titanium mining and separation

extraction of titanium, titanium mining, titanium processing, titanium process - xinhai

Titanium mining process is suitable for titanium accompanied with manganese, silicon, chromium, etc. Titanium mining process is an effective mining methods to improve titanium recovery rate and grade.

Gravity separation process mainly used for large scale of titanium mine with coarse granularity. After being crushed, titanium mine will be sent to magnetic separator, then to the spiral chute for further separating. Then flotation separation for higher granularity.

In order to save flotation separation cost, magnetic separation will be used in the first step, the fine granularity titanium mine will be sent to flotation separation. This method can largely reduce the amount of using flotation reagent, and can be easily operated.

A titanium mine in Yunnan, China, accompanied with manganese removal, feldspar, pyroxene, part of titanium has been oxidized to hematite. From Xinhai mineral processing test, we can get that magnetic & flotation process is the most suitable mining methods for this titanium mine, spiral chute is used to finish separating.

titanium ore processing and beneficiation

To develop a flowsheet for separation of high grade titanium-rutile from ilmenite, that will meet market requirements. Rutile has a SGof 4.2, hardness 6.0 to 6.5 and is non-magnetic; while ilmenite has a SGof 4.5 to 5.0, hardness of 5.0 to 6.0, and is weakly magnetic. Both minerals are amenable to gravity concentration.

Titanium, the miracle metal, is a development resulting from the atomic and jet propulsion age. It is lighter than steel and stronger than aluminum, and has an almost unequaled resistance to corrosion. Titanium, a high-strength structural material has a corrosion- fatigue behavior in salt water, and exhibits complete immunity to many chemicals that pit and deteriorate most other metals. Its chief demands are as the metal in alloys, with a significant consumption as a white pigment in the paint industry. The value of titanium in sponge form is presently worth $9 to $10 a pound; in plate and sheet is 2 to 3X that.

The flowsheet shown was developed for a mixed rutile and ilmenite ore containing some magnetite. Concentration in this typical case starts at about 10 mesh and continues on into the minus 200 mesh fines. Gravity concentration starting as coarse as possible is very important in the recovery of a mixed ore of rutile and ilmenite, for a granular slime free product is muchmore amenable to subsequent magnetic and electrostatic separation. In any grinding circuit slimes are produced; if tonnage is considerable, flotation should be incorporated in flowsheet.

Conventional two stage open circuit crushing reduces the ore to about which is good feed to the rod mill. Sometimes a closed circuit reduction becomes necessary to ensure all minus or finer feed to the grinding circuit. Nature of the ore and its moisture content are factors considered in choosing circuit to be used.

crushed ore passes through a peripheral discharge Rod Mill at high dilution (35 to 40% solids). This minimizes over-grinding and sliming of the feed particles of titanium. The peripheral discharge product from the rod mill is elevated to a Duplex Mineral Jig making a rougher heavy mineral concentrate for retreatment in a Simplex Mineral Jig. The gravity flow through the jigs and Dillon Vibrating Screen returns the plus 20 mesh oversize to the rod mill for regrinding. This circuit recovers 40 to 50% of total titanium in a high grade granular product, ideal for magnetic and electrostatic separation.

The 20 mesh screen undersize is sized in a Hydraulic Classifier for most efficient tabling. Wilfley Tables with sand riffles handles the coarser sizes, while the finer sizes are handled on decks properly riffled for fine sands. This produces higher grade concentrates, maximum recovery and gives best table operation. Rougher table concentrates are cleaned on two separate tables, equipped as on the rougher table circuit. Cleaner table middlings are returned to the hydraulic classifier while the rougher table middlings go to the grinding circuit after being dewatered in a centrifugal cone, getting rid of the excess dilution. Gravity concentrates are flumed to a Dewatering Classifier. Hydraulic classifier overflow containing slimes and fines from the middling circuit overflowing the centrifugal classifier are thickened prior to waste or treatment by flotation.

Peripheral discharge Rod Mill receives crushed ore. Grinding under high dilution (35-40% solids) minimizes over grinding and sliming of fee particles of titanium. The fraction from the rod mill is elevated to a Duplex Mineral Jig.

The -10 micron slimes go to a thickener, purposely selected undersize to overflow the colloidal slimes, or through a Hydraulic Classifier to reject the colloids in the overflow. The deslimed cone underflow-density 65-70%goes to conditioner and flotation cells.

