used machinery calcium carbonate eu

application of calcium carbonate in plastics and faqs

When calcium carbonate is used in plastic processing the most important one of inorganic powder additive. In this paper, both calcium carbonate and plastic processing industries are very concerned about the views of several issues in order to use the correct application of calcium carbonate and even expand it to clarify and promote the role played.

In plastics processing, in addition to synthetic resin raw material as a basis, the scientifically correct, the rational use of various additives and auxiliaries are justifiable and that of inorganic mineral powder is one of the most important additives. As you know, the plastic material in inorganic mineral powder may help reduce raw material costs, improve performance and given the important role of the new features in recent years has further found that the use of inorganic mineral powder material to reduce the white pollution, protection environment environmental effect, the implementation of circular economy in today's stress, building resources and energy saving and environment-friendly trend of our society, the more prominent inorganic mineral powders in the significance of the application of plastic.

Not all plastic materials and products in the inorganic mineral powders to be added, nor are added the same amount of plastic used in the statistics of inorganic mineral powder quantity of material, usually plastic materials and products according to the total output of 10 % of that at present world's plastics processing industry, the inorganic powder material used in each of at least 400 million tons. Calcium carbonate (including GCC and light calcium) is the most widely used, the largest amount of inorganic mineral powders, used in the total amount of inorganic mineral powder materials, accounting for more than 70% calcium carbonate, not only because of carbonate Calcium-rich, low cost, good stability of calcium carbonate, pure color, low wear, easy to dry, easy processing, non-toxic and many other advantages are also widely used in a large number of important reasons.

Throughout the history of the plastics industry uses calcium carbonate can be considered since the sixties of last century since the start of plastic industry, the application of calcium carbonate has always accompanied the development of plastic processing industry development. Application of Calcium Carbonate in Plastics initially thought due to calcium carbonate in the rubber materials and products in the application of experience, which is why the use of light calcium earlier than GCC, and has been extended to today's sake. To the mid-nineties of the last century, there leap TSP processing, fine particle size of 10m below the market for GCC, GCC and light calcium and have a range of different thickness of the third stage TSP simultaneously. To the beginning of this century, industrialization of nanometer calcium carbonate, calcium carbonate in plastics for the application of a new world opened up.

1 and Table 2 lists the plastic products industry are the basic conditions and the yield of products, Table 3 shows the use of plastics in primary calcium carbonate, talc, kaolin and other inorganic mineral powder situation.

2 plastic processing enterprises are the basic requirements for the use of calcium carbonate Calcium carbonate powder used as a plastics material powder with many other advantages not available, such as high brightness, easy to surface organic processing, the processing equipment and tooling wear light, molding and good liquidity, coupled with resources rich, low cost, the plastics processing industry preferred inorganic mineral powder. According to the current plastic processing business ideas and experience in the use of calcium carbonate taken into account factors constitute the basic requirements of calcium carbonate.

(1) low price While the price of synthetic resin, calcium carbonate is relatively very low, relative to any other one kind of powder is also called inexpensive, but suppliers and more enterprises are still price sensitive and can be used in the premise and the cheaper the better.

(2) the higher the better whiteness Other than the color of their calcium carbonate inorganic mineral powders to be white, said from the specific values can reach 90 degrees, and brightness of the filled plastic properties is not significant, but the plastic processing enterprises still want more brightness high as possible is based on

The following reasons: The higher purity of the whiteness of the higher, non-calcium carbonate content of other mineral components lower. Ash calcium powder made that there may be free carbon, yellow may indicate a more iron compounds, dark showed high levels of silicon. High levels of impurities can sometimes affect the color of filled plastics, appearance, and during processing of the processing equipment and mold caused by heavy wear.

As a powder, it is necessary to consider their own test conditions in their size and the particle size range of particles of a proportion of the number, and second, from the practical application of these particles into account the existence of the state, whether reunion together, filling system in the processing of aggregates can spread out like a sea of large and small islands scattered in the matrix of plastic, like the "Ocean" being?

from cost considerations, as long as can satisfy the requirements, would rather thick, not thin. For example, polypropylene woven bags (cloth) with a flat yarn used TSP, its particle size 400 meshes can, if used more fine calcium powder, not only significantly increase their prices, but also in the production of filler, they also to consume more of the additives and the carrier resin, worth the candle.

the performance of plastic from filling to consider, due to increase in cost can be under the premise of the effect of finer particle size will be better. Table 4 lists the different size of the TSP under the same conditions filled polyethylene (PE) plastic film properties.

Calcium carbonate product of the same size, the particle size distribution may vary, it can from the average particle size is reflected. Better processing of the required flow of plastic products (such as injection molding products, PE film casting method, etc.) must not be a calcium powder with average particle size is too small, if possible, preferably well in control of the largest particle size under the premise of the small size of the particles separate. This is because the size of small particles the more the processing liquid filling system worse.

as a commodity for sale calcium carbonate and calcium carbonate particle size and distribution and real in the plastic matrix was dispersed in the presence of the state of the "Heaven and Hell", if the reunion is not properly resolved, it will not shows the advantages of small size effect.

3.1 The issue of nano calcium carbonate Nano-technology and nano-plastic is the same time very active in recent years been repeatedly criticized in the field. Marked with the word nanotechnology research results and products are everywhere, many of them true knowledge and insight are also some industrial products into the market, but a lot of people are worried. From the industrial point of view requires economic rationality significantly increase its cost, you can identify with its industrial value, but from an academic point of view, nanotechnology is just a length unit of measurement, with nanometer scale ( generally accepted that at least one three-dimensional orientation of the direction of length less than 100nm) particles can evenly, and do not disperse in the plastic adhesive matrix, called the Nano to judge whether the plastic key. Only when the nano-scale particles like islands in the matrix as distributed among a vast sea of plastic, the small size benefits of nanotechnology, a majority of the surface effect and quantum effects can truly be seen to bring about a qualitative leap in material properties, not just to get some increased and improved.

