vertical roller mill is economically and environmentally best than ball mill

the price and configuration of the pyrophyllite vertical mill, more efficient,more energy-saving

Vertical mill is widely used in non-mineral processing production. It is a common powder milling tool for non-metallic mines such as pyrophyllite, limestone, calcite, and marble. For the production of 325meshpyrophyllite powder, the same powder power system powder is used in the current situation, and a dedicated milling production line solution is formulated for pyrophyllite. At the same time, the price of the pyrophyllite vertical mill is also more scientific and ideal. The entire production line has a reasonable configuration, a higher cost performance, and a higher milling efficiency. It is a high-quality grinding equipment system.

What is pyrophyllite? In fact, pyrophyllite is a type of clay mineral and belongs to a chemical substance. Due to its relatively high hardness, it is called a pyrophyllite. The pyrophyllite is hidden inside a mine and its use is very wide. It is generally used in industry. Many industries will use pyrophyllite, the use of pyrophyllite is closely related to its characteristics. It is mainly used as a refractory material, a ceramic material, and a carving raw material; it is also used as a filler and carrier for rubber products, cosmetic products, and agricultural chemicals. The new use of pyrophyllite is as a coating, a good raw material for making siding, and it can also be used to make white cement. As an ideal choice for processing of pyrophyllite, the new vertical mill has made outstanding contributions in terms of increasing production capacity, reducing energy consumption, and is the best choice for pyrophyllite processing.

The pyrophyllite vertical mill covers a number of patented technologies, and all performance indicators have been greatly improved. The entire equipment system mainly consists of host, feeder, classifier, blower, pipeline installation, storage hopper, electronic control system, and collection system. It is a high-quality grinding equipment that has attracted much attention from the industry. Compared with the traditional R-type grinding machine, the production capacity of the chaeng vertical mill equipment is increased by more than 40%, and the power consumption cost per unit can be saved by more than 30%. It is a milling operation in the field of milling equipment. More efficient, more grading accuracy, more energy-saving and environmentally friendly new equipment.

marble grinding mill - raymond mill

Marble grinding mainly uses Raymond mill. The processed marble materials can be used as coatings in coatings, plastics, rubber and other industries. Raymond mills can be used to crush and grind waste materials. The fineness is different according to the requirements. It can be adjusted to produce powder directly. It can be packaged and transported or used directly. It is the best equipment choice for marble application now.

The grinding roller and grinding ring are forged with special materials, which greatly improves the durability. In the case of the same fineness of materials and finished products, the service life of the vulnerable parts of the marble ultra-fine mill is 2-3 times longer than that of the impact crusher and turbo crusher, generally up to more than one year; this The service life of this kind of pulverizer can reach 2-5 years when processing calcium carbonate and calcite;

hc large grinding mill, raymond mill, large pendulum mill

HC Large-scale Grinding Mill was developed on the basis of HC1700 Grinding Mill. The HC series mill is a really high efficiency, energy saving and environmentally friendly ultra-large grinding mill referenced Germany technology and applied multiple patents. The capacity can reach 90t/h andcan fulfillthe national industry policy and large-scale industry producing requirement. The equipment fill the blank of large grinding mill in China, and extend the application fields of pendulum grinding mill. The HC Large-scale Grinding Mill has international advanced technology which largely increase efficiency. The mill is able to be the replacement of any other facilities, it has the best performance in large-scale powder processing of power plant desulfuation, manganese industries.

Powder processing system technological process: raw material will be transport to semi-open shed by special vehicle, and then be shoveled into the crusher to be crushed into particles smaller than 40mm. The material particles will be raised to the storage hopper by the elevator and then be evenly sent to the main mill for grinding by feeder. The qualified fine powder will be classified and blew to the pulse dust collector as product and finally discharged from the dust collector. The product will be transported to powder storage. The system is designed as opencircuit system with full pulse dust collecting (able to collect 99.9% of the powder), so the equipment has higher capacity and lower pollution. The product can be deep-processed according to actual technology. HC grinding mill has really high capacity so the product cannotbe packed by hand-filling, the packing job is supposed to be done after the powder be sent to the storage tank.

HC3000 Grinding Mill is widely used to grind any non-metallic minerals with Moh's hardness below 7 and moisture below 10%, such as limestone, calcite, activated carbon, talc, dolomite, titanium dioxide, quartz, bauxite, marble, feldspar, barite, fluorite, gypsum, ilmenite, phosphorite, clay, graphite, kaolin, diabase, gangue, wollastonite, quick lime, silicon carbide, bentonite, manganese. The fineness can be adjusted from 0.18mm(80 mesh) to 0.038mm(400 mesh), whose range is much wider than that of traditional raymond mill.

HC Series Grinding Mill consists of main mill, constraint turbine classifier, pipe system, high pressure blower, double cyclone collector system, pulse air collector, feeder, electronic control motor and jaw crusher, pan elevator. The main mill consists pedestal, return air box, shovel, roller, ring, housing and motor. The roller and ring are cast by wear-resistant material. Reducer device can be applied in the power unit of the whole system.

(1) HC Large-scale Grinding Mill is a new equipment developed by Guilin Hongcheng, it was appraised by famous experts. The equipment is international advanced and has the advantages of high capacity, low energy consumption, stable performance and environmentally friendly.

(1) Single capacity can reach 90t/h, honored as Asian largest pendulum grinding mill by experts. Break the choke point of traditional pendulum mill, able to replace any type of grinding mill. The equipment is the best choice for large-scale powder processing.

(3) Applied high efficiency turbine classifying technology, production fineness can be adjusted from 80 mesh to 400 mesh. At the same time, applied air sealing obstruct technology to improve efficiency and accuracy in powder classifying, ensuring the percent of pass.

(5) Applied offline pulse dust collector or pulse-jet collector (Patent No.CN200820113691.6), high capacity of dust removing, long service time of filter bags. 99.9% of the powder can be collected. The sealing for the mill ensures no powder floating in the workshop, so the equipment is more suitable for high dust concentration and high moisture site.

(2) Multi-layer blocking sealing structurePatent No.CN200820113450.1: The roll assembly works in high dust concentration environment. The lamination sealing of the traditional R type roller mill sealed bearings unreliable. While this proposal adopted with multi-layer blocking sealing structure which combined with the floating oil sealing technology, screw seals and skeleton seals to prevent dust going into the bearing. Keep the roll assembly working smoothly and durable. Vastly short the maintenance time. The traditional R type roller mill needs lubrication each 1-2 days. The newly designed sealing structure ensures the roller assembly works continuously for 500-800 hrs without lubrication.

(3) Applied high performance wear-resistance material to cast wear-resistant parts, offering high wear-resisting property and long service life. High-chromium alloy can be applied to deal with high power and high burden grinding task, in this way, the service life will have 3 times longer than industrial standard.

(5) Applied frequency control and can be operated by PLC, realized unmanned operation and save up label cost. Customers can also choose long distance intelligent monitoring system to control the operation state.

(1) The equipment has strong systematic because it can organize an independent and complete production system of raw material crushing, transporting, grinding to production collecting, storing and packing. The grinding mill is in stereo-chemical structure, consume small floor space (1/3 floor space of 4R mill under same capacity), largely reduce construction cost.

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cement grinding and packaging machine

Cement is a kind of cementitious material and one of the most important construction materials in the world today. Especially in recent years, with the rapid development of construction, the demand of cement is getting higher and higher. So how to produce cement without pollute the environment is a big problem. ZENITH can provide environmentally friendly cement grinding machine for the customers. The remarkable breakthrough of this mill is the green production.

The main materials used to make cement are limestone, fly ash and slag. After crushing, grinding and a series of processes, the raw materials can be made to cement raw materials. And then feed the raw materials into cement kiln for burning, there will produce clinker. Finally, grind the clinker into proper sizes. In this whole production line, cement grinding mill is the core equipment which directly affects the fineness and quality of the cement.

ZENITH cement grinding mill adopts the latest technology from China and abroad. It sets crushing, drying, grinding and classifying in one set, greatly save space and investment capital for the customers. There are two different grinding systems, one is open circuit the other is closed circuit. In this case, this cement grinding mill can meet different grinding requirements from the customers. Whats more, the final product size is easy to adjust because of the unique discharge adjusting device.

As we know, a lot of cement are sold in bags, so how to package the produced cement simply and efficient? To solve this problem, ZENITH provides packaging machine for the customers. This packaging machine is very easy to operate and convenient to maintain. There are different packaging weights 5-25kg and 10-50kg. The customers can choose packaging weight according to their own requirements.

ball mill - an overview | sciencedirect topics

The ball mill accepts the SAG or AG mill product. Ball mills give a controlled final grind and produce flotation feed of a uniform size. Ball mills tumble iron or steel balls with the ore. The balls are initially 510 cm diameter but gradually wear away as grinding of the ore proceeds. The feed to ball mills (dry basis) is typically 75 vol.-% ore and 25% steel.

The ball mill is operated in closed circuit with a particle-size measurement device and size-control cyclones. The cyclones send correct-size material on to flotation and direct oversize material back to the ball mill for further grinding.

Grinding elements in ball mills travel at different velocities. Therefore, collision force, direction and kinetic energy between two or more elements vary greatly within the ball charge. Frictional wear or rubbing forces act on the particles, as well as collision energy. These forces are derived from the rotational motion of the balls and movement of particles within the mill and contact zones of colliding balls.

By rotation of the mill body, due to friction between mill wall and balls, the latter rise in the direction of rotation till a helix angle does not exceed the angle of repose, whereupon, the balls roll down. Increasing of rotation rate leads to growth of the centrifugal force and the helix angle increases, correspondingly, till the component of weight strength of balls become larger than the centrifugal force. From this moment the balls are beginning to fall down, describing during falling certain parabolic curves (Figure 2.7). With the further increase of rotation rate, the centrifugal force may become so large that balls will turn together with the mill body without falling down. The critical speed n (rpm) when the balls are attached to the wall due to centrifugation:

where Dm is the mill diameter in meters. The optimum rotational speed is usually set at 6580% of the critical speed. These data are approximate and may not be valid for metal particles that tend to agglomerate by welding.