High density conditioning in a slightly acid circuit, pH 6.0 to 6.5, with H2SO4, sodium fluoride, and oleic acid actuates the titanium minerals for rapid flotation. This computation effectively rejects the gangue minerals and any apatite. Flotation is in Sub-A Flotation Machines with 30-35% solids with fuel oil and a frother added as necessary. The rougher concentrates are cleaned in an acidproof Sub-A Machine, by adding H2SO4 to lower pH to 5.0-5.5, which rejects gangue minerals and all phosphate minerals, to not more than a trace. Flotation cleaner middlings are recirculated to the rougher circuit for dilution.

Flotation concentrates are thickened and filtered; gravity concentrates are dewatered by a classifier, pan filter or internal drum filter. Concentrates are thoroughly dried, removing all surface coatings, and is done by conditioning the concentrates with chemicals to cut and wash off the surface film of soap and oils or blowing them off in a dryer.

Concentrates containing rutile, ilmenite, magnetite, zircon and possibly silica are sized over a vibrating screen and collected in separate storage hoppers ahead of dry processing, as each size is treated separately.

Low intensity magnetic separation pulls out metallic iron and magnetite. The concentrates pass through a high intensity magnetic separator to pull out the ilmenite fraction46 to 48% TiO2. The non-magnetic fraction is subjected to high intensity electrostatic separation which removes the high grade rutile94-95% TiO2. Rejects are treated by flotation to recover the zirconium.

Generally on complex titanium ores it is advisable to use the combination flowsheet shown. An ore of magnetite and ilmenite may, however, employ wet magnetic separation to remove magnetite, and all flotation for recovery of the ilmenite in a high grade product. In this case all the gravity circuit including the jigs and tables can be eliminated. This scheme is also applicable on a rutile ore with little or no ilmenite.Generally on complex titanium ores it is advisable to use the combination flowsheet shown. An ore of magnetite and ilmenite may, however, employ wet magnetic separation to remove magnetite, and all flotation for recovery of the ilmenite in a high grade product. In this case all the gravity circuit including the jigs and tables can be eliminated. This scheme is also applicable on a rutile ore with little or no ilmenite.

south africa titanium mining industry: titanium ore crusher processing line

Titanium ore is abundant in South Africa and it is one of the most distributed in the crust. It accounts for 0.61% of the earth's crust and it is in the 9th position. After titanium, aluminum, magnesium, titanium ranks the fourth situation. It is the important material to make artificial rutile titanium slag, titanium white, titanium, titanium sponge and electrode coating. Titanium is a typical lithophile element and it often appears to oxide mineral.

Titanium, oxides and alloy products are the important new structure materials, anti-corrosion materials, coatings. It is known as "the third developing metal after titanium, aluminum metal" and "strategic metals", and it is "very promising" metal material. It is widely used in aviation, aerospace, ships, military industry, metallurgy, chemical industry, machinery, electric power, water desalination, transportation, light industry, environmental protection, medical equipment and other fields. This titanium can create great economic and social benefits and has important status and role in the development of the national economy.

Titanium ore always involved in ilmenite and miners need to process the ilmenite to get high grade titanium materials in South Africa. Ilmenite nominally contains only 53% TiO2, so it must be purified before further processing.

Raw ilmenite or slag ore is first soaked in sulfuric acid for several hours to free up the titanium from the mineral. The titanium dissolves as titanium sulfate while many impurities do not dissolve and are removed by settling. The hydrated form of titanium dioxide is produced upon hydrolysis in alkali at elevated temperature. This precipitate is filtered and washed to remove traces of titanium impurities that can affect the brightness of the pigments produced. Ions such as potassium, phosphorus, or aluminum may be added to control particle size and durability. The hydrate paste then undergoes a high temperature calcination stage that yields the solid white product.

The titanium ore production line is located in South Africa and the contract was signed in 2011. SBM has been in charge of the installation. In the same year on December another set of production line equipment were bought by the local miners. We have been establishing business with the company since then. Because of the high quality, reliable operation and high productivity of the machines, we have established business with other factories which make heavy metals from ores for many years. In addition, the programs for crushing heavy ores designed by our experts have been well received by the producers.

Jaw crusher for titanium ore mining crushing plant is primary crusher that mainly breaks the large scale size and hard materials with resist compression pressure lessthan 320MPA. Besides crushing titanium, this jaw crusher is widely used in mining, metallurgy, construction, highway, railway, water conservancy and chemical industry.

Most titanium ore should be reduced less than 10mm before next dry separation. It is generally adopts two crushing system which includes coarse crushing and fine crushing to crush titanium ore in beneficiation plant. Jaw crusher is crucial crushing equipment in titanium ore crushing. Stone jaw crusher can crush most titanium product granularity less than 30mm. Jaw crusher features low energy consumption, low abrasion, and low operation cost.