For example, with 4.2% MMT nylon 6, compared with pure nylon 6 increased by 50% of its tensile strength, modulus increased 100%, basically unchanged while the impact strength, heat deformation temperature, while nearly 90 , increase transparency, water absorption decreased. Microscopic observation of this nylon can see is truly a nanoscale montmorillonite particles of debris scattered in the matrix of nylon 6, and were all exfoliated, which formed a real nano-plastic. First of all, to stress that MMT is a layered silicate, but not added to the plastic on a nanometer plastic. If the clay has always maintained the original structure, spacing the same, only in the form of small particles dispersed in the matrix of plastic, its still in the micron particle size category, it received only the traditional sense Filled materials can not be called nano plastic. If the polymer molecular structure has been inserted into the montmorillonite interlayer film, and it increases its distance, but still maintained a laminated structure (intercalated compound), then the performance of composite materials will be improved But the rate will not be his wife, can not be called nano plastic. Only laminated structure of montmorillonite was completely broken, the size of about 1nm silicate debris irregular but uniformly dispersed into the polymer matrix, the dispersed phase with very small size and great specific surface area (exfoliation complex ), is what we want to achieve.

Nano calcium carbonate be denied at some point during the production process, its particle size is actually more than a dozen to a few tens nm in the area, but in the subsequent dehydration and drying process, these primary particles then join up, as a commodity to our customers hands in fact, these aggregates, the use of existing powder surface treatment equipment, treatment agent and the subsequent mixing equipment is not possible to break up aggregates, and thus can not be true nano calcium carbonate modified nano-plastics.

3.2 weight problems Use of resources relatively abundant non-metallic mineral powder filled plastic material whose significance goes without saying, but the true non-metallic mineral density much higher than synthetic resin, so as the dosage increased, significantly increased the density of filling material . For example, when density 2.9g/cm3 of heavy calcium carbonate added to the HDPE, the percentage of 50% of its weight when filled with plastic injection molding material density 1.6g/cm3, the weight percentage of 80%, the filling The density of HDPE 2.0g/cm3. Density increases on the order of length, area, calculation of the value of the number of workpiece plastic products, there are likely to increase because the density of lead length, area or down to reduce the number of workpieces, not only offset the use of cheap materials to bring mineral powder interests, there may be more losses than gains. Therefore, even though it is technically possible to use low-cost solution as much as possible the question of mineral powder, and some properties (such as rigidity, toughness, flammability, etc.) have to rely on the density of the mineral powders, but after all, plastics processing enterprise and its users are taken into account technical performance and economic plastics combined effect of both sides before we talk about resources, environmental social benefits. Filled plastic density increases due to "weight" of the problem has been seriously constrained plastic modification towards resources, energy saving and environment-friendly industry towards the goal.

Be pointed out that some plastic on the density of the mineral powder is not sensitive to the negative impact, such as the one-way stretch woven flat yarn, packing tape, tear film, when these products in the production process in the plastic substrate is tensile, the macromolecules and between macromolecules and fill gaps between particles, and because of the draw ratio is fixed, the length from the products of view, can control the process so that could meet without filler The length of time, these one-way stretch products in filler content above 20% can still meet the performance requirements in the premise of a significant reduction in raw material costs, "weight" little impact. In polyethylene plastic film processing, film bubble by blowing up the longitudinal and radial stretching, stretch ratio and Inflation as significantly lower than the tensile than the tensile ratio, adding plastic film packing density will still increased, but compared to injection molding products, due to the stretching and blowing the same inflation between macromolecules, to bring the gap between macromolecules and packing, so its density is much lower than the increase of injection molding products. For example, with 30% calcium carbonate of HDPE film, its density is not greater than 1.1g/cm3, while the same formulation of injection molding products, its density will reach about 1.3g/cm3. We get inspired by that is, if the plastic molding process, in ensuring the premise of the mechanical properties of materials, if the molecules in the matrix of plastic between the macromolecules and filler between the filler particles themselves or between generation gap will be able to fill the density of plastic down, you can ease or even solve the "weight" problem.

Follow this line of thinking, some enterprises and scientific and technological personnel has made a promising exploration, such as through different types of packing with the use, or pre-packed particles cope with the volume of the foam plastic body and then mixed with the matrix, and the time taken by injection molding special technology and other methods, have achieved some results. May be concluded that "weight gain" in a breakthrough can be used for actual production, will be the development of modified plastics revolutionary impact, it is we're working!

3.3 Forming the problem size shrinkage Better use of cost-effective in the modification of plastic instead of the traditional plastic materials (such as the PP filled with mineral powder instead of ABS), in addition to performance and appearance should meet expectations, the molding shrinkage size can not be ignored important problem. Table 6 lists the polymer materials used in the PP and PP blends or adding inorganic materials, the size of the PP molding shrinkage of the situation. Molding shrinkage rate of change in size will affect the molding products, geometry and size. For pure PP or PE, is based on material injection molding mold shrinkage of 1.5 to 2.0% in the design of the (above-mentioned study, the same conditions, size of pure PP, molding shrinkage rate 1.7%), calcium carbonate, if filled, the molding Processing shrinkage of smaller size, so for those who depend on the cooling shrinkage mold release products, locking occurs, surface scratches and deformation problems. If the PP filled with calcium carbonate or PE plastic special material, instead of ABS resin, ABS molding process because of size shrinkage rate was only 0.5%, the same will happen Stripping difficulties or shape change. Plastics processing companies are reluctant to replace the raw materials for production of modified or re-mold, it may discourage the use of modified material aspirations.

3.4 Surface treatment of 3.4.1 Objective Powder surface treatment of the results of its transition from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, namely, pro-oil, contribute to powder particles and the matrix resin interface between the merging to enhance the performance of filled plastics. From another perspective, the smaller the particle size, surface energy, the more prone to join, but by the surface, the surface can be significantly decreased, which can greatly reduce the aggregation tendency between particles.