The degree of filling the mill with balls also influences productivity of the mill and milling efficiency. With excessive filling, the rising balls collide with falling ones. Generally, filling the mill by balls must not exceed 3035% of its volume.

The mill productivity also depends on many other factors: physical-chemical properties of feed material, filling of the mill by balls and their sizes, armor surface shape, speed of rotation, milling fineness and timely moving off of ground product.

where b.ap is the apparent density of the balls; l is the degree of filling of the mill by balls; n is revolutions per minute; 1, and 2 are coefficients of efficiency of electric engine and drive, respectively.

A feature of ball mills is their high specific energy consumption; a mill filled with balls, working idle, consumes approximately as much energy as at full-scale capacity, i.e. during grinding of material. Therefore, it is most disadvantageous to use a ball mill at less than full capacity.

The ball mill is a tumbling mill that uses steel balls as the grinding media. The length of the cylindrical shell is usually 11.5 times the shell diameter (Figure 8.11). The feed can be dry, with less than 3% moisture to minimize ball coating, or slurry containing 2040% water by weight. Ball mills are employed in either primary or secondary grinding applications. In primary applications, they receive their feed from crushers, and in secondary applications, they receive their feed from rod mills, AG mills, or SAG mills.

Ball mills are filled up to 40% with steel balls (with 3080mm diameter), which effectively grind the ore. The material that is to be ground fills the voids between the balls. The tumbling balls capture the particles in ball/ball or ball/liner events and load them to the point of fracture.

When hard pebbles rather than steel balls are used for the grinding media, the mills are known as pebble mills. As mentioned earlier, pebble mills are widely used in the North American taconite iron ore operations. Since the weight of pebbles per unit volume is 3555% of that of steel balls, and as the power input is directly proportional to the volume weight of the grinding medium, the power input and capacity of pebble mills are correspondingly lower. Thus, in a given grinding circuit, for a certain feed rate, a pebble mill would be much larger than a ball mill, with correspondingly a higher capital cost. However, the increase in capital cost is justified economically by a reduction in operating cost attributed to the elimination of steel grinding media.

In general, ball mills can be operated either wet or dry and are capable of producing products in the order of 100m. This represents reduction ratios of as great as 100. Very large tonnages can be ground with these ball mills because they are very effective material handling devices. Ball mills are rated by power rather than capacity. Today, the largest ball mill in operation is 8.53m diameter and 13.41m long with a corresponding motor power of 22MW (Toromocho, private communications).

Planetary ball mills. A planetary ball mill consists of at least one grinding jar, which is arranged eccentrically on a so-called sun wheel. The direction of movement of the sun wheel is opposite to that of the grinding jars according to a fixed ratio. The grinding balls in the grinding jars are subjected to superimposed rotational movements. The jars are moved around their own axis and, in the opposite direction, around the axis of the sun wheel at uniform speed and uniform rotation ratios. The result is that the superimposition of the centrifugal forces changes constantly (Coriolis motion). The grinding balls describe a semicircular movement, separate from the inside wall, and collide with the opposite surface at high impact energy. The difference in speeds produces an interaction between frictional and impact forces, which releases high dynamic energies. The interplay between these forces produces the high and very effective degree of size reduction of the planetary ball mill. Planetary ball mills are smaller than common ball mills, and are mainly used in laboratories for grinding sample material down to very small sizes.

Vibration mill. Twin- and three-tube vibrating mills are driven by an unbalanced drive. The entire filling of the grinding cylinders, which comprises the grinding media and the feed material, constantly receives impulses from the circular vibrations in the body of the mill. The grinding action itself is produced by the rotation of the grinding media in the opposite direction to the driving rotation and by continuous head-on collisions of the grinding media. The residence time of the material contained in the grinding cylinders is determined by the quantity of the flowing material. The residence time can also be influenced by using damming devices. The sample passes through the grinding cylinders in a helical curve and slides down from the inflow to the outflow. The high degree of fineness achieved is the result of this long grinding procedure. Continuous feeding is carried out by vibrating feeders, rotary valves, or conveyor screws. The product is subsequently conveyed either pneumatically or mechanically. They are basically used to homogenize food and feed.

CryoGrinder. As small samples (100 mg or <20 ml) are difficult to recover from a standard mortar and pestle, the CryoGrinder serves as an alternative. The CryoGrinder is a miniature mortar shaped as a small well and a tightly fitting pestle. The CryoGrinder is prechilled, then samples are added to the well and ground by a handheld cordless screwdriver. The homogenization and collection of the sample is highly efficient. In environmental analysis, this system is used when very small samples are available, such as small organisms or organs (brains, hepatopancreas, etc.).

The vibratory ball mill is another kind of high-energy ball mill that is used mainly for preparing amorphous alloys. The vials capacities in the vibratory mills are smaller (about 10 ml in volume) compared to the previous types of mills. In this mill, the charge of the powder and milling tools are agitated in three perpendicular directions (Fig. 1.6) at very high speed, as high as 1200 rpm.

Another type of the vibratory ball mill, which is used at the van der Waals-Zeeman Laboratory, consists of a stainless steel vial with a hardened steel bottom, and a single hardened steel ball of 6 cm in diameter (Fig. 1.7).

The mill is evacuated during milling to a pressure of 106 Torr, in order to avoid reactions with a gas atmosphere.[44] Subsequently, this mill is suitable for mechanical alloying of some special systems that are highly reactive with the surrounding atmosphere, such as rare earth elements.

A ball mill is a relatively simple apparatus in which the motion of the reactor, or of a part of it, induces a series of collisions of balls with each other and with the reactor walls (Suryanarayana, 2001). At each collision, a fraction of the powder inside the reactor is trapped between the colliding surfaces of the milling tools and submitted to a mechanical load at relatively high strain rates (Suryanarayana, 2001). This load generates a local nonhydrostatic mechanical stress at every point of contact between any pair of powder particles. The specific features of the deformation processes induced by these stresses depend on the intensity of the mechanical stresses themselves, on the details of the powder particle arrangement, that is on the topology of the contact network, and on the physical and chemical properties of powders (Martin et al., 2003; Delogu, 2008a). At the end of any given collision event, the powder that has been trapped is remixed with the powder that has not undergone this process. Correspondingly, at any instant in the mechanical processing, the whole powder charge includes fractions of powder that have undergone a different number of collisions.

The individual reactive processes at the perturbed interface between metallic elements are expected to occur on timescales that are, at most, comparable with the collision duration (Hammerberg et al., 1998; Urakaev and Boldyrev, 2000; Lund and Schuh, 2003; Delogu and Cocco, 2005a,b). Therefore, unless the ball mill is characterized by unusually high rates of powder mixing and frequency of collisions, reactive events initiated by local deformation processes at a given collision are not affected by a successive collision. Indeed, the time interval between successive collisions is significantly longer than the time period required by local structural perturbations for full relaxation (Hammerberg et al., 1998; Urakaev and Boldyrev, 2000; Lund and Schuh, 2003; Delogu and Cocco, 2005a,b).

These few considerations suffice to point out the two fundamental features of powder processing by ball milling, which in turn govern the MA processes in ball mills. First, mechanical processing by ball milling is a discrete processing method. Second, it has statistical character. All of this has important consequences for the study of the kinetics of MA processes. The fact that local deformation events are connected to individual collisions suggests that absolute time is not an appropriate reference quantity to describe mechanically induced phase transformations. Such a description should rather be made as a function of the number of collisions (Delogu et al., 2004). A satisfactory description of the MA kinetics must also account for the intrinsic statistical character of powder processing by ball milling. The amount of powder trapped in any given collision, at the end of collision is indeed substantially remixed with the other powder in the reactor. It follows that the same amount, or a fraction of it, could at least in principle be trapped again in the successive collision.

This is undoubtedly a difficult aspect to take into account in a mathematical description of MA kinetics. There are at least two extreme cases to consider. On the one hand, it could be assumed that the powder trapped in a given collision cannot be trapped in the successive one. On the other, it could be assumed that powder mixing is ideal and that the amount of powder trapped at a given collision has the same probability of being processed in the successive collision. Both these cases allow the development of a mathematical model able to describe the relationship between apparent kinetics and individual collision events. However, the latter assumption seems to be more reliable than the former one, at least for commercial mills characterized by relatively complex displacement in the reactor (Manai et al., 2001, 2004).

A further obvious condition for the successful development of a mathematical description of MA processes is the one related to the uniformity of collision regimes. More specifically, it is highly desirable that the powders trapped at impact always experience the same conditions. This requires the control of the ball dynamics inside the reactor, which can be approximately obtained by using a single milling ball and an amount of powder large enough to assure inelastic impact conditions (Manai et al., 2001, 2004; Delogu et al., 2004). In fact, the use of a single milling ball avoids impacts between balls, which have a remarkable disordering effect on the ball dynamics, whereas inelastic impact conditions permit the establishment of regular and periodic ball dynamics (Manai et al., 2001, 2004; Delogu et al., 2004).

All of the above assumptions and observations represent the basis and guidelines for the development of the mathematical model briefly outlined in the following. It has been successfully applied to the case of a Spex Mixer/ Mill mod. 8000, but the same approach can, in principle, be used for other ball mills.

The Planetary ball mills are the most popular mills used in MM, MA, and MD scientific researches for synthesizing almost all of the materials presented in Figure 1.1. In this type of mill, the milling media have considerably high energy, because milling stock and balls come off the inner wall of the vial (milling bowl or vial) and the effective centrifugal force reaches up to 20 times gravitational acceleration.

The centrifugal forces caused by the rotation of the supporting disc and autonomous turning of the vial act on the milling charge (balls and powders). Since the turning directions of the supporting disc and the vial are opposite, the centrifugal forces alternately are synchronized and opposite. Therefore, the milling media and the charged powders alternatively roll on the inner wall of the vial, and are lifted and thrown off across the bowl at high speed, as schematically presented in Figure 2.17.

