of adding a premium powdered gelatin to homemade yogurt. Add 1 teaspoon of gelatin to every 4 cups of cold milk before heating and culturing. Gelatin must be heated to at least 95F (35C) to activate. It can be heated beyond this temperature, but it must never boil.Tip: Gelatin can be tricky to whisk into a large quantity of milk without clumps forming. To integrate more easily, expand the gelatin in a smaller quantity of milk first. Simply pour half a cup of milk into a small bowl, add the gelatin and mix thoroughly. Leave the gelatin mixture to sit for a few minutes to swell then transfer the swollen gelatin into the rest of your milk. As soon as the milk is heated, the clump of gelatin will quickly dissolve.

Acommon questionregardinghomemade yogurt is? Why is my yogurt runny? or the flip-side How can I thicken my yogurt?. We want to reassure you that there isnothing wrong with eatingthin yogurt. Traditional homemade animal milk yogurt can be anything from drinkable to thick and creamy.Regardless of where it is on this spectrum, homemade yogurt isabeneficial probiotic food.

Having said that, we do understand the visceral appeal of thick, voluptuous yogurt and if thickening it up still calls to you we have five simple tips below.First though, we'll run through some trouble shooting fundamentals to help with your yogurt making.

Temperature and timeboth play a huge part in the outcome of yogurt. Unless you live ina warm climate youll have no chance of incubating milk into yogurt at a continuous stable temperature.Bacteria remain dormant below 36C/ 96F and right now, its only 14Coutside! While milk can be fermented into yogurt in just 6-8 hours, we favour 24-hours for atherapeutic grade,probiotic yogurtand that is hard to accommodate without the right gear.

There are lots of DIY ways to incubate milk (a low oven, a slow cooker, an Instant Pot) but they are all flawed when it comes to keeping an even temperature for 24-hours. Too hot or too cool will negatively impact the bacteria in youryogurt starter culture. You really need ayogurt maker. A possible cause of runny yogurt is the bacteria fermentation slowing down, becoming dormant or being killed by an uneven heat source. Fermenting for longer always results in a thicker yogurt anyway.

Before you startmaking yogurt, consider themilk that you use.Dairy manufacturing methods effect the structure of milk and this changes the consistency of yogurt. We suggest you experiment with different brands to find the one that produces the consistency you like most.Milk with ahigh fat or high protein content will definitely give you a thicker, creamier yogurt.

Because we want you to benefit from the mosttherapeutic homemade yogurt,we recommend organic milk. Hormones and antibiotics found in conventional milk may interfere with fermentation. Any milk that has been altered beyond simple pasteurization and homogenization - such as skim or lite varieties may not produce the best yogurt.

The type of animal milk you choose will also determine the consistency.Raw milk that has come straight from a cow and is free from processing (pasteurisation and homogenisation) will always result in a thinner finished yogurt.Likeraw milkyogurt,goat milk yogurt is always thinner thancow milk yogurt. Sheep milk yogurt is thicker again.

Differentyogurt startersresult in different yogurt consistencies. We recommend you follow the handling and storage instructions unique to your culture (or probiotic) so that the strains stay fresh and active.

If you inoculate milk with a portion ofhomemade yogurt (as a starter to re-culture) make sure you do not continue this process indefinitely because the strains may be too few or too weak. If you are using store-bought yogurt as a starter, be sure not to choose a brand that contains thickening agents as they sometimes interfere with re-culturing.

Heating denatures the proteins in milk and encourages the proteins to coagulate and thicken. When preparing the milk, gently heat it to 160-180F, (71-82C) and maintain the temperature for 20 to 30 minutes. This can be a complicated and stressful task depending on your stove top. To ensure a continuous, pre-boil temperature, I use a wok ring to create a distance between the flame and pot. A double boiler pot will do the same thing.

The most effective way to get a better firmness in yogurt is to add dry milk powder to your full cream cows milk before heating. This increases the volume of milk solid proteins and results in an enriched and thicker yogurt composition. As a guide add 1/3 cup of dry milk powder to every litre of milk. We also recommendheating and holding the milk at 82 C (180 F)for 10 - 20 minutes to this method.Note: This method is not SCD legal.For a step by step post see 'Recipe for thethickest tub set homemade yogurt ever'

Straining the yogurt removes some of the water content (whey), leaving the fats and proteins behind. The longer you drain away whey, the thicker your yogurt will become. Removing all the whey will result in a thick probioticyogurt cream cheese.