Some plastic products, calcium carbonate without surface treatment can still use, such as soft PVC plastic soles, leather and so on. When in fact these products are processed by adding plasticizers have played a surface treatment agent. Some plastics do not care about the merits of performance, more emphasis on reducing raw material costs, this time without the direct use of surface treatment of calcium carbonate is also understandable. Table 7 lists the calcium carbonate surface or not and deal with the merits of the filling system notched impact strength. Can see from the table data, use of calcium carbonate without surface treatment, filling the notched impact strength of less pure filled plastic fell by 42%, while the use by the general coupling agent treatment of calcium carbonate, can be achieved under the same conditions do not plus the pure resin, filler level, and if the surface very well, can fill gaps in impact strength of PE of 10 times.

3.4.2 Surface Treatment Books on a wide range of surface treatment agent, but the real volume of the commercial use of the surface treatment agent mainly stearic acid, coupling agent and aluminum coupling agent three categories, in addition to silane coupling coupling agent and other agents and phosphate. (1) of the calcium carbonate surface treatment agent with which the best? Stearic acid cheapest, but PVC is more suitable because the surface of calcium carbonate, stearic acid in addition to organic Outsider can also be used as a PVC outer lubricant. To the polyolefin plastic, the stearic acid can also be used to process calcium carbonate, but a larger amount, and no chemical reaction due to coating only from the role, so the overall effect as coupling agent.

Several coupling agent can be used in surface treatment of calcium carbonate, but with features. Coupling agent are mostly liquid, easy to open distribution, but usually darker in color, high in the required white products are not suitable; aluminum titanate ester is cheaper than the price, color is white or light yellow, help make white products, but usually solid wax-like, melting and distribution to need sufficient time to open; silane coupling agent is very expensive, and because the molecular structure of the carbon chain less flexible and short, on the processing liquid filled plastic impact .

(2) Why are significant differences between the price of commercial coupling agent? The same type of coupling agent itself limited by the basic raw material prices, the price difference will not be very poor, but the coupling agent commercially available products because of the number of different active ingredients, the price will vary greatly. Commodities such as aluminum coupling agent, the amount of aluminum isopropoxide intermediate direct impact on costs, its price is a supporting component of stearic acid, paraffin wax 4 to 5 times, and as coupling agent in the solvent also directly affect the amount of the price. Therefore, the purchase of coupling depends on the use of results, but can not pursue the price the lower the better.

(3) coupling agent how to use? Using coupling agents most critical issue is to make it the fastest to reach in front of calcium carbonate particles, and each chemical reaction with the formation of chemical bonding. This requires one to state distribution in high-speed movement to open the second is to have the appropriate temperature conducive to the chemical reaction. In addition to a hydrogen proton (H +) source of the problem, if calcium carbonate with high water content, coupling agent with water before the reaction (H + by the H2O to provide), but not with the calcium carbonate surface hydroxyl reaction, then The purpose of surface treatment can not be achieved. It is necessary to ensure rapid distribution of water temperature and without the three conditions suitable to play due role in coupling. As to whether it should first dissolve in solvent, it must be in spray form to processing equipment, we must invest in groups graded by the practice shows that these are not important.

3.4.3 Surface Treatment Equipment High-speed mixer is used not for the powder materials have been designed and manufactured surface treatment, but for pre-plasticizing the polyvinyl chloride resin, designed and manufactured, so it is not natural to apply powder surface treatment equipment, which for including the ultra-fine heavy calcium carbonate powder, including the smaller size material is more suited. Fortunately, in recent years, manufacturers of plastic processing equipment has been made according to the requirements of our major transformation. So be sure to purchase high-speed mixer statement for powder surface treatment.

For the modified plastics processing companies, often on their own surface treatment of calcium carbonate, one formula can be flexibility, and second, surface treatment may be calcium carbonate and downstream processes are linked together, so they focus on transformation of the existing high-speed mixer is , making it more suitable for your process requirements, and for producing bulk active calcium carbonate production Qi Ye, You need to consider dealing with large and continuous production of the environment and workers Caozuotiaojian are relatively good surface treatment Shebei. In the continuous processing equipment, Qingdao Green Ore Mining Equipment Co., Ltd. After years of efforts, the successful development of PSC continuous powder surface modification machine capacity from 0.3 tons / pm to 2 tons / time range, surface coating rate of up to more than 96%, and the modified powder is not easy once again reunited, after the results will be ideal to use. Here is the kind of powder surface modification process flow diagram of machine.

3.4.4 The surface treatment of nano calcium carbonate how? The core of nano-materials is to be in the plastic matrix of the ocean, as the dispersed phase of the nano-powder particles to achieve the nano-scale dispersion, showed a large number of particles can not aggregate state distribution, in order to nanoparticles is not to the characteristics of the full activity of strong play, while also asking for nanoscale powder particles and the substrate surface to direct contact with plastic molecules to facilitate the occurrence of a chemical or physical contact, if the surface of nanoparticles surface treatment agent used in completely coated, and become entirely by modifier molecules and the matrix of plastic molecules in contact, they will lose their functional nanoparticles, the same can not produce a qualitative change. Therefore, the surface of nano calcium carbonate for processing, on the one hand to open and make it no longer aggregates reunion, on the other hand can not form a completely coated, but must also be part of the surface of, nanoparticles or in part, not coated particles and contact with the matrix of plastic molecules. This is placed in the nano calcium carbonate modified plastics manufacturers and processors together in front of the subject, yet we work hard to break.

3.4.5 Surface Treatment judge the merits of the issue As we are on the powder particle surface treatment mechanism and the actual situation is not very clear, but also because some cases, plastic processing surface treatment is carried out in situ process, Therefore powder surface state has been achieved we expect the call, It is difficult to judge.