However, there are some companies in the world who manufacture and sell number of planetary-type ball mills; Fritsch GmbH ( and Retsch ( are considered to be the oldest and principal companies in this area.

Fritsch produces different types of planetary ball mills with different capacities and rotation speeds. Perhaps, Fritsch Pulverisette P5 (Figure 2.18(a)) and Fritsch Pulverisette P6 (Figure 2.18(b)) are the most popular models of Fritsch planetary ball mills. A variety of vials and balls made of different materials with different capacities, starting from 80ml up to 500ml, are available for the Fritsch Pulverisette planetary ball mills; these include tempered steel, stainless steel, tungsten carbide, agate, sintered corundum, silicon nitride, and zirconium oxide. Figure 2.19 presents 80ml-tempered steel vial (a) and 500ml-agate vials (b) together with their milling media that are made of the same materials.

Figure 2.18. Photographs of Fritsch planetary-type high-energy ball mill of (a) Pulverisette P5 and (b) Pulverisette P6. The equipment is housed in the Nanotechnology Laboratory, Energy and Building Research Center (EBRC), Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR).

Figure 2.19. Photographs of the vials used for Fritsch planetary ball mills with capacity of (a) 80ml and (b) 500ml. The vials and the balls shown in (a) and (b) are made of tempered steel agate materials, respectively (Nanotechnology Laboratory, Energy and Building Research Center (EBRC), Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR)).

More recently and in year 2011, Fritsch GmbH ( introduced a new high-speed and versatile planetary ball mill called Planetary Micro Mill PULVERISETTE 7 (Figure 2.20). The company claims this new ball mill will be helpful to enable extreme high-energy ball milling at rotational speed reaching to 1,100rpm. This allows the new mill to achieve sensational centrifugal accelerations up to 95 times Earth gravity. They also mentioned that the energy application resulted from this new machine is about 150% greater than the classic planetary mills. Accordingly, it is expected that this new milling machine will enable the researchers to get their milled powders in short ball-milling time with fine powder particle sizes that can reach to be less than 1m in diameter. The vials available for this new type of mill have sizes of 20, 45, and 80ml. Both the vials and balls can be made of the same materials, which are used in the manufacture of large vials used for the classic Fritsch planetary ball mills, as shown in the previous text.

Retsch has also produced a number of capable high-energy planetary ball mills with different capacities (; namely Planetary Ball Mill PM 100 (Figure 2.21(a)), Planetary Ball Mill PM 100 CM, Planetary Ball Mill PM 200, and Planetary Ball Mill PM 400 (Figure 2.21(b)). Like Fritsch, Retsch offers high-quality ball-milling vials with different capacities (12, 25, 50, 50, 125, 250, and 500ml) and balls of different diameters (540mm), as exemplified in Figure 2.22. These milling tools can be made of hardened steel as well as other different materials such as carbides, nitrides, and oxides.

Figure 2.21. Photographs of Retsch planetary-type high-energy ball mill of (a) PM 100 and (b) PM 400. The equipment is housed in the Nanotechnology Laboratory, Energy and Building Research Center (EBRC), Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR).

Figure 2.22. Photographs of the vials used for Retsch planetary ball mills with capacity of (a) 80ml, (b) 250ml, and (c) 500ml. The vials and the balls shown are made of tempered steel (Nanotechnology Laboratory, Energy and Building Research Center (EBRC), Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR)).

Both Fritsch and Retsch companies have offered special types of vials that allow monitoring and measure the gas pressure and temperature inside the vial during the high-energy planetary ball-milling process. Moreover, these vials allow milling the powders under inert (e.g., argon or helium) or reactive gas (e.g., hydrogen or nitrogen) with a maximum gas pressure of 500kPa (5bar). It is worth mentioning here that such a development made on the vials design allows the users and researchers to monitor the progress tackled during the MA and MD processes by following up the phase transformations and heat realizing upon RBM, where the interaction of the gas used with the freshly created surfaces of the powders during milling (adsorption, absorption, desorption, and decomposition) can be monitored. Furthermore, the data of the temperature and pressure driven upon using this system is very helpful when the ball mills are used for the formation of stable (e.g., intermetallic compounds) and metastable (e.g., amorphous and nanocrystalline materials) phases. In addition, measuring the vial temperature during blank (without samples) high-energy ball mill can be used as an indication to realize the effects of friction, impact, and conversion processes.

More recently, Evico-magnetics ( has manufactured an extraordinary high-pressure milling vial with gas-temperature-monitoring (GTM) system. Likewise both system produced by Fritsch and Retsch, the developed system produced by Evico-magnetics, allowing RBM but at very high gas pressure that can reach to 15,000kPa (150bar). In addition, it allows in situ monitoring of temperature and of pressure by incorporating GTM. The vials, which can be used with any planetary mills, are made of hardened steel with capacity up to 220ml. The manufacturer offers also two-channel system for simultaneous use of two milling vials.

Using different ball mills as examples, it has been shown that, on the basis of the theory of glancing collision of rigid bodies, the theoretical calculation of tPT conditions and the kinetics of mechanochemical processes are possible for the reactors that are intended to perform different physicochemical processes during mechanical treatment of solids. According to the calculations, the physicochemical effect of mechanochemical reactors is due to short-time impulses of pressure (P = ~ 10101011 dyn cm2) with shift, and temperature T(x, t). The highest temperature impulse T ~ 103 K are caused by the dry friction phenomenon.

Typical spatial and time parameters of the impactfriction interaction of the particles with a size R ~ 104 cm are as follows: localization region, x ~ 106 cm; time, t ~ 108 s. On the basis of the obtained theoretical results, the effect of short-time contact fusion of particles treated in various comminuting devices can play a key role in the mechanism of activation and chemical reactions for wide range of mechanochemical processes. This role involves several aspects, that is, the very fact of contact fusion transforms the solid phase process onto another qualitative level, judging from the mass transfer coefficients. The spatial and time characteristics of the fused zone are such that quenching of non-equilibrium defects and intermediate products of chemical reactions occurs; solidification of the fused zone near the contact point results in the formation of a nanocrystal or nanoamor- phous state. The calculation models considered above and the kinetic equations obtained using them allow quantitative ab initio estimates of rate constants to be performed for any specific processes of mechanical activation and chemical transformation of the substances in ball mills.

There are two classes of ball mills: planetary and mixer (also called swing) mill. The terms high-speed vibration milling (HSVM), high-speed ball milling (HSBM), and planetary ball mill (PBM) are often used. The commercial apparatus are PBMs Fritsch P-5 and Fritsch Pulverisettes 6 and 7 classic line, the Retsch shaker (or mixer) mills ZM1, MM200, MM400, AS200, the Spex 8000, 6750 freezer/mill SPEX CertiPrep, and the SWH-0.4 vibrational ball mill. In some instances temperature controlled apparatus were used (58MI1); freezer/mills were used in some rare cases (13MOP1824).

The balls are made of stainless steel, agate (SiO2), zirconium oxide (ZrO2), or silicon nitride (Si3N). The use of stainless steel will contaminate the samples with steel particles and this is a problem both for solid-state NMR and for drug purity.

However, there are many types of ball mills (see Chapter 2 for more details), such as drum ball mills, jet ball mills, bead-mills, roller ball mills, vibration ball mills, and planetary ball mills, they can be grouped or classified into two types according to their rotation speed, as follows: (i) high-energy ball mills and (ii) low-energy ball mills. Table 3.1 presents characteristics and comparison between three types of ball mills (attritors, vibratory mills, planetary ball mills and roller mills) that are intensively used on MA, MD, and MM techniques.

In fact, choosing the right ball mill depends on the objectives of the process and the sort of materials (hard, brittle, ductile, etc.) that will be subjecting to the ball-milling process. For example, the characteristics and properties of those ball mills used for reduction in the particle size of the starting materials via top-down approach, or so-called mechanical milling (MM process), or for mechanically induced solid-state mixing for fabrications of composite and nanocomposite powders may differ widely from those mills used for achieving mechanically induced solid-state reaction (MISSR) between the starting reactant materials of elemental powders (MA process), or for tackling dramatic phase transformation changes on the structure of the starting materials (MD). Most of the ball mills in the market can be employed for different purposes and for preparing of wide range of new materials.

Martinez-Sanchez et al. [4] have pointed out that employing of high-energy ball mills not only contaminates the milled amorphous powders with significant volume fractions of impurities that come from milling media that move at high velocity, but it also affects the stability and crystallization properties of the formed amorphous phase. They have proved that the properties of the formed amorphous phase (Mo53Ni47) powder depends on the type of the ball-mill equipment (SPEX 8000D Mixer/Mill and Zoz Simoloter mill) used in their important investigations. This was indicated by the high contamination content of oxygen on the amorphous powders prepared by SPEX 8000D Mixer/Mill, when compared with the corresponding amorphous powders prepared by Zoz Simoloter mill. Accordingly, they have attributed the poor stabilities, indexed by the crystallization temperature of the amorphous phase formed by SPEX 8000D Mixer/Mill to the presence of foreign matter (impurities).

dry ball mill for sale | buy dry grinding ball mill with best price

Dry ball mill is a grinding equipment that uses dry ball milling process to grind materials. Different from the wet ball mill, the dry ball mill does not need to add water when performing the grinding operation, only relying on the impact and crushing effect of the grinding media on the material to grind the material.

The finished material of the dry grinding ball mill is dry powder, no moisture content, no need for air drying, especially suitable for grinding products that require the final product to be stored and sold in the form of grinding.

The dry ball mill machine adopts grate plate mill tail discharge and straight barrel outlet discharge. The discharge is smooth without swelling grinding. The cylinder does not require cooling, has a long service life and a low failure rate.

Because the dry ball milling process is dry in and dry out, the raw materials are moisture-free materials, and the discharge is also dry grinding, so there will be floating dust during the production process. In order to avoid environmental pollution, in the production process, it is necessary to add auxiliary equipment such as induced draft device, dust discharge pipe, dust remover, etc.