For titanium belongs to the brittle materials. The fine crushing machine will be adopted as impact crusher. SBM impact crusher is designed for the brittle materials crushing process. Titanium ore impact crusher is for crushing soft and medium hard materials. It has a very high reduction ratio, which normally results in a three-stage crushing plant becoming a two stage plant with the impact crusher.

It is specifically designed to ensure rugged reliable operation coupled with simple maintenance, interchangeable wear parts and fast part replacement. SBM impact crushers provide low capital cost solutions, optimum performance and good cubical shape, whilst ensuring the lowest operating cost per ton, for a wide range of materials and applications.

Its fully-enclosed layout features high integration. It integrates the functions of high-efficiency sand making, particle shape optimization, filler content control, gradation control, water content control, and environmental protection into a single syst

titanium processing | technology, methods, & facts | britannica

Titanium (Ti) is a soft, ductile, silvery gray metal with a melting point of 1,675 C (3,047 F). Owing to the formation on its surface of an oxide film that is relatively inert chemically, it has excellent corrosion resistance in most natural environments. In addition, it is light in weight, with a density (4.51 grams per cubic centimetre) midway between aluminum and iron. Its combination of low density and high strength gives it the most efficient strength-to-weight ratio of common metals for temperatures up to 600 C (1,100 F).

Because its atomic diameter is similar to many common metals such as aluminum, iron, tin, and vanadium, titanium can easily be alloyed to improve its properties. Like iron, the metal can exist in two crystalline forms: hexagonal close-packed (hcp) below 883 C (1,621 F) and body-centred cubic (bcc) at higher temperatures up to its melting point. This allotropic behaviour and the capacity to alloy with many elements result in titanium alloys that have a wide range of mechanical and corrosion-resistant properties.

Although titanium ores are abundant, the high reactivity of the metal with oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen in the air at elevated temperatures necessitates complicated and therefore costly production and fabrication processes.

Titanium ore was first discovered in 1791 in Cornish beach sands by an English clergyman, William Gregor. The actual identification of the oxide was made a few years later by a German chemist, M.H. Klaproth. Klaproth gave the metal constituent of this oxide the name titanium, after the Titans, the giants of Greek mythology.

Pure metallic titanium was first produced in either 1906 or 1910 by M.A. Hunter at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, New York, U.S.) in cooperation with the General Electric Company. These researchers believed titanium had a melting point of 6,000 C (10,800 F) and was therefore a candidate for incandescent-lamp filaments, but, when Hunter produced a metal with a melting point closer to 1,800 C (3,300 F), the effort was abandoned. Nevertheless, Hunter did indicate that the metal had some ductility, and his method of producing it by reacting titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) with sodium under vacuum was later commercialized and is now known as the Hunter process. Metal of significant ductility was produced in 1925 by the Dutch scientists A.E. van Arkel and J.H. de Boer, who dissociated titanium tetraiodide on a hot filament in an evacuated glass bulb.

In 1932 William J. Kroll of Luxembourg produced significant quantities of ductile titanium by combining TiCl4 with calcium. By 1938 Kroll had produced 20 kilograms (50 pounds) of titanium and was convinced that it possessed excellent corrosion and strength properties. At the start of World War II he fled Europe and continued his work in the United States at the Union Carbide Company and later at the U.S. Bureau of Mines. By this time, he had changed the reducing agent from calcium to magnesium metal. Kroll is now recognized as the father of the modern titanium industry, and the Kroll process is the basis for most current titanium production.

A U.S. Air Force study conducted in 1946 concluded that titanium-based alloys were engineering materials of potentially great importance, since the emerging need for higher strength-to-weight ratios in jet aircraft structures and engines could not be satisfied efficiently by either steel or aluminum. As a result, the Department of Defense provided production incentives to start the titanium industry in 1950. Similar industrial capacity was founded in Japan, the U.S.S.R., and the United Kingdom. After this impetus was provided by the aerospace industry, the ready availability of the metal gave rise to opportunities for new applications in other markets, such as chemical processing, medicine, power generation, and waste treatment.

Titanium is the fourth most abundant structural metal on Earth, exceeded only by aluminum, iron, and magnesium. Workable mineral deposits are dispersed worldwide and include sites in Australia, the United States, Canada, South Africa, Sierra Leone, Ukraine, Russia, Norway, Malaysia, and several other countries.

The predominate minerals are rutile, which is about 95 percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), and ilmenite (FeTiO3), which contains 50 to 65 percent TiO2. A third mineral, leucoxene, is an alteration of ilmenite from which a portion of the iron has been naturally leached. It has no specific titanium content. Titanium minerals occur in alluvial and volcanic formations. Deposits usually contain between 3 and 12 percent heavy minerals, consisting of ilmenite, rutile, leucoxene, zircon, and monazite.