The easiest way is to look at the surface treatment of powder materials have been able to float on the water, cup of water is turbid. Further determination of precipitation by calculating the number of activation rate of the powder. In accordance with strict scientific attitude, such judgments can only be superficial, unreliable a qualitative judgments. Because we do not know whether the reunion of the powder particles, the particles are aggregates layer has been organic, and, and not whether we will be able hydrophilic and plastic substrate molecules can form a good interface. While we look forward to the scholars and scientists to conduct in-depth study on the morphology, on the other hand we can only determine the final overall results made the success of surface treatment, the effect is good to get technical, economic, both acceptable conclusion.

3.5 wear equipment and mold problems Some use calcium carbonate for plastic processing enterprises are worried contact with calcium carbonate-filled plastic materials processing equipment will be worn barrel, screw, die, die, etc., which will use the benefits of cheap fillers were discarded equipment damage caused by early offset, or even more harm than good. On the one hand we have the answer is wear the problem did exist, we must face it and take the necessary measures to deal with, on the other hand we must be clear that the calcium carbonate-filled plastic on steel in contact with the wear is very slight, far less than glass fiber reinforced plastics on steel wear, but in the long history of use in glass fiber reinforced plastics and plastic processing enterprises have not raised the issue of wear of glass fiber, indicating far less than calcium carbonate, glass wear relative to Wear use calcium carbonate to bring the interests of the rich is extremely negligible.

In the commonly used inorganic mineral powder materials, calcium carbonate hardness is relatively high (see Table 8), but compared with the plastic processing equipment mainly used for metal parts for the nitrided steel is a lot of difference, by wear and tear theory metal hardness 1.25 times higher than the abrasive hardness above, is a low wear. On the other hand the extent of wear abrasive particle size decreases with a decline in use of 400 mesh or finer TSP, the wear of metal materials are slightly related.

3.6 Calcium carbonate is beneficial to the flame retardant plastic? The thermal decomposition temperature of calcium carbonate above 800 , and general plastic are flammable, and its ignition temperature of about 400 , so the initial combustion stage, the hope of calcium carbonate decomposition in carbon dioxide is not possible. The advantages of calcium carbonate there is only to reduce the amount of fuel and the higher the calcium carbonate content, in the same volume of combustible material within the less, of course, is conducive to fire. However, the presence of calcium carbonate, polymers and the rapid expansion of the combustion process of the formation of numerous gasification pore, greatly increasing the fuel surface area in contact with oxygen, so that more of the fuel involved in combustion, and further enhance the fire the temperature of the region more conducive to the expansion of fuel and the gasification, the result of a vicious circle, so that the contribution of calcium ca, rbonate as a non-combustible materials appear trivial. Nineties of last century, Japan and other countries take the lead in polyethylene bags with 30% of garbage GCC is out of calcium carbonate in the incinerator burning favorable consideration of polyethylene.

Experiments show that, 100g of calcium carbonate contains 30% and 1% burning thermal oxidation agent the time required for complete combustion of polyethylene film is only 4 seconds, while the same weight of pure polyethylene film completely burn time of 12 seconds, the two threefold difference.

3.7 calcium carbonate for plastic aging impact? As polymers, in the light, heat and other environmental conditions of molecular chain rupture occurs, and may produce graft or cross-linking reaction, the macro performance of the mechanical properties decrease, a phenomenon known as aging.

In the light of the effect of aging of polyethylene plastic film can easily occur. Aging mechanism for the development and production of polyethylene-ray optical stabilizer. When the calcium carbonate added to the polyethylene film made after the performance of its aging in the film to decide how we frequent contact with sunlight or polyethylene or polypropylene plastic products, the important issue of the use of calcium carbonate.

Experiments show that calcium carbonate or talc containing polyethylene film in the sun exposure during a certain value carbonyl index (CI) of the time less than pure polyethylene film, indicating that the presence of calcium carbonate aging of polyethylene films have some promote the role, see Table 9. Table 10 lists the modified masterbatch calcium carbonate filled PE film before and after accelerated aging xenon lamp changes of mechanical properties data. Test results show that with the increase of calcium carbonate material in the same aging conditions, accelerated aging of filled PE film.

3.8 toxicity Food safety including food for their own safety and the safety of food packaging materials, increasingly in recent years, ranging from national governments, under the close attention to Lebanon's people, the media is this way, not Times a sensational news, firmly grasp the reader eye. Which, and the calcium carbonate is the "poison of." CCTV has repeatedly broadcast a factory of Hebei arrested law enforcement officers to "current" screen, camera on bags of "poison" was printed above the "calcite powder" in large letters. Calcite is calcium carbonate powder is really poisonous? Reportedly because of "powder", added to the PP lunch boxes, press present, 4% acetic acid after 2 hours soaking Evaporation residue should be 30mg / L requirements, are commercially available PP lunch boxes filled most unqualified. This is mainly because the calcium carbonate to alkali weak acid salts, acids dissolve easily, by inspection of all the evaporation residues for the calcium acetate, but with the "poison" without any relationship, because, as the main component of Chinese medicine calcium carbonate is calcium into the case of human stomach acid also has to be dissolved. Even the water we drink every day are also rich in calcium and magnesium ions, making water bottles is evidenced in the scale. Why is calcium in the calcite powder, in the TSP on a "drug" out? Failure refers to the current national standards and testing methods is not reached, but the failure does not equal "toxic", and now the State quality inspection departments frequently reported sampling results of market goods, a failure rate of 20% or more often, it thinks this is "toxic" it?