In the process of grinding materials, only steel balls and other grinding media are in contact with the materials, so the change of properties of some materials with unstable chemical and physical properties is avoided. For the mineral processing plant or cement plant located in arid and water-scarce areas, water resources are relatively scarce, and the use of dry ball mill does not require water to participate, which is more cost-effective.

As a ball mills supplier with 22 years of experience in the grinding industry, we can provide customers with types of ball mill, vertical mill, rod mill and AG/SAG mill for grinding in a variety of industries and materials.

ygm-q4 series european type strength grindinc mill

The grinding roller device adopts republication type, greatly improve the milling force, efficient production. Optimization of hanger device structure layout, improve the internal circulation, without removing the hanger, can replace the grinding ring, reducing equipment maintenance time.

Integrated drive bevel gear, drive chain reduced transmission efficiency is greatly improved; simple foundation structure mill, no special construction gearmounting platform; no need to adjust the level of the gear unit does not need to adjust the center of the coupling.

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mill speed - an overview | sciencedirect topics

Medium-speed mills are smaller than low-speed units and are generally of the vertical spindle construction. The speed of the grinding section of these mills is usually 75225rpm. They operate on the principles of crushing and attrition. Pulverization takes place between two surfaces, one rolling on top of the other. Primary air causes coal feed to circulate between the grinding elements, and when coal becomes fine enough to be airborne, the finished product is conveyed to the burners or the classifier. Medium-speed mills require medium to high maintenance, but their power consumption is low.

In the ball-and-race mill (Fig. 13.3), balls are held between two races, much like a large ball bearing. The top race or grinding ring remains stationary while the bottom race rotates. As the coal is ground between large diameter balls and the ring, the balls are free to rotate on all axes and therefore remain spherical.

The grinding elements of a roll-and-race mill consist of three equally spaced, spring-loaded heavy conical (Fig. 13.4) or toroidal rolls (Fig. 13.5) suitably suspended inside near the periphery. These rolls travel in a concave grinding ring or bowl (with heavy armoring). The main drive shaft turns the table supporting the grinding ring, which in turn transmits the motion to the rolls. There is no metal-to-metal contact between grinding elements, since each roller rests on a thick layer of coal. Thus the maintenance is minimized.

Mills with conical rolls are known as bowl mills. As the coal is ground between large diameter rolls and the bowl, rolls revolve about their own axes, and the grinding bowl revolves about the axis of the mill.

During normal operation the mill speed tends to vary with mill charge. According to available literature, the operating speeds of AG mills are much higher than conventional tumbling mills and are in the range of 8085% of the critical speed. SAG mills of comparable size but containing say 10% ball charge (in addition to the rocks), normally, operate between 70 and 75% of the critical speed. Dry Aerofall mills are run at about 85% of the critical speed.

The breakage of particles depends on the speed of rotation. Working with a 7.32m diameter and 3.66m long mill, Napier-Munn etal. [4] observed that the breakage rate for the finer size fractions of ore (say 0.1mm) at lower speeds (e.g., 55% of the critical speed) was higher than that observed at higher speeds (e.g., 70% of the critical speed). For larger sizes of ore (in excess of 10mm), the breakage rate was lower for mills rotating at 55% of the critical speed than for mills running at 70% of the critical speed. For a particular intermediate particle sizerange, indications are that the breakage rate was independent of speed. The breakage ratesize relation at two different speeds is reproduced in Figure9.7.

Mills operating below 75rpm are known as low-speed mills. Low-speed units include ball or tube or drum mills, which normally rotate at about 1525rpm. Other types of mills, e.g., ball-and-race and roll-and-race mills, that generally fall into the medium-speed category may also be included in this category provided their speed is less than 75rpm.

Tube mills (Figure 4.9), also known as ball mills, are usually a drum-type construction or a hollow cylinder with conical ends and heavy-cast wear-resistant liners, less than half-filled with forged alloy-steel balls of mixed size. This is a very rugged piece of equipment, where grinding is accomplished partly by impact, as the grinding balls and coal ascend and fall with cylinder rotation, and partly by attrition between coal lumps inside the drum.

Primary air is circulated over the charge to carry the pulverized coal to classifiers. In this type of mill pulverized coal exits from the same side of the mill that solid coal and air enter. In some designs entry of solid coal air and exit of pulverized coal are provided at each end of the mill. Both ends of the mill are symmetrical in nature. Consequently, each mill is served by two coal feeders.

Reliability of this type of mill is very high and it requires low maintenance. The disadvantages of this type of mill are high power consumption, larger and heavier construction, greater space requirement, etc. To pulverize coal of high rank and low grindability, ball/tube mills are preferred because they can achieve high fineness, required for proper burning, and maintain high availability.

Dick and Lenard (2005) conducted cold rolling experiments on low-carbon steel strips, using progressively rougher rolls in a STANAT two-high variable speed mill. The strips were lubricated by O/W emulsions, delivered at a rate of 3l/m.

Five kinds of roll surfaces were prepared. In the first instance, the rolls were ground in the traditional manner to a surface roughness of approximately Ra=0.3m in the direction around and along the roll. The next surfaces were prepared by sand blasting, expected to create a random roughness direction. Using Blasto-Lite glass beads BT-11 resulted in a surface roughness nearly identical to that of the ground rolls, Ra=0.35m. The next surface was prepared using larger glass beads of grit #24, creating a randomly oriented surface, approximately Ra=0.91m. Following this, using #60 Lionblast oxide grit resulted in surface roughness of 1.31m and using BEI Pecal EG 12, another oxide grit, created surface roughness of approximately 1.76m.

Three lubricants, supplied by Imperial Oil, were used in an O/W emulsion. Walzoel M3 is a low-viscosity, high-VI oil with synthetic ester lubricity agents and phosphorus-containing antiwear agents. Its kinematic viscosity of 8.65mm2/s at 40C and 2.34mm2/s at 100C. Kutwell 40 is a medium-viscosity and medium-VI paraffinic oil with sodium sulphonate surfactant and antirust additives, and no lubricity ester or antiwear agents with a viscosity of 37mm2/s at 40C. Oil FSG is a high-viscosity, high-VI oil with natural ester lubricity agents and zinc- and phosphorus-containing antiwear agents. Its viscosity is 185mm2/s at 40C and 16.75mm2/s at 100C. The supplier estimates the droplets to be between 5 and 10m in size.

The results indicate that the roll separating forces depend on the roughness of the work roll in a very significant manner, as shown in Figure 9.30. Two sets of data are given in Figure 9.30, both for high reduction. The empty symbols indicate the forces at low rolling speeds, while the full symbols indicate the same at higher rolling velocities. The forces increase almost in a linear fashion as the roll roughness is increasing. The speed effect is also observable from Figure 9.30 and as above, under most conditions the forces drop as the speed increases.

In a recent manuscript Lenard (Lenard, 2004), dealing with cold rolling of 6061-T6 aluminium alloy strips, using a low-viscosity mineral seal oil and progressively rougher work rolls, the slopes of the roll forceroll roughness plots indicated sudden increases of the slope at approximately 1m Ra. These changes revealed the relative contributions of the adhesive and ploughing forces to friction and indicated that the effect of ploughing overwhelms that of adhesion. While it is possible that increasing the roll roughness beyond 1.76m Ra would lead to similar behaviour, no comparable observations can be made in the present study and within the range of the parameters, as no sudden changes of the slopes are demonstrated. The different observations result from the significant differences of the viscosities of the lubricants used. In the study of Lenard (2004) the mineral seal oils viscosity was 4.4mm2/s while in the present study the lightest oils viscosity is twice that. The low viscosity created a very low film thickness and the sharp asperities of the sand-blasted work roll must have pierced through the film as soon as contact was established at the entry. In the present work, the sharp asperities must also have pierced the oil particles but because of the higher viscosities, these likely have occurred later and to a lesser extent. Trijssenaar (2002) discusses the mechanisms that may cause continuous oil films: the coalescence and the break-up of the oil droplets and concludes that break-up is not likely to occur because of the low Weber numbers present during cold rolling. In the presence of the sharp edges of the asperities, created by the sand blasting process, the surface tension of the droplets may be overcome by the piercing action of the edges, leading to the creation of thin oil films.

During grinding, particles fracture when the applied stresses exceed the particle strength globally (massive fracture) or locally (fine wear debris is considered to be formed by attrition). The rate of particle size reduction increases with frequency of stress application and magnitude of the stress. However, particle size reduction rate typically decreases during the grinding process, for example, due to the increase in fracture resistance of the smaller particles.1

Impact energy depends on the specific mill design. It increases with mill speed, density and size of milling media (ball, rod, etc.). High impact energy is required to produce fine powders. However, very high mill speeds could lead to high wear of the balls inducing high contamination, excessive heating and lower powder yields.

The size of the milling media (typically 20:1 for ball:powder diameter) also influences size, morphology and microstructure of the powder. To produce fine powders, it is recommended to mill in several steps while reducing successively the milling media size, as one milling step usually induces a particle size reduction of about factor 10.

An increase in ball to powder ratio increases the impact frequency and the total energy consumption per second while the average impact energy per collision decreases. Typical values of this ratio range from 5 to 30. For the amorphisation of a powder this ratio may approach 100.

Additives (surface-active agents or process control agent (PCA) and lubricant) are used to nullify autohesion (Van der Waals forces) and so inhibit agglomeration, to reduce welding (atomic bonding) and/or to lower the surface tension of the material (proportional to the energy required to create new surfaces). Their aims are to shorten milling times and/or to produce finer powdersbb0010bb0010bb0010.1,5 The most widely used PCAs are alcohols, stearic acid and ethyl acetate.1 Small amounts of these additives remain in the powder and are responsible for contamination in C, H and/or O, which can reach 0.5 to 3wt%.4

Crushing and grinding equipment is available that can reduce particles in size from coarse (tens of centimeters) to very fine (submicron). The discussion here will be limited to grinding in the finer sizes, e.g., millimeters to micrometers and less. It should also be noted that the reduction ratio (feed size:product size) is limited for most machines and seldom exceeds about 10:1. In order to achieve higher reduction ratios, it is usually necessary to grind in stages.