Although workable known reserves of rutile are diminishing, ilmenite deposits are abundant. Typical mining is by open pit. A suction bucket wheel on a floating dredge supplies a mineral-rich sand to a set of screens called trommels, which remove unwanted materials.

Typically, the minerals are separated from waste material by gravity separation in a wet spiral concentrator. The resulting concentrates are separated by passing them through a complex series of electrostatic, magnetic, and gravity equipment.

titanium mining process | titanium dioxide mining | mining machine prices

Titanium is a rare metal that because of its dispersal and hard to extract. Also a silver-white transition metal. Its features are lightweight, high strength, resistance wet chlorine corrosion. Titanium is found in ore, such as Rutile and Ilmenite.

Extraction of titanium from ore is called the titanium mining process. Two types of titanium process: Gravity separation - Magnetic separation - Flotation, and Gravity separation - Magnetic separation- Electric separation. Related equipment: Jaw crusher, ball mill, magnetic separator, spiral separator, spiral chute, dryer, vibrating feeder, vibrating conveyor, etc.

Titanium processing needs several steps such as crushing, grinding, screening, magnetic separation and drying. 1. Raw ilmenite ore(or Rutile) is sent to jaw crusher by vibrating feeder for primary crusher and secondary crushing. 2. Entering the circular vibrating screen is screened, and the qualified ilmenite is sent to the ball mill for grinding processing. 3. The ground Ilmenite pulp is sent to the spiral separator for classification and washing, The materials which particle size does not meet the requirements need to be returned to the ball mill for further grinding. And the meets are sent to a magnetic separator for magnetic separation processing. 4. The concentrate after the magnetic separator is sent to a dryer to be dried and dehydrated. Then we get the dried concentrate powder material.

The beneficiation process of titanium depends on the nature of the material. Because the density of titanium ore is larger than that of gangue minerals, it can be used for pretreatment or rough selection tailing; magnetic separation method is widely used in the concentrate separation of titanium-containing minerals; when coarse concentrate contains ilmenite, rutile and non-conductive minerals such as zircon, it can be separated by electric separation; flotation method is used for sorting of primary titanium ore, especially for sorting fine-grained titanium ore.

The gravity separation method has received much attention because of its low cost and eco-friendly characteristics. Shaker tables are widely used in ilmenite ore dressing, especially in small mines where a shaker is used to obtain a qualified concentrate. With the shaker process, the grade of ilmenite up to 48.82% and the recovery rate over 76%.

Magnetic separation includes weak magnetic separation and strong magnetic separation. The role of weak magnetic separation is to separate the titanomagnetite remaining in the magnetic separation tailings to facilitate the smooth magnetic separation. The purpose of strong magnetic separation is to discharge qualified tailings, increase the selected grade of titanium flotation, and reduce the amount of titanium flotation. The high-gradient magnetic separator can effectively recover the fine-grained ilmenite in the ore, and can throw away some of the fine mud in the ore, thereby achieving the purpose of rough selection and tailing of the original ore. The ore is treated by a strong magnetic pre-selection process, and the grade is improved, which lays a foundation for the subsequent flotation to obtain the final titanium concentrate. The high gradient magnetic separator can refine the concentrate, which can reduce the grade of re-election concentrate, which is beneficial to improve the recovery rate of re-election and thus improve the recovery rate of the entire titanium mining process concentrator.

Flotation separation of primary titanium-bearing ores is an effective method for recovering fine-grained ilmenite, sometimes used in the selection of coarse concentrates. Before the ilmenite flotation process, select sulphide minerals by flotation machine firstly. The iron ore beneficiation plant mainly uses a mechanical agitated flotation machine. The aeration and agitation of the slurry of the machine are realized by mechanical agitator (rotor and stator group, so-called aerated stirring structure). The agitated agitator of the mechanical agitation flotation machine has pump-like suction characteristics. In addition to self-priming air, it can also self-prime the slurry. mechanical agitation flotation machine has obvious superiority and flexibility in process configuration, has been widely used in the titanium mining process and mineral beneficiation plant.

Mining Equipment Manufacturers, Our Main Products: Gold Trommel, Gold Wash Plant, Dense Media Separation System, CIP, CIL, Ball Mill, Trommel Scrubber, Shaker Table, Jig Concentrator, Spiral Separator, Slurry Pump, Trommel Screen.

titanium processing after gravity separation - gravity separation & concentration methods - metallurgist & mineral processing engineer

Nearly all titaniferous minerals end up as titania/synthetic rutile (TiO2) through one means or another, since the bulk of titanium ends up as pigment, mainly used in applications such as white paint (700g/L). For ilmenite, this can mean a hydrometallurgical route such as the Becher process or a pyro-metallurgical route such as the QIT process, where a titania rich slag is produced.