1) We have always advocated should be scientific, reasonable, appropriate use of calcium carbonate; 2) calcium carbonate itself, non-toxic, no harmful effects on the human body, is necessary or appropriate to add, so as long as our products are not harmful heavy metals, there should be no "calcite powder" products such as calcium carbonate " toxic substances "; 3) of the evaporation residues involved in the implementation of health standards also, but can not because the calcium carbonate problem then its repeal or amendment, but we should confidently to Xuanbuheli, quantity of calcium carbonate Bu Hui Ji Shi Yong personal health pose any problems; 4) relative to all kinds of so-called "green" materials, the calcium carbonate-filled polypropylene plastic and polystyrene foam plastic, with strong market competitiveness, currently in the market is still dominant. Since August 1, 2007 to be formally implemented from the national food market access system for packaging materials, that product must be "QS" logo can be allowed to enter the market, this will certainly be affected to the use of calcium carbonate business, they will inevitably spread to the production calcium carbonate in the business, we have to be psychologically prepared in advance and come up with countermeasures.

4 great market potential for the use of several deep-processed products of calcium.carbonate and the corresponding technology 4.1 low-carrier, low power, high rate of PP woven flat yarn with a filler The filler mixing granulation process by new production, raw and auxiliary materials, low cost, low energy consumption per ton of product, each production line daily output of up to 30 tons of high yield. Two low and one high technology products to improve the filler market competitiveness has laid a solid foundation.New pelletizing process is different from the cooling air-cooled die face look, but also different from the tension rod + belt cooling, even without contact with water;New melt mixing process without twin screw compounding extrusion equipment, this will reduce equipment investment, while energy consumption is lowered due to equipment, energy consumption per ton of product fell to less than 100 yuan;Scientific formula of raw and auxiliary materials, you can guarantee that the premise of using the effect of significantly reduced amount of carrier resin, thus greatly reducing the cost of raw materials;Filler granules of the neat, no Unqualified, easy to melt, especially for drawing Wenzhou production equipment and technology;The whole production line in the low carrier, low-power premise, Nissan may be as high as 30 tons.

4.2 compatibility and good ABS polymer materials used as the carrier Filled Masterbatch The use of a wide range of ABS resin, ABS waste recycling is also common. In the ABS resin fillings or modifiers, to reduce costs, improve or increase the impact toughness of fire, anti-aging and other functionality. Calcium carbonate, talc and other mineral powder lot used in polyolefin (PE, PP) and PVC, but has not consistently applied in the ABS to achieve ideal results, mainly due to the appropriateness of the choice of carrier resin. Good compatibility and polymer materials as the carrier, can fillers, modifiers, hygroscopic agents, flame retardants and other forms of modified material to parent material with human ABS, modified not only to achieve the desired effect but also a variety of physical and mechanical properties of ABS and molding properties of small, very favorable cost performance was satisfactory. As a carrier resin polymer material itself the price of less than ABS, but ABS compatibility is good, correct and complete operating conditions can be safely used.

4.3 Compound of calcium carbonate toughened HDPE The results of the National Natural Science Foundation funded the research subject of one of the elements, through the interface of molecular design, chemical and physical surface modification of calcium carbonate and flexible interface, modifier use, with a special processing technology, to promote the uniform dispersion of the carbonate calcium particles formed around the interface with good flexible interface layer, which form a soft shell / hard shell microstructure, developed a high toughness of the inorganic particle filled high density polyethylene composites, when the inorganic particle filled to 30% by weight When the notched impact strength of 800J / m, higher than pure high-density polyethylene increased by 8 times. The material can be used in many structures, wall tubes (winding pipe, corrugated pipe) production, has important practical applications.

4.4 toughened polypropylene plastic filling masterbatch Reinforced Polyolefin masterbatch is filled with a core shell structure model of the interface design of a new type of plasticizer, it is dispersed with a core shell structure of inorganic mineral filler. This filler in the polymer matrix can be re-uniform distribution, and direct injection molding, to obtain a high performance rigid inorganic particles increase, toughening the composite material. Use it to replace rubber toughened polypropylene can greatly reduce costs, but also can be overcome by using powder filled polymer processing conditions, to achieve dosing, stability is a broad-use value of new materials.

4.5 absorbent masterbatch Plastic molding process, if the material contains water, even low levels can result in product defects or internal cavity, particularly the use of recycled aggregate blown film recycling, the water content of the more stringent requirements. This is usually added in the raw material before molding its heating and drying equipment to remove water, not only to add special equipment, and time-consuming and increase energy costs. Use absorbent material to save the mother drying process, only a certain percentage of the parent material and moisture content of the raw material mix can be. Table 12 Some material for the film blowing performance. Seen from the data listed in the table, adding 1% water absorption master batch material blown film recycling drying treatment than the blown film has better mechanical properties.

4.6 Modification of Light Ca-and environment-friendly plastic Compound Photodegradation is an important means of degradable plastics, but our broad geographic and climate conditions of volatility, plus bright plastic degradation agents are often in dark conditions (such as soil covered by plastic film, packaging film are buried) are no longer continue to degrade

calcium carbonate | morewine

Calcium carbonate is used to reduce the acidity of wine. It does not require cold-stabilization to force complete precipitation, as does potassium carbonate. However, calcium carbonate is more likely to affect the flavor than potassium carbonate, and may take a few months to fully precipitate. One-quarter ounce (about 4 teaspoons) of calcium carbonate reduces acidity in one gallon by about 0.25%. Foaming may occur because of the production of CO2. Do not use more than one ounce per gallon. Wait 24 hours and rack wine. Calcium carbonate is also used in beer to increase the temporary hardness of water. Traditionally used in English stouts, pale ales and bitters. Usage: Usage varies with acid level Common name: Chalk

calcium carbonate | pulp paper mill

Calcium carbonate is used in paper mill as a filler material in the alkaline papermaking process. Now a days Calcium carbonate dominant over other papermaking filler materials; though at the first stage of papermaking kaolin was 1st choice. The main reason behind the preference of calcium carbonate is the demand for brighter and bulkier paper.

Usually Calcium carbonate occurs in three natural forms such as limestone, chalk and marble. Naturally it is forms between the reactions of calcium salt and carbon dioxide. This process is still going on in the Oceans. There are two types of calcium carbonate used in paper mill ground calcium carbonate (GCC) and precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC).