Equipment suitable for fine grinding of brittle solids such as ceramic powders generally falls into one of several classes. Important examples include media mills, impact mills, and fluid-energy mills.

Media mills are the most widely used machines for fine grinding of powders. These machines contain individual loose grinding elementsthe grinding mediawhich can consist of balls, rods, pebbles, beads, etc. The action of the mill leads to motion of the media elements, which collide with each other and with the walls of the grinding chamber. Grinding occurs when particles are caught, nipped, in these collisions. Depending on the mechanisms used to induce media motion, this class of machines can be further subdivided into tumbling mills, vibratory mills, and stirred mills.

For each of these, the breakage characteristics are determined by the frequency of media collisions and by the energy associated with each collision. Collision frequencies depend on the motion of the mill and the number of media elements contained in it. The collision energy is also related to mill motion as well as to the mass of the individual elements. It follows that smaller media provide increased collision frequency but reduced breakage energy associated with each collision. As a consequence, breakage rates in media mills typically exhibit the kind of pattern illustrated in Fig. 3. For a fixed size of media, the rates initially increase with particle size because a greater volume is stressed in each collision. For very small particles impacted by coarse media the impact energy is sufficient to ensure breakage, while in the case of coarse particles the impact energy may be insufficient and only a fraction of such impacts will lead to breakage. Efficient operation of media mills depends on the proper matching of the media size to the size of the particles being ground. Size ratios of about 20:1 (media:particles) generally appear to be appropriate. Media density determines the impact energy and thereby the location of the maximum in the breakage ratesize relationship. Using a range of media sizes can extend the range of particle sizes that can be ground effectively. However, in order to obtain a large reduction ratio, it is usually best to grind in stages using progressively finer media in different mills or in different compartments of a continuous mill.

Since media mills generally operate by applying compressive stresses to particles, the relationships between breakage parameters and particle size tend to follow very similar patterns for different machines and operating conditions. Actual magnitudes, of course, vary substantially. For batch grinding systems, the set of breakage rates and breakage distributions for the different particle sizes present (or that can be produced) can be used to predict product size distributions as a function of grinding time. In the case of continuous grinding, additional information on the transport of particles through the mill is needed. Procedures for making such predictions are beyond the scope of this article and are well documented in the modern grinding literature (see the Bibliography). However, a useful, though very approximate, relationship that can be derived from a simplified treatment of the breakage process is that the required grinding time varies roughly with the reciprocal of the desired product size. Specifically:

The grinding energy in a properly designed media mill with appropriately sized media is usually sufficient to ensure massive fracture of the particles. However, the grinding action does not normally include high-speed impacts, so the breakage distributions typically take the form shown by curve I in Fig. 1.

Tumbling mills are the simplest and most commonly used type. Typically they consist of a horizontal cylinder, partially filled with the media and rotated about its horizontal axis, as illustrated in Fig. 4. Essentially, these mills operate by raising the media through rotation of the mill and allowing them to fall back under gravity. Thus the grinding energy is supplied by, and therefore limited by, gravity. The motion of the media is also controlled by gravity. As the rotational speed is increased, the motion changes from a cascading type where individuals roll and bounce over each other, to the cataracting condition which involves projection of media out of the bed after which they remain in free flight for a period before falling back into the bed. Eventually, a speed is reached at which the outer layers of media begin to centrifuge. This is known as the critical speed of the mill and it can be calculated, by equating gravity and centrifugal forces, from

where Nc is the critical speed (rpm), g is the gravitational constant, D is the mill diameter, and d is the media diameter. Tumbling mills are normally operated at about 7080% of the critical speed, which corresponds to maximum power input and is probably related to the transition between the cascading and cataracting regimes.

Media filling levels of about 50% of the mill volume are common in batch grinding; somewhat lower levels are required in continuous mills to allow for feed and discharge of powder. Powder loading is generally considered to be optimum when the voids in the media bed are just filled, i.e., the bulk volume of powder should be about 40% of the bulk volume of the media. Lower loadings allow too much direct mediamedia contact and wear while higher levels favor cushioning of mediamedia impacts and energy loss in rearrangement of particles. Fine grinding is very often carried out wet using slurry concentrations of up to 40% solids by volume. Wet grinding is generally considered to be more efficient than dry grinding, probably because of improved dispersion of the particles and reduced tendency for aggregation of fines. Grinding aids, typically surface-active agents, are available commercially for both wet and dry grinding. They probably function by improving particle dispersion.

Because of their wide application, design and scale-up criteria for tumbling mills are well established and standard test procedures, such as the well-known Bond Test, are available for evaluating specific materials. Tumbling media mills are quite effective for grinding to sizes in the 1050m range, but often require inordinately long grinding times for size reduction into the micron range.

Centrifugal mills are, for the most part, a special case of tumbling-media mills, the difference being the addition of a centrifugal component to increase the effective gravitational force. The typical arrangement involves a planetary type of motion in which the mill shell rotates about its own axis, which is itself rotated about a central axis. In effect, the mill is equivalent to a simple tumbling mill operating in a centrifugal, rather than a gravitational field. In contrast to conventional tumbling mills, rotational speeds, which determine media collision frequency, are not limited by the onset of centrifugation when the centrifugal force due to rotation of the shell equals or exceeds that of gravity (i.e., at the critical speed). As the mill speed increases, the effective gravitational force also increases. Provided the ratio of mill speed to orbital speed falls within a specified range, determined by the geometry of the planetary system, media motion in the mill is essentially independent of the actual speed. Practical operating speeds are limited only by mechanical design constraints. The principal advantage of centrifugal mills is that substantially higher grinding forces can be obtained than with the conventional types, even with small mills and fine media. Consequently, mill capacity is substantially increased and grinding can be extended to finer sizes. The main disadvantages are in mechanical design and questions of reliability. For these reasons, centrifugal mills have found only rather limited applications in commercial-scale grinding.

Stirred-media mills generally consist of a cylindrical, stationary vessel filled almost completely by grinding media and agitated by means of an internal impeller. In contrast to the tumbling mills, in which shearing of the media bed and, consequently, the grinding action is largely confined to the surface layers of the bed, the entire charge in a stirred mill is in motion at all times. As a result, the inherent capacity of these mills is significantly higher than that of their conventional counterparts. Mills agitated at low speeds are usually oriented vertically since the grinding force relies, to some extent, on gravity. In high-speed mills, centrifugal forces dominate over gravity and orientation is more a matter of convenience. For the most part, the grinding energy is derived from the kinetic energy of the media. Increasing the agitation rate increases both the media collision frequency and the impact energy, which leads to higher breakage rates and also extends the range of particle sizes that can be broken. Because of the high energies involved, stirred mills using fine media are especially suitable for grinding into submicron size ranges. As with the other kinds of media mills, careful matching of the media size to the size of the particles being ground can be critical to efficient operation. Powder loading so as just to fill the void space between the media elements is appropriate for these mills also. Wet grinding is normal, both to ensure particle dispersion and to assist in the removal of the excess heat developed in the process. For grinding to very fine sizes, it is common practice to circulate the slurry through a heat exchanger. Ceramic liners, agitators, and media can be used to minimize contamination due to wear.

Vibratory mills use oscillatory motion of the mill shell to agitate the media. As for the stirred mills, the active grinding zone encompasses the entire mill volume. The grinding energy is supplied by the inertia of the media and is not limited by gravity. In principle, high energy can be supplied to quite fine media, making these devices attractive for ultrafine grinding applications. By very careful matching of media size, powder size, and energy input (based on vibrational amplitude and frequency) it should be possible to achieve quite high grinding efficiencies. Unfortunately, mechanical design for reliability and low maintenance is not simple. Problems in these areas have tended to limit their large-scale application.

Impact mills induce particle breakage by collision with moving parts of the machine itself. A widely used example is the hammer mill which typically consists of a set of hammers rotating, usually at high speed, in a cylindrical case as shown schematically in Fig. 5. The shell of the case generally takes the form of a grate through which product particles can exit the mill. Breakage can result from direct impact between particles and hammers, by shearing of large particles between the hammers and the grate, or by particleparticle collisions in the highly turbulent environment of the mill. The classifying action of the grate is limited to quite coarse particles and product sizes are typically considerably finer than the grate opening size.

Impact velocities in hammer mills are normally very high which leads to fine breakage distributions of the form shown as curve II in Fig. 1. Because of the high impact velocities employed, large particles are broken very effectively. At finer sizes, however, breakage is probably limited by aerodynamic factors; entrainment of the particles tends to reduce the probability of impact as well as the severity of those impacts that do occur. As a consequence, high-speed, mechanical-impact mills are ideal for reducing a relatively coarse feed to a considerably finer size in a single stage. They cannot, however, be used to reduce a complete batch of material into the micron size range.

Fluid-energy mills, also known as jet mills, rely on collisions in a stream of particles entrained in a high-velocity fluid, typically air or steam, to effect breakage. In the pancake type, the particle-laden stream is injected through peripheral jets into a flat, cylindrical chamber at extremely high velocity. The highly turbulent environment so generated leads to high-velocity impacts between particles and with the walls of the chamber. The systems are generally designed so as to remove fine particles with the fluid while coarser material is retained for further breakage. An alternative arrangement is the opposed jet type in which particles enter the chamber through jets arranged in direct opposition to each other, the idea being to promote breakage by particleparticle collisions rather than by impact against chamber walls. Designs of this kind are intended to reduce contamination due to wear of machine surfaces.

Fluid-energy mills are commonly used to produce particles in the 110m size range. Product size distributions are often relatively narrow which may be due in part to the loss of extremely fine (submicron) material in the product collection system.