Its the fat in animalmilk yogurt that helps to make yogurt thick and creamy. When making yogurt it is possible to substitute a portion of the milk with pure raw cream. Pure cream is an ideal thickening ingredient when making raw milk yogurt. The steps for makingraw milkyogurtandcultured cream (sour cream, crme fraiche) are the same.

From a gut health perspective, we love the benefits of adding a premium powdered gelatin to homemade yogurt. Add 1 teaspoon of gelatin to every 4 cups of cold milk before heating and culturing. Gelatin must be heated to at least 95F (35C) to activate. It can be heated beyond this temperature, but it must never boil.Tip: Gelatin can be tricky to whisk into a large quantity of milk without clumps forming. To integrate more easily, expand the gelatin in a smaller quantity of milk first. Simply pour half a cup of milk into a small bowl, add the gelatin and mix thoroughly. Leave the gelatin mixture to sit for a few minutes to swell then transfer the swollen gelatin into the rest of your milk. As soon as the milk is heated, the clump of gelatin will quickly dissolve.

adventures in vegan yogurt making: everything you need to know to get started and (hopefully) have success - healthy girl's kitchen

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which will let a good deal of the excess water drip out, leaving you with a thicker yogurt. With the method that Debby taught me that I have outlined above, the yogurt comes out so thick that you might find it to be similar to Greek Yogurt.

It was brought to my attention that yogurt could be made very simply by just adding one packet of Vegan yogurt starter to a box of soy milk, closing the cap, shaking the milk, pouring the milk into the container of your yogurt machine, turning the machine on and viola! In 8-9 hours Yogurt! (Well, after the 8-9 hours the yogurt needs to cool for many hours, but you get my point.) No pots, no whisks, no heat, no time . . . nada! So I did it. And it does work. So if all this seems daunting to you, just do it the simple way! The difference will be that the end result is not nearly as thick as what happens when you use the method detailed in this blog post. You might still love it! But now that I am used to the thicker Vegan yogurt, Im going to say that its worth the extra time and clean up to make the thick yogurt. I just loved it and since I started making it a day has not gone by that I havent eaten homemade Vegan yogurt. What a wonderful addition to my diet. 3/13/14, edited to add:

I have recently delved into making yogurt for my son who is dairy and soy intolerant. Last night I used cashew milk and added a tablespoon of rice flour, and a tsp of guar gum, simmering and whisking with cocoa powder and a bit of sugar until very thick. It got easily as thick as a greek yogurt. I cultured overnight with probiotics and voila. Chocolate yogurt, thick and creamy, this morning. I had not seen anyone suggest rice flour, but, I felt like the tapioca starch tasted kind of chalky and rice flour is used to make those rice drinks. It worked really well.

Because its the only machine that cools the yogurt down after the long heating cycle, I only recommend the Cuisinart yogurt maker. Heres a link to it in my Amazon store: http://astore.amazon.com/healthygirlsk-20/detail/B00ARSC1MK. Good luck! Making your own yogurt is AMAZING.

I was wondering the same as my milks have zero sugar in them and I read on my starter it needs to have sugar. I am experimenting with different milks and no one on the vegan facebook page that makes it ever said to add sugar they say to use a milk that only has water added to it. If all my milks have zero grams of sugar then that would be an issue id think lol. I am going to add sugar to be on the safe side.

Hi! thank you so much for this post, I have been struggling with making my own dairy free yogurt for a while now. Been researching for a while and am just now making my third batch (1st attempt, with coconut milk turned out pretty good but didnt taste lovely, 2nd attempt, with store-bought almond milk didnt thicken but tasted good. But they were both not sour enough!). Right now Im trying your method with a yogurt maker, again store-bought almond milk and agar agar powder. I didnt really understand what to do with te agar agar though. Should i boil it in water and add it just before the starter, at the end, as you said when talking about thickeners, or should I dissolve it in milk and follow your general instructions? Thank you so much for your help!