Ground calcium carbonate (GCC) Ground calcium carbonate is manufactured by grinding limestone or marble because of their high brightness and purity. Generally the particle shape of ground calcium carbonate is rhombohedral. This filler material is used in alkaline wood free papermaking process. The brightness of GCC is 86-95%.

Advantages of Ground calcium carbonate (GCC) GCC is cheaper and it has high brightness. GCC creates a porous surface on the paper sheet due to its rhombohedral particle shape. GCC is hydrophobic as a result it is liberate water more rapidly. Improve printability Lower binder demand

Precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) Precipitated calcium carbonate is the form of CaCO3 which is manufactured by chemical reactions and the process is known as carbonation process. PCC improve the drawback of GCC, it is provide better gloss and opacity properties for the paper. Because of the structure of PCC is different from the structure of GCC. The crystal structure of PCC are needle-shaped, rhombohedral(cubic), scalenohedral (triangular) and prismatic. The brightness of PCC is 90-97%.

Advantages Precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) Increase machine speed and productivity. Improve water drainage Improve machine runnability Improve print quality Cost-effective papermaking process Increased opacity and brightness PCC is less abrasive than GCC Reduce fiber consumption compared with GCC or talc More retention compare than other paper fillers

calcium carbonate grinding mill, calcium carbonate powder making, calcium carbonate grinding plant, calcium carbonate processing technology, calcium carbonate production process - kefid machinery

Calcium carbonate is the largest inorganic filler in the industry, such as building materials, papermaking, plastic, rubber, paint, coating and so on. Due to the high cost, the market is wide and the demand at home and abroad has been great. At present, the production of calcium carbonate on the market is mainly the traditional Raymond Mill, ball mill, etc., there are high energy consumption, low efficiency, poor stability, finished particle size is not control, serious pollution and other problems. Therefore, in order to meet the global environmental requirements and the market demand for calcium carbonate quality, select the appropriate calcium carbonate processing technology and equipment is particularly important.

Heavy calcium carbonate is a natural calcite, marble, dolomite or chalk as raw material, the mechanical equipment grinding and grading to achieve a certain degree of fine powder products. Calcium carbonate production process has two kinds of dry and wet, from the market demand for heavy calcium powder point of view, most concentrated in the 3000 or less, the process is mainly produced by dry process, the process is: hand from the quarry the calcite, limestone, chalk, shells and so on to remove the gangue, and then crushed with the crusher on the raw materials, and then calcium carbonate grinding machine to get fine limestone powder, after the classification of limestone powder grading, meet the particle size requirements of the powder as a product packaging storage, do not meet the return of calcium carbonate grinding mill again grinding.

According to the market demand for different areas of heavy calcium powder, Kefid after years of practice, devote themselves to research and development for a full set of tungsten powder grinding equipment, which covers the fine sand, coarse powder, fine powder, micro powder and other fields, according to customer fineness, production, investment and other requirements can be diversified options.

Advantages: Equipment mature and stable, low operating costs; Exclusive use of thin oil lubrication, advanced transmission; Frequency conversion powder, high precision; Integrated solution, energy saving and environmental protection.

Advantages: Low operating costs, stable and reliable; The use of gas transport materials, drying capacity; Product quality and stability, uniform particle size; Maintenance between, energy saving and environmental protection.

Applicatio :Products can be used for calcium carbonate, talc, calcite, dolomite, potassium feldspar, graphite and other Mohs hardness of 7 below the water content of less than 6% of the mineral ultra-fine grinding, product fineness up to D97 5m.

Advantages: Low investment costs, low loss of wearing parts; High rate of powder, high cost fineness; Grinding chamber operation safe and reliable; Using pulse dust collector, environmental pollution.

Advantages: Material layer grinding, high product quality; Host speed using frequency control, for a wide range; Roller liner with high quality materials, long life and long wear; Fully automatic control, easy to operate.

Advantages: Equipment mature and stable, low operating costs; Exclusive use of thin oil lubrication, advanced transmission; Frequency conversion powder, high precision; Integrated solution, energy saving and environmental protection.

Advantages: Low operating costs, stable and reliable; The use of gas transport materials, drying capacity; Product quality and stability, uniform particle size; Maintenance between, energy saving and environmental protection.

Applicatio :Products can be used for calcium carbonate, talc, calcite, dolomite, potassium feldspar, graphite and other Mohs hardness of 7 below the water content of less than 6% of the mineral ultra-fine grinding, product fineness up to D97 5m.

Advantages: Low investment costs, low loss of wearing parts; High rate of powder, high cost fineness; Grinding chamber operation safe and reliable; Using pulse dust collector, environmental pollution.

Advantages: Material layer grinding, high product quality; Host speed using frequency control, for a wide range; Roller liner with high quality materials, long life and long wear; Fully automatic control, easy to operate.

: 0086- / 67999255 / 86537170(24 hours) : 0086- : [email protected] : kefidmachine : kefidcrusher : No.169, Kexue Avenue,National HI-TECH Industrial Development Zone,Zhengzhou, China

precipitated calcium carbonate (pcc) | minerals technologies inc

PCC stands for Precipitated Calcium Carbonatealso known as purified, refined or synthetic calcium carbonate. It has the same chemical formula as other types of calcium carbonate, such as limestone, marble and chalk: CaCO3. The calcium, carbon and oxygen atoms can arrange themselves in three different ways, to form three different calcium carbonate minerals. The most common arrangement for both precipitated and ground calcium carbonates is the hexagonal form known as calcite. A number of different calcite crystal forms are possible: scalenohedral, rhombohedral and prismatic. Less common is aragonite, which has a discrete or clustered needle orthorhombic crystal structure. Rare and generally unstable is the vaterite calcium carbonate mineral.