This case study illustrates the impact of changes in contamination control showing how condition monitoring was used in association with improved filtering to reduce environmental effects through reductions in the disposal of consumables and scrap product. Increased profitability, through increased reliability, is also a consequential benefit.

Ding [15] reports on developments at the No-Twist Finishing Mill, at the BHP Steelworks in Newcastle, Australia. The mill contains 63 gear sets, 99 rolling element bearings and 43 assorted bearings. The system had been found to fail without warning due to its high operating speed. A comprehensive lubricant assessment programme was implemented to improve performance. The programme included: viscosity measurement, assessment of oxidation and additive depletion, assessment of solid particle contamination, spectrometric analysis and ferrography. It was found that 82% of oil samples were outside target levels and there were high levels of abrasive wear.

Improved filtering was implemented and over a period of 3 years a change of filter specification from >30 m to 6 urn allowed a speed increase in the plant from 46 ms-1 to 120 ms-1 accompanied by a significant reduction in bearing failure. (See figure 2.)

These outcomes highlight the relationship between contamination control and bearing life extension. Solid particle contamination control is an often-overlooked aspect of the oil analysis condition monitoring strategy. Not only can the mill speed increased substantially after the improvements, but the number of bearing failures has also been reduced. The environmental impact of monitoring the contamination levels has thus lead to a reduction in the replacement of failed bearings, reducing the off-site environmental impact of the bearing manufacturing, but also, reducing the additional power demand and disposal of maintenance consumables associated with the task of a bearing change.

Penton [16] reports an interview with the plant's Reliability Engineer which describes how monitoring solid particle levels highlighted an issue with short element life on the tissue mill bearing oil filters.

Owing to a lack of monitoring and trending of metrics, the fact that the filters in use on the mill were blinding every 3 days was overlooked for several years. It had not occurred to the operations staff responsible for the changing of these filters that there was an issue. However, through a proactive monitoring programme, the solid particle levels were found to be exceptionally high. The short filter element life came to light during the investigation, and the root cause was found to be the fact that the tank had a problem with high levels of contaminant ingress. This was rectified and the filters now last in excess of six months, with a subsequent annual saving of 10,000. More importantly, the environmental impact of the filter disposal has been reduced, both on-site and off-site.

The third case study is drawn from Tutuka Power Station which operates in South Africa [17]. It was put into full commercial operation in 1990 and during the first year of its operation a study was conducted to improve machine reliability and reduce lubricant consumption. Several areas of the station were investigated.

The coal pulverisers use steel balls to pulverise coal prior to burning. Each pulveriser has a lubrication system supporting main bearings, drive motor bearings and main drive gearing. Initially reliability problems were encountered as a result of contamination by coal dust and ash. With the implementation of condition monitoring, proactive lubrication management and improvements in sealing of bearings, the average lubricant drain interval was increased from the suppliers recommendation of 4000 hours to 27,968 hours. These actions led to an annual reduction in the disposal of lubricating oil of 43,684 litres.

The successful action on the coal pulverisers led to changes in the practices being used elsewhere in this parts of the plant. For example, the lubrication systems for six high capacity fans and an air heater were also modified by the implementation of portable offline filtering allowing re-use of 5,940 litres of oil until oil testing indicated it has become unfit for use.

Accumulated of savings 13,879 litres of waste oil per boiler mill were achieved through all improvements in practice leading to a total saving of 499,648 litres of oil for the 36 boiler mills on the site in an operating period of just over 3 years.

Cattaert [17] reports further that by implementing other monitoring programmes and (unspecified) improvements in the turbine lubricating system lubricant losses have also been reduced in this area of the station.

Lubricants are replaced by both schedule and condition based practice. Improvements in practice have resulted in a reduction in the use of lubricant under both forms of approach. Condition based lubricant usage has fallen by 79%, while schedule based lubricant consumption has fallen by 77%.

The savings made in lubricant disposal at the station make a significant contribution to reducing environmental contamination as well as offering economic advantage including: savings in manpower, outage and consumables.

Comminution consumes the largest part of the energy used in mining operations, from 30 to 70% (Radziszewski, 2013b; Nadolski et al., 2014). This has consequently drawn most of the sustainability initiatives designed to reduce energy consumption in mining, including, for example, the establishment of CEEC (Coalition for Eco-efficient Comminution, and GMSG (Global Mining Standards Guidelines Group,

One approach is to ask if all the ore needs fine grinding, where the bulk of the energy is consumed. Certainly in the case of low grade ores, much of the gangue can be liberated at quite coarse size and its further size reduction would represent inefficient expenditure of comminution energy (Chapter 1). This provides an opportunity for ore sorting, for example (Chapter 14). Lessard et al. (2014) provide case studies showing the impact on comminution energy of including ore sorting on crusher products ahead of grinding. Similar in objective, the development of coarse particle flotation technologies (Chapter 12) aims to reduce the mass of material sent to the fine grinding (liberation) stage.

This still leaves the question of how efficiently the energy is used in comminution. It is common experience that significant heat is generated in grinding (in particular) and can be considered a loss in efficiency. However, it may be that heat is an inevitable consequence of breakage. Capturing the heat could even be construed as a benefit (Radziszewski, 2013b).

A fundamental approach to assessing energy efficiency is to compare input energy relative to the energy associated with the new surface created. This increase in surface energy is calculated by multiplying the area of new surface created (m2) by the surface tension expressed as an energy (J m2). On this basis, efficiency is calculated to be as little as 1% (Lowrison, 1974). This may not be an entirely fair basis to evaluate as we suspect that some input energy goes into deforming particles and creating micro-cracks (without breakage) and that the new surface created is more energetic than the original surface, meaning the surface tension value may be underestimated. In addition, both these factors may provide side-benefits of comminution. Rather than this comparison as a basis, other measures use a comparison against a standard.

Single particle slow compressive loading is considered about the most energy efficient way to comminute. Comparing to this basis, Fuerstenau and Abouzeid (2002) found that ball milling quartz was about 15% energy efficient. From theoretical reasoning, Tromans (2008) estimated the energy associated with breakage by slow compression and showed that relative to this value the efficiency of creating new surface area could be as high as 26%, depending on the mineral.

Nadolski et al. (2014) propose an energy benchmarking measure based on single particle breakage. A methodology derived from the JK Drop-weight Test is used to determine the limiting energy required for breakage, termed the essential energy. They derive a comminution benchmark energy factor (BEF) by dividing actual energy consumed in the comminution machine by the essential energy. They make the point that the method is independent of the type of equipment, and can be used to include energy associated with material transport as well to assess competing circuit designs.

This is obtained for a comminution device using Eq. (5.4), by measuring W (the specific energy being used, kWh t1), F80 and P80 and solving for Wi as the operating work index, WiO. (Note that the value of W is the power applied to the pinion shaft of the mill. Motor input power thus has to be converted to power at the mill pinion shaft output by applying corrections for electrical and mechanical losses between the power measurement point and the shell of the mill.) The ratio of laboratory determined work index to operating work index, Wilab:WiO, is the measure of efficiency relative to the standard: for example, if Wilab:WiO <1, the unit or circuit is using more energy than predicted by the standard test, that is, it is less efficient than predicted. Values of Wilab:WiO obtained from specific units can be used to assess the effect of operating variables, such as mill speed, size of grinding media, type of liner, etc. Note, this means that the Bond work index has to be measured each time the comparison is to be made. An illustration of the use of this energy efficiency calculation is provided by Rowland and McIvor (2009) (Example 5.2).

a.A survey of a SAG-ball mill circuit processing ore from primary crushing showed size reduction of circuit (SAG) feed F80 of approximately 165,000m to flotation circuit feed (cyclone overflow) P80 of 125m. The total specific energy input for the two milling stages was 14.6kWh t1. Calculate the operating work index for the circuit.b.Circuit feed samples taken at the same time were sent for Bond work index testing. The rod mill test gave RWilab of 14.5kWh t1 and a ball mill work index BWilab of 13.8kWh t1. Accepting that the rod mill work index applies to size reduction of the circuit feed down to the rod mill test product P80 of 1050m and that the ball mill work index applies from this size to the circuit product size, calculate the standard Bond energy for the circuit.c.Calculate the combined Wilab and the relative efficiency, Wilab:Wio. What do you conclude?

A survey of a SAG-ball mill circuit processing ore from primary crushing showed size reduction of circuit (SAG) feed F80 of approximately 165,000m to flotation circuit feed (cyclone overflow) P80 of 125m. The total specific energy input for the two milling stages was 14.6kWh t1. Calculate the operating work index for the circuit.

Circuit feed samples taken at the same time were sent for Bond work index testing. The rod mill test gave RWilab of 14.5kWh t1 and a ball mill work index BWilab of 13.8kWh t1. Accepting that the rod mill work index applies to size reduction of the circuit feed down to the rod mill test product P80 of 1050m and that the ball mill work index applies from this size to the circuit product size, calculate the standard Bond energy for the circuit.

a.The appropriate form of Eq. (5.4) is:14.6=10Wio(11251165000)Wio=16.8(kWht1)b.Bond energy for both size reduction stages is:From rod mill test:W=1014.5(110501165000)W=4.1(kWht1)From ball mill test:W=1013.8(112511050)W=8.1(kWht1)Therefore predicted total is: WT=12.2kWh t1c.The combined test work index for this ore, WilabC is given by:12.2=10WilabC(11251165000)WilabC=14.0(kWht1)and, thus:WilabCWio=14.016.8=0.83(or83%)This result indicates the circuit is only 83% efficient compared to that predicted by the Bond standard test.

The procedure has the virtue of simplicity and the use of well recognized formulae. Field studies have shown the ratio can vary as much as 35% from unity (some circuits will operate at greater efficiency than the Bond energy predicts). Rowland and McIvor (2009) discuss some of the limitations of the method. They note that the size distributions from AG/SAG milling can be quite unlike those from rod and ball mills on which the technique originated; and, beyond giving a measure of efficiency, it does not provide any specific indication of the causes of inefficiency. In the case of ball mill-classifier circuits functional performance analysis does provide a tool to identify which of the two process units (or both) may be the source of inefficiency.