In case Camile comes backHere is how I made Silk Plain Soy Milk, agar agar powder, 1 t. sugar, and 5 probiotic capsules into yogurt. 1. Sterlize all tools 2. Microwave on high for 4 mns 4 C. of refrigerated mylk in pitcher style measuring cup 3. Sprinkle the contents of 5 capsules (total 50 billion bacterium), and the 1 t. sugar then stir to disolve and distribute (bought least expensive brand ofshelf stable probiotics sold by Costco, $13) 4. Sprinkle 1/2 t. Agar agar powder (found at Asian market, pkt of Telephone brand, $1), stir in gentle S pattern with a spoon to dissolve and distribute 5. Pour from large measuring cup to 1 quart mason jar, liquid is about baby bottle warm (sorry, no thermometer at hand) 6. Put into preheated dehydrater (remove trays, set to 110). Leave for 6-12 hours. 7. Check to see if it is getting thick at 6 hr mark, but kept in dehydrater to see if it got tarter or thicker, mine didnt. Mine was a solid jar of yogurt with no separation or whey accumulated. I could spoon out a slippery but solid similar to a pudfing or mayo. With some liquid around the edges. In taste, it was similar to a store bought coconut mylk yogurt I had tried a couple of years ago, mildly sweet, mildly tart. I took half the yogurt and using a strainer and a flour sack dish towel, strained it over a bowel overnight in the fridge giving a soft cream cheese result we will use on bagels. 2 days later its all gone so I will try making two jars next time so we have enough for a weeks use. Other sites said if gray or pink color developed to toss out enture batch, clean everything and start again. The wrong bacteria developed. If you do develop a separation (white solids on top, whey on bottom) you can either stir together or strain off. I would like a thicker yogurt so I would strain solids from whey should this happen. Hope this helps!

Like you mentioned at the beginning of your post, I have been reading every version of vegan yogurt making I can find. It is all so confusioning whether to heat or thicken or add sweetener like dates or maple syrup to feed the bacteria, using probiotics vs yogurt starter vs a previous batch of yogurt and whether the method changes if using soy or coconut or almond milk. I wish I had found your blog sooner! You have summarized everything I learned in one place. Thank you, thank you! I have an Instant Pot and cant wait to give it a try.

A friend of mine just started making vegan yogurt with coconuts and cashews. Sometimes the yogurt comes out with too much CO2. Should he let the culture ferment longer, or is he letting it ferment too long? I know thats not a lot of details, but just wondering if this is a common problem. I can get more details if needed.

Agar Powder When to Add: Add to milk before heating and culturing. Instructions: For every 3-4 cups milk, dissolve teaspoon powdered agar into the milk. Heat to 190F and hold for 10 minutes. Cool to culturing temperature and add culture.

Im trying to make yogurt with Ripple Pea Milk and thicken with agar powder, but Ive seen a lot of different methods. This blog http://sotexan.com/2017/08/instant-pot-dairy-free-yogurt-recipe-with-ripple-milk/ (only one Ive found w/ Ripple milk used) uses 4 teaspoons of agar powder. Is there a maximum amount you can use? Any advice for this endeavor & the discrepancy in the methods?

I read your post. I mixed coconut milk and almond milk. Added tapioca flour. A bit of maple syrup. A small container of natural organic coconut yogurt from store. It is in oven now. I used my instapot for chicken broth and I did not feel like cleaning it out! Will check taste tomorrow morning. Plan on putting it in mason jars and layered with fresh fruit! A parfait!

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high rate thickener - metso outotec

Outotec Directional Autodil and Outotec Turbodil are the first thickening systems to auto-dilute feed while optimizing performance and flocculant consumption. The Outotec FrothBuster deaerator reduces the amount of froth forming on the surface of thickeners and our innovative Outotec Vane Feedwell incorporates interconnected upper and lower zones to further improve performance.

Feedwells are a significant factor in thickener performance. The cutting-edge design of the Vane Feedwell marks the first major innovation in the thickening and clarifying industry since the early 1990s.

One of the main design features is the interconnected upper and lower zones. The upper zone, into which feed, dilution water, and flocculant are added, provides enhanced mixing and energy dissipation. This maximizes flocculant adsorption, eliminates the possibility of coarse/fines segregation, and ensures all particles are aggregated by the flocculant. Efficient operation is maintained in this upper zone over varying feed rates.

The lower zone promotes gentle mixing for continued aggregate growth, with the option for secondary flocculant dosing. This zone also enables the uniform discharge of aggregates under low shear conditions.

To decrease the level of feed solids prior to flocculation, we have developed a patented directional autodilution system that harnesses the natural head difference across the feedwell wall. This drives supernatant liquor into the feedwell, where slurry dilution, mixing, and flocculation take place. Autodilution ensures the density in the feedwell is within the optimum range for flocculation, irrespective of feed flow rate or density.

We have developed the Turbodil patented system of forced dilution to provide an effective feed dilution scheme for alternative process requirements. The system uses a low head axial pump to drive dilution water into the feedwell.