When Did Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) Manufacture Begin?PCCs have been made commercially for a long timesince 1841. The first producer was the English company, John E. Sturge Ltd., which treated the residual calcium chloride from their potassium chlorate manufacture with soda ash and carbon dioxide to form what they called precipitated chalk. In 1898, a new factory was built in Birmingham using the milk of lime process, which is described in more detail below. This PCC operation is now part of the Performance Minerals group of SMI.PCC production in the U.S. dates from 1938, when the C.K. Williams Company in Adams, Massachusetts, began to make PCC using the limestone from their adjacent mine. This plant was acquired by Pfizer in 1962, and became part of the Performance Minerals group of SMI on the formation of our parent, Minerals Technologies Inc., in 1992.

While the process is simple on a laboratory scale, making precipitated calcium carbonates commercially on a large scale requires a great deal of process control and process technology to assure the right size, uniformity, shape, surface area and surface chemistry. This body of PCC technology developed by Specialty Minerals Research, is what makes SMI PCCs outstanding in quality and consistency.What Is Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC) Made From?PCC is generally made from a high purity calcium carbonate rock called limestone. Specialty Minerals Inc. (SMI) uses high quality limestone sources for its PCC products, including some from the SMI limestone mine in Adams, Massachusetts, which has been in operation for more than 150 years.This limestone deposit is the result of a very thick layer of prehistoric sea animal shells and skeletons being laid down on the ocean floor. These shells and skeletons were largely composed of calcium carbonate. Over a period of five hundred million years this deposit was under high temperature and high pressure, and the deposit changed to a coarsely crystallized limestone. All of the organic matter that was in the deposit was removed by oxidation, a process called diagenesis.If this kind of geological process continues a very long time, the crystals become very small, forming marble, an extremely hard form of calcium carbonate. If the time, temperature and/or pressures are not great, the seabed only partially metamorphoses, and the result is very soft chalk, such as that forming the White Cliffs of Dover in England. In chalks, remnants of animal shells and skeletons are often still seen.Why Is All That Processing Done?Two reasons. First, there are several points in the PCC process where the calcium carbonate can be purified, removing much of the rock from the deposit that is not calcium carbonatethere are always some impurities in any limestone deposit. These include feldspar and other silicaceous minerals, as well as heavy metals.Second, the PCC process allows SMI to grow crystals of different shapes. The particle formed is dictated by the control of reaction time, temperature, agitation, pressure, rate of carbon dioxide addition, and post-crystallization processing. These shapesclustered needles, cubes, prisms, rhombohedronshave different physical properties such as powder density, surface area and oil absorption, which give them outstanding performance in many applications where ground calcium carbonate does not perform as well. Scanning electron micrographs (SEMs) of some of the these shapes are shown on this page.The precipitation process also allows the growing of very fine particles, down to nanometers or hundredths of a micronmuch finer than can be obtained by just grinding the limestone rock. These ultrafine nano PCCs have special applications where high performance is required. Click here to learn more about nano PCCs, which SMI has been manufacturing for more than 25 years.What Is Unique About A Precipitated Calcium Carbonate?The different shapes allow PCC to act as a functional additive in sealants, adhesives, plastics, rubber, inks, paper, pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements and many other demanding applications. A formulator can choose a shape, and the physical properties that result from that shape, that gives the best performance in the end use.In the PCC process, products can be made with very small sizes, with high surface areas, high oil absorptions, and/or with different powder bulk densities from ultra-low to super-high powder densities.Why Are Some PCCs Coated?PCCs are often coated with a low percentage (1-3 percent) of a fatty acid, such as stearic acid, or other organic material, for use in non-aqueous systems. These coatings increase the dispersibility of the PCC in the polymer or solvent as well as its compatibility with the polymer or solvent, which in turn maximizes the performance and efficiency of the PCC.The choice of coating depends on the type of polymer the PCC will be used in and the performance desired. As polymers vary widely in polarity and solubility constants, different organics are chosen to give the best compatibility and/or the best balance of properties.How Does Precipitated Calcium Carbonate Differ From Ground Calcium Carbonate (GCC)?In chemical composition, they are the same. PCC is purer than the limestone from which it is made, and is lower in silica and lead.PCCs shape and size are different from that of ground calcium carbonate (GCC). Under high magnification, GCC is seen to be irregularly rhombohedral in shape. The PCC crystal shape depends on the product, and the particles are more uniform and regular.The distribution of particle sizes in a GCC is much broader than for a PCC of the same sizethat is, there are many more large particles and many more small particles than in a PCC, and the size of the largest of the particles (the "top size") is much greater for a GCC than for a PCC. The lower top size of a PCC gives better impact resistance in plastics than with a GCC. The narrower particle size distribution allows the generation of high oil absorptions, useful in certain applications.These differences can be quickly seen in these photos of a PCC and a GCC of the same median particle size, 0.7 microns.

Specialty Minerals Precipitated Calcium CarbonatesSMI is the worlds largest manufacturer of PCCs, with an output of over 4 million tons of PCC each year.Some of our PCC products for paper and paperboard filling and coating include Opacarb, Megafil, and Velacarb precipitated calcium carbonates.For food, nutritional supplements, pharmaceutical and personal care products, the series of eight ViCALity USP/FCC precipitated calcium carbonates and five CalEssence ultra low lead PCCs are manufactured in Adams, Massachusetts, in the U.S. Five SturcalTM and Calopake EP PCC healthcare grades are manufactured in Birmingham, U.K.A wide variety of polymeric and water-based industrial products use Albacar, Albaglos, and Super-Pflex PCCs, as well as the nano PCCs, Ultra-Pflex, Multifex-MM and a series of Thixo-Carb PCCs, which come from Adams, Massachusetts, in the U.S. The Calopake PCC and Calofort nano PCCs come from SMIs Birmingham plant.

calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a commonly occurring mineral that is present in many rocks such as limestone and marble, as well as in the skeleton of stony corals, and is immensely versatile. In the construction industry, calcium carbonate is used as a raw material to produce lime cement and burnt lime or even as a solid block. In coal-fired power plants, it is used for flue gas desulphurisation and as a basic material for plaster production. Moreover, calcium carbonate is used as an additive in steel production, in fertiliser production and as a pigment in the paper and paint industries.