McIvor (2006, 2014) has provided an intermediate level (i.e., between the simple lumped parameter work index of Bond, and the highly detailed computerized circuit modeling approach) to characterize ball mill-cyclone circuit performance.

Classification System Efficiency (CSE) is the percentage of coarse size (typically with reference to the P80) material occupying the mill and can be calculated by taking the average of the percentage of coarse material in the mill feed and mill discharge. As this also represents the percentage of the mill energy expended on targeted, coarse size material, it is directly proportional to overall grinding circuit efficiency and production rate. Circuit performance can then be expressed in the Functional Performance Equation for ball milling circuits, which is derived as follows.

Define fines as any product size material, and coarse as that targeted to be further ground, the two typically differentiated by the circuit target P80. For any grinding circuit, the production rate of new, product size material or fines (Production Rate of Fines, PRF) must equal the specific grinding rate of the coarse material (i.e., fine product generated per unit of energy applied to the coarse material) times the power applied to the coarse material:

A measure of the plant ball mills grinding efficiency is the ratio of the grinding rate of the coarse material in the plant ball mill compared to the grinding rate, or grindability, of the same coarse material (g rev1) as measured in a standardized test mill set up. That is:

This is a simple yet insightful expression of how a ball mill-cyclone circuit generates new product size material. Rate of production is a direct function of the material grindability, as well as the amount of power provided by the mill. It is also a direct function of two separate and distinct efficiencies that are in play. Each of these efficiencies is specifically related to certain physical design and operating variables, which we can manipulate. The terms in the equation are generated by a circuit survey. Thus, the Functional Performance Equation provides understanding and opportunity for plant ball mill circuit optimization.

It is also noteworthy that the complement to CSE is the fraction of mill energy being used on unnecessary further grinding of fines. Such over-grinding is often detrimental to downstream processing and thus an important motivator to achieve high CSE, even beyond its impact on grinding circuit efficiency.

The coal-milling product is pulverized fuel PF containing grains with a different size (polydisperse product). The degree of comminution can be defined using the Rx =f(x) function referred to as the pulverized material grain-size characteristic. Parameter Rx denotes the mass content of the dust specimen particles, which are bigger than size x. So-defined contents can be determined easily by sieving (so-called sieve analysis), and quantity Rx represents the cumulative percentage retained on a sieve with a mesh diameter equal to x. To describe the PSD, a cumulative percentage Dx of particles that are smaller than the size x is also used. It is obvious that the relation between Rx and Dx is

Joining the points given by the sieve analysis and plotted onto the Rx x system, a graphic characteristic is obtained. In order to describe the distribution of product, obtained from milling minerals by means of mills used in boiler technology, the model of Rosin-Rammler-Sperling-Bennett (RRSB) is used:

where Rx [%] is the content of grains bigger than x in m, b is the comminution number, and n is the uniformity (polydispersity) number. The formula was supplemented with an equation that introduced the interdependence between b and n

As a result, the PSD governed by the RRSB law can be determined unequivocally by giving the material retained amount on two sieves. The polydispersity number n characterizes the degree of uniformity of the product grains. For n=, the product would be composed of particles with an identical size (monodisperse pulverized material). The polydispersity number depends on the type of the mill (especially - the classifier) and the kind of milled coal. In Polish hard coal installations n0.71.6. Lower values correspond to high-speed pulverizers, e.g., fan mills, while higher ones are observed in low and medium speed mills. Reconstructions of mills and classifiers to meet NOx emission limits are made to produce finer particles with increased n values. This strongly affects the PSD of RRSB particles (Table5.1). The average particle diameter dp and the specific surface area Fp of the particles, resulting from PSD, have a large impact on the combustion process, radiation heat transfer, as well as on slagging, fouling, and fly-ash erosion. As n decreases, dp also decreases, while Fp of the milling product increases. The diameter dp is associated with Fp according to the equation

which means that a higher furnace loss will arise if the boiler is fired with PF with a lower value of n. Raising the polydispersity number is also beneficial regarding energy for the same value of R0.09, less energy is required to obtain product with a higher value of n.

The comminution number b or the grain size xm corresponding to it characterize the degree of the product comminution. The higher the value of b (or lower the value of xm) at a given polydispersity number, the greater the degree of material comminution and the larger the unit surface area expressed in m2/kgdust.

There is a need to describe the relationship between the capacity of the mill and the properties of the milled material. Appropriate methods are based on various comminution theories, the most common of which are Rittingers [2], Kicks [3] and Bonds [4].

The commonly used method to evaluate the grindability of coal in medium speed pulverizers is the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) [5]. The HGI test is based on Rittingers theory. It allows to predict the mill output, performance and energy requirements, and (qualitatively) also the particle size distribution after milling [6]. As the value of HGI increases, the capacity of the mill increases as well. Numerous experiences show that if the HGI test is a good indicator of milling performance for medium speed mills when grinding coal, it is poor for other materials such as biomass. Another disadvantage of HGI is that the tester is a batch device and does not reflect the continuous grinding process.

Broad dissemination of biomass burning in PF boilers caused the search for other indicators better reflecting the comminution of such materials [79]. The studies show that in this case better results give the methods based on Bonds theory.

By the term quality of pulverized coal is understood its fineness (cumulative percentage retained R0.09 and R0.20 or other assumed pair of Rx values) in conjunction with its homogeneity described by the uniformity (polydispersity) number n. The quality described in this way obviously results from PSD, which is a continuous function (Weibull distribution).

The problem of optimizing the quality of the pulverized coal has long been the subject of research because of its importance for the operating costs of the power unit. This resulted in a variety of recommendations [1214]. However, they have now lost validity because of economic changes and the emergence of restrictions on NOx and CO2 emissions. Another method, in the form of an algorithm based on economic criteria and taking into account the variations of the power unit load as well as the durability and the output of pulverizers, is presented in Ref. [1]. The data in the algorithm are obtained from tests of pulverizers of a 650t/h PF boiler (OP650) in a Polish power plant. On the basis of these studies, relationships were derived between the fineness of the produced pulverized fuel and operating parameters, the efficiency of the boiler and parameters of the milling system, e.g., energy consumption of the mill and its fan. The influence of variation of excess air in the boiler on the maximum grain size that can burn at an acceptable unburned combustibles level is also shown. The analysis of the impact of the composition of the mineral part of the Polish hard coals to the abrasion of mills was made.

Based on the measurements carried out and the actual periods between overhauls of mills of the boiler under investigation, which were determined during the operation, a correlation was found to determine the abrasive wear rate of the elements of ring-ball mills with a nominal output of 33t/h (type MKM33). The following function was determined for this particular set of data:

The optimization described in Ref. [1] is an effective tool for a quantitative assessment of the most favorable conditions of the mill-furnace system operation in the case of the tested power plant. The proposed algorithm could also be used for other PF boilers provided that measurements were performed to select functions based on the measuring data appropriately.

For installations with other types of pulverizers, the general form of the algorithm (made in the form of the MS Excel spreadsheet) remains the same. However, functions derived for MKM33 mills have to be replaced with other resulting from respective research.

Further development of the described method should allow the automation of settings of blades in static classifiers of pulverizers or rotational speed in dynamic ones. It can be included in online monitoring of the boiler thermo-flow parameters, in a similar way to that presented in Ref. [15]. An additional improvement in optimization accuracy can be provided by online monitoring of the particle size of the pulverized fuel [1619].

The optimization results depend not only on PSD, but also on other parameters of influence. The diagrams in Fig.5.2 and Fig.5.3 show the difference in total costs related to fuel and comminution process. A higher NCV value, which reduces fuel consumption, allows the boiler to operate at high loads using only three mills, while with a reduced NCV value four mills are required. However, the low NCV fuel is cheaper what affects the costs.

Taking into account significant share of maintenance cost in the total cost, economic optimization allows to choose the option of replacing parts that are susceptible to wear by choosing for example between coal piping made of cast ductile iron, carbon steel, and ceramic lined elements.

The type of fuel is another important impact parameter. Even hard (bituminous) coal has many varieties with different petrography, especially when comparing coals from the northern and southern hemispheres. For example, in Ref. [20] it was shown that German coal contained 20%30% inertinite, while South African 66%71% with similar Vdaf content. High inertinite coal requires a higher ignition temperature and burns slowly. Therefore, the replacement of German coal with South African coal requires its finer pulverizing.

Simple stainless steel, glass-lined, or even mild steel vessels, fitted with a suitable stirrer, are more than adequate for the production of solvent-based primers. These vessels will often be fitted with internal or external heating elements and water-cooled condensers, so that, for example, polymeric ingredients can be more readily dissolved at temperatures close to the reflux temperature of the solvent or solvent blend. This procedure is also valid for solvent-based structural adhesives.

If water-based primers are being manufactured, then the situation is slightly more involved. The use of water means that only glass-lined or stainless steel vessels can be used for the final stage of mixing. In many instances, solid raw materials will not be supplied as a water-based solution or dispersion and, hence, the first stage of any manufacturing process requires suitable solution/dispersions to be made. This is often achieved using a conventional bead mill (Fig. 13.43), where bead size, bead volume, temperature, pump rate, solids content, pH, and so on, all have to be optimized.

This is best carried out using statistical experimental design techniques,15,16 optimizing the process conditions against the critical parameter of resultant particle size distribution. Once the variables to be studied have been identified, an experimental design can be created. This is usually a standard quadratic model, which can fit nonlinear data. The experimental designs produced allow several variables to be studied at once, which enables a wide area of experimental space to be mapped. This enables interactions to be identified and areas of optimum performance to be found.

The resultant matrix of experiments comprises a series of trials with each chosen variable set at high, low, or intermediate values; replication of some trials is used to assess error; other parameters are held at a constant value.