For other titanium minerals, such as rutile, leucoxene and the synthetic rutile derived from treated ilmenite, there are two hydrometallurgical routes to produce pigment - the chloride and sulphate route, depending upon titania content and associated gangue.

Finally, where titanium metal is produced, relatively pure titania is converted into the tetrachloride, the solution purified to remove mainly vanadium (depends on the source of the titania), and then contacted over time with magnesium metal.

I would say we had more than a few issues with the MGS and corrosion. But yes by using more suitable materials such as hastelloys in the wetted areas the MGS would be an ideal tool. Millenium Chemicals was also the birth place of a few of my development ideas for the MGS which is now taking righfull place as the ultimate enhanced gravity tool of choice.

The chemical process of concentrating ilmenite and rutile minerals. Mineral sands are physically concentrated using gravity separation (spirals or tables). Ilmenite, rutile and leucoxene have higher SG(4~5) compared to quartz, garnet and kyanite (2.7~3.6). This difference in SG is used to separate the heavy mineral sands from quartz and clays.

As a matter of fact, we are facing at the beginning of an industrial gravity concentration of such these ores, and because of this I need a commercial flow sheet or industrial samples that works in this area.

Lots of information around about these processes and associated flowsheets - but again it depends upon what is present i.e. mineralogy (ilmenite, leucoxene, zircon, rutile, monazite) and the proportions?

A commercial flow sheet that treats such this ore type in gravity concentration method but it will be useful to check the mixture of two methods of "gravity separation" and "magnetic separation". May you help me to find such this flow sheet? Although the second is not the one I 'm searching but it will be help to have a general view of titanium processing.

Does this mean that you have ilmenite, rutile and leucoxene? It will affect which flowsheet you adopt. After the first processing stage (gravity), this separation technique will not be of any value in separating these minerals. You can of course, use magnetic separation as the first processing stage if ilmenite is the economic mineral present and it is in high concentrations.

You should get full information about the ore, especially the degree of liberation. If it is high enough for gravity separation, then u can use spiral, Wilfley table, and maybe magnetic separation. This is what I have used in my MS thesis for the beneficiation of a titanium deposit.

I think it is all depends on the concentration of ROM (Run of Mine) because it is varying by every square metre at mining area. First we should have an idea on the mining area ROM concentration after that Mineral content in the ROM. once we came to know the % of minerals in the ROM , then it will be easy to decide the requirements.

Sounds like you are after wet circuit processing of titanium bearing sands. Narrow industry. Check the sites of the few operators (Rio Tinto, Iluka, Tronox....) and few equipment suppliers (Mineral Technologies, Multotec, Outotec) for useful info. Richards Bay Minerals site gives a brief description of their process and Kenmare Resources site has a very nice few minute video on mining and processing titanium bearing (and other) mineral sands. A wet gravity circuit will be a few stages of spirals and possibly an elutriation unit like a Floatex. Depending on the minerals present, you may also find magnetic separators, shaking tables, cyclones, attrition scrubbers, etc. Try to get your hands on proceedings of the Heavy Minerals Conference, held every two years. This is the best collection of technical papers for everything about ilmenite, rutile, zircon and other heavy mineral sands processing.

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titanium mining process

Xinhai mineral processing equipment mainly include: grinding equipment, flotation equipment, dewatering equipment, magnetic separation equipment, and so on. Some of the equipment is Xinhai independent research and development, and has been awarded national patent. View details

Gold CIP Production Line adsorbs gold from cyaniding pulp by active carbon including 7 steps: leaching pulp preparation, cyaniding leaching, carbon adsorption, gold loaded carbon desorption, pregnant solution electrodeposit, carbon acid regeneration, leaching pulp. View details

Gravity separation process mainly used for large scale of titanium mine with coarse granularity. After being crushed, titanium mine will be sent to magnetic separator, then to the spiral chute for further separating. Then flotation separation for higher granularity.

In order to save flotation separation cost, magnetic separation will be used in the first step, the fine granularity titanium mine will be sent to flotation separation. This method can largely reduce the amount of using flotation reagent, and can be easily operated.

A titanium mine in Yunnan, China, accompanied with manganese removal, feldspar, pyroxene, part of titanium has been oxidized to hematite. From mineral processing test, we can get that magnetic & flotation process is the most suitable mining methods for this titanium mine, spiral chute is used to finish separating.