The required product characteristics, which are largely defined by their particle size distributions, are just as varying as the areas of application. A pigment obtains, for example, its maximum colour effect only in a narrow particle size range below 1 to 2 microns. However, the storage stability of pigment suspensions is also determined by the particle size. Whether produced mechanically by grinding or wet-chemically through precipitation, in each case the particle size distribution is a decisive quality criterion that should be continuously monitored where possible to ensure compliance. Here, the laser diffraction has a significant effect on quality assurance with its high-resolution measurement with analysis times of typically less than one minute.

Are you interested in additional content? Please register an account. After confirming the registration link brochures, application notes and other documents on particle measurement will be available for download.

Laser Diffraction | Dry Size range: 0.1 m - 875 m Sample amount: < 1 mg - 1,000 g Laser Diffraction | Wet Size range: 0.1 m - 875 m Analysis volume: 50 / 400 ml

Laser Diffraction | Dry Size range: 0.1 m - 3,500 m Sample amount: < 1 mg - 1,000 g Laser Diffraction | Wet Size range: 0.1 m - 875 m Analysis volume: 50 / 400 ml

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what raw materials are used for cement production

Raw materials containing calcium carbonate as the main component are all calcareous raw materials. It can be divided into natural calcareous raw materials and artificial calcareous raw materials. Commonly used in cement production is natural ore containing calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

In recent years, with the improvement of large-scale cloth bag dust collecting technology in China, the long bag dust collector technology used in rotary kiln tail gas treatment of cement rotary kiln with dry process method is increasing da...

Cyclone preheater is one of the core equipment in the new dry cement production process, which is responsible for many functions such as gas-solid dispersion, material heating, gas-solid separation, material transportation and some physical...

a review of mineral carbonation technology in sequestration of co2 - sciencedirect

Mineral carbonation costs are too high compared to other sequestration costs.Technology offers the potential for long-term safe CO2 storage.Mineral carbonation has zero monitoring requirements.Technology can be an economically acceptable commercial process if carbonation reaction kinetics can be improved upon.

Mineral carbonation technology (MCT) is a process whereby CO2 is chemically reacted with calcium- and/or magnesium-containing minerals to form stable carbonate materials which do not incur any long-term liability or monitoring commitments. Mineral carbonation is a potentially attractive sequestration technology for the permanent and safe storage of CO2. Vast amounts of magnesium silicate minerals exist worldwide that may be carbonated, with magnesium carbonate as stable and environmentally harmless product. In this review, a number of processes under development, such as the bo Akademi University (A) process routes, the CO2 Energy Reactor, and the chemical and biological catalytic enhancement as new carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technology are discussed. The key factors of the mineral CO2 sequestration process are identified, their influence on the carbonation process and environmental impact of the reaction products with regard to their possible beneficial utilization are critically evaluated. Chemistry and comparative analysis of residues and ores carbonation processes, as well as cost and gap analyses of this technology are discussed.

industrial impact crusher used in the calcium carbonate mining line - mining & construction solutions from henan dewo machinery

Dewo machinery can provides complete set of crushing and screening line, including Hydraulic Cone Crusher, Jaw Crusher, Impact Crusher, Vertical Shaft Impact Crusher (Sand Making Machine), fixed and movable rock crushing line, but also provides turnkey project for cement production line, ore beneficiation production line and drying production line. Dewo Machinery can provide high quality products, as well as customized optimized technical proposal and one station after- sales service.

Calcium carbonate as a main component of white powder. Calcium carbonate is a very wide range of applications, the most common is for the construction industry, which is the industrial use of calcium carbonate; the other is a food grade calcium carbonate, as a common calcium supplements, is widely used.

Heavy calcium carbonate dry production process: calcium carbonate materials, such as, calcite, limestone, chalk, shells, etc, first, using stone crusher (jaw crusher) for coarse crushing, and then using grinding mill machine (MTW European trapezium mill, vertical mill, Raymond mill, etc.) to get calcium carbonate fine powder, the final process using classify classification to meet the require ...

Calcium carbonate is a compound, Calcium carbonate is a raw material commonly used in the industrial production, the use of calcium carbonate in industry is mainly manifested in the following industries, such as the PVC industry,rubber industry, plastics industry, it can be used as additives in the smelting industry.

Calcium Lead Alloy Small Impact Crusher Machine Mining. Calcium Lead Alloy Small Impact Crusher Machine Is widely used in a variety of calcium carbonate as a filler in hardness of calcium carbonate is 3 meaning that calcium carbonate is easily broken broken lines throughout the calcium carbonate we offer Jaw Crusher for . Learn More

Jaw Crusher. Jaw crusher is a kind of stone crusher which is used widely in many industrial departments including mining, smelt metal, building materials, public road, railway, water conservation, chemical industry and so on, and it is also called rock crusher.

Machine Used In Precipitated Calcium Carbonate Plant. used calcium carbonate plant used calcium carbonate plant XSM excellent mining crushing machinery products or production line design the company is committed to building the Chinese brand mine crushing and processing machinery mainly crusher mill sand making our products (used calcium carbonate plant) in more than one hundred of the ...

Calcium Carbonate Processing Equipment Mining Crushing. Calcium Carbonate Crusher Plant crusherappliion Calcium carbonate crushing plant process is very simple it is the use of crushing transportation industrial milling equipment containing calcium carbonate mineral raw materials for processing can be used in the equipment are jaw crusher calcium carbonate milling machines conveyors etc

Dewo machinery can provides complete set of crushing and screening line, including Hydraulic Cone Crusher, Jaw Crusher, Impact Crusher, Vertical Shaft Impact Crusher (Sand Making Machine), fixed and movable rock crushing line, but also provides turnkey project for cement production line, ore beneficiation production line and drying production line.