Data analysis then fits a polynomial equation to the collected data. The magnitudes of the coefficient estimates in the equation indicate the importance of the variables. This equation can be simply viewed as a multidimensional French curve to illustrate the relationship between variables and responses. Those coefficient estimates with statistical significance are highlighted and are used to select the axes for contour plots.

Bishopp et al.17 show a contour plot, or response curve, for the variation in bead size and pump rate against the D0.9 value for the particle size (D0.9 is the particle size, in m, below which 90% of the particles fall); constants are bead volume at 75% and mill speed at 4000 rpm.

Contour plots allow the relationship between significant variables and responses to be visualized. These plots resemble topographical maps in that contour lines are drawn on a two dimensional plane to represent the surface of a response variable. This allows a highly visual, easily interpreted picture to be used to understand the process or system being studied. Thus, in the example given in Ref. 17, it is very clear that the lowest particle size is achieved using intermediate bead dimensions and that it is essentially independent of pump rate.

Low-viscosity pastes can usually be manufactured using simple stirrers to disperse and/or dissolve the raw materials. However, as the viscosity increases so does the need to use high-shear stirrers such as toothed-bladed stirrers, planetary mixers, and/or Z-blade mixers.

Insoluble powders, which can include blowing agents for foaming adhesives, curatives, fillers, and so on, can be predispersed in any liquid polymer or resin present, thoroughly wetted out using a conventional two-roll paint mill and then added as an intimate dispersion to the main mix.

Other techniques such as mixing under vacuum or under a nitrogen blanket might be necessary should incorporated air prove a problem or, as is the case with isocyanate resins and some aliphatic amines where the raw materials are reactive with moisture in the air.

In essence, there are two methods of manufacturing film adhesives: from solution or from a melt. In the first case, the film has to be cast and the solvent has to be removed in a continuous operation. In the second case, as there is no solvent to be removed, the matrix has to be melted and then cast into film; this is the so-called hot melt film technique.

The initial stage, in either case, is to produce the fully formulated matrix; the solvent-based system can use similar equipment as is used to manufacture primers and the hot-melt route would use the same sort of plant as is used for the high-viscosity pastes except that the capability of heating and then cooling the matrix during the mixing cycle will be required.

Film casting also gives rise to, essentially, two different procedures. When preparing films from solvent-based matrices, the actual equipment used can be dependent on the final areal film weight. Low areal weights, for example, 50100 g/m2, can utilize conventional reverse roll coating of a continuous film onto a backing paper. This would pass straight into an air-circulating oven whose various zones would be set to drive off the residual solvent without leading to skinning or blistering of the final film. For areal weights more than 100 g/m2, lower weight films can be laminated together through nip rollers or a suitable metering device; for example, a doctor knife-over-table or knife-over-roll technique can produce film at the correct weight, which can then be dried as before.

When 100% solid matrices are employed, manufacture of the film is simplified because no solvents have to be removed, but, nevertheless, highly specialized equipment has to be used. Figure 13.44 shows a schematic representation for a batch process in which the mixed formulation is metered, at a suitable elevated temperature, under a doctor knife to produce the final film.

Using the hot-melt approach, it is possible to mix and cast the adhesive film as a continuous operation. Here, the individual raw materials are fed into a conventional screw extruder, are mixed under controlled temperature conditions, and are then pumped out into a reverse-roll coating machine that can produce film adhesives from as low as 50 g/m2 up to about 1800 g/mm2. The schematic representation of such a process is shown in Fig. 13.45.

Mention has already been made of Redux 775, the first structural adhesive film. Its manufacturing process has not changed since 1954. A film of phenolic resole is cast under a doctor knife, a considerable excess of the Polyvinyl Fluoride (PVF) powder is curtain coated onto the phenolic film, and the excess is then removed. Two of these half-webs are then laminated together to produce the final film adhesive. This is shown schematically in Fig. 13.46, and Fig. 13.47 shows the slightly modified original 1954 film-making equipment.

high chromium cast iron vertival roller mill spare parts grinding roller tire,table liner

Production Description We manufacture different wear and impact resistant parts for yourvertical mill, for example: roller tire, segmented rollers, table liners and nozzle rings. Beside suitable material selection we offer hard weld deposit and other special applications to increase the surface hardness. High-chromium wear-resistant roll sleeves are widely used in large-scale materials such as metallurgy, electric power, cement, chemical, ceramics, non-metallic minerals, power plant desulfurization, water slag, slag, slag, coal, cement clinker, glass, quartz, limestone and other industries. Grinding and ultra-fine grinding. Rollers and Table Segments: Both are cast in High Chrome Alloys in the range of 16% to 27 % with a 55-62 HRC hardness. The use of High Chrome increases the wear life versus low and medium chrome alloys. Grinding roller is core part of vertical mill. Wecan provide customized service according to customers'different processing requirements. Besides, it provides finished product manufacturing service for grinding roller including casting, finished machining, surfacing welding, etc. We gained good reputation from customers. Application Area Vertical Mill/Cement Vertical Mill/Coal Vertical Mill/Raw Vertical Mill/Slag Vertical Mill/ Clinker vertical mill/ GGBSvertical mill We Supply... We supply replacement wear parts such as tires, grinding ring segments, armor rings and spindle shields are cast from our high chromium alloy irons and fully heat-treated for optimum mechanical properties. Tires and grinding ring segments are also accurately machined to tight tolerances for a precise fit. Parts requiring drilled or tapped holes such as roller bosses, clamping rings and dam ring segments are made of carbon steel or high strength steel. They are heat-treated to provide the best combination of hardness and toughness for long, trouble-free service. Our product engineers are responsive to customer requests for product improvement. As a vertically integrated plant, we can easily deal with the changes in design, metallurgy, heat treatment and machining. We offer customized services. You can send us your drawingsof your vertical mill wear parts in the case that we have not had developed your mill parts in the past. WhatsApp Us: 0086

brazil niobium mine exploitation mining beneficiation plant, crusher grinding mill

Niobium, formerly columbium, is a chemical element with the symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41. It is a soft, grey, ductile transition metal, which is often found in the pyrochlore mineral, the main commercial source for niobium, and columbite.

It was not until the early 20th century that niobium was first used commercially. Brazil is the leading producer of niobium and ferroniobium, an alloy of niobium and iron. Niobium is used mostly in alloys, the largest part in special steel such as that used in gas pipelines. Although alloys contain only a maximum of 0.1%, that small percentage of niobium improves the strength of the steel. Niobium is used in various superconducting materials. These superconducting alloys, also containing titanium and tin, are widely used in the superconducting magnets of MRI scanners. Other applications of niobium include its use in welding, nuclear industries, electronics, optics, numismatics and jewelry. In the last two applications, niobium's low toxicity and ability to be colored by anodization are particular advantages.

Niobium and tantalum do not occur naturally as free metals, but are essential components in a range of mineral species. The majority of these are oxide minerals; silicates of niobium and tantalum also substitute for major ions in a number of other minerals, in which they typically have low concentrations. The vast majority of the economically important species are oxides.

Extraction methods used to extract the tantalum and niobium are similar to other comparable metal occurrence. Factors that dictate the choice of extraction methods include: physical and chemical properties of mineral ore, the tonnage and grade and type, geometry and depth of field. The most common extraction methods are surface (or open) and sub- surface (or underground) mining, or a combination of both. A significant amount of niobium and tantalum are extracted by artisanal mining and small-scale.

In recent years, several advanced technologies have been developed to improve the separation of finer materials. As a leading company in mining industry, we can supply our consumers with high-tech and high quality niobium ore beneficiation equipment. Niobium ore beneficiation equipment for Brazil has lot selectivity. Our most popular products are crushing equipment, grinding equipment, sand making equipment and separating machine. For niobium ore crushing, you can choose niobium ore jaw crusher, cone crusher, impact crusher and grinding mills such as ball mill, vertical roller mill and super thin grinding mill. For niobium ore separating, you can use our magnetic separator, flotation separator or gravity separator.

The dry Magnetic Separator of CTG type is widely used in chemical, pharmaceutical, the ceramic raw materials of iron removal and the recovery of the weak magnetic minerals. This machine is specialized in dry separating in limonite, hematite, manganese ore and the machine enjoys features of small occupied area, low power, and large treatment volume.

Shanghai SBM, a professional mining equipment manufacturer, has been dedicated in mining industry for many years. We provide professional service about niobium ore mining technology and niobium mining equipment for sale Brazil. For ore crushing, you can choose our jaw crusher, impact crusher or cone crusher. All of our crushers feature with high efficiency, energy saving, easy maintenance, low operating and maintenance cost and do on. For further grinding, you can take ball mill, super thin grinding mill and vertical roller mill as options.

Its fully-enclosed layout features high integration. It integrates the functions of high-efficiency sand making, particle shape optimization, filler content control, gradation control, water content control, and environmental protection into a single syst

the best 100 mesh raymond mill equipment of hcm

What manufacturer monopolizes 100 mesh Raymond mill equipment? HCMis an experienced manufacturer of mill equipment. We have the development vision of keeping pace with the times, innovative research and development of efficient and environmental protection of mineral grinding mill equipment. We produce marble, dolomite powder and so on. HCMnew generation Raymond mill, vertical roller mill, ultra-fine mill, super-fine vertical grindingmilland other equipment have high powder capacity, high classification efficiency, energy saving and noise reduction.

HCM has been engaged in research for many years and has rich experience in machining and manufacturing. We have successfully produced Raymond mill, vertical roller mill, ultra-fine mill, super-fine vertical grinding milland other equipment for the industry, contributing to the development of powder industry. There are many types of new environmental protection Raymond mill, including HC vertical pendulum grinding mill, HCQ reinforcedgrinding mill, etc. all of them are environmentally friendly and energy-saving ore grinding equipment.

HC vertical pendulum grinding mill is a newly upgraded environmental protection Raymond mill equipment, covering a number of patented technologies, and its performance indicators have been greatly improved. The equipment can produce 80-400 mesh ore powder with uniform fineness, excellent particle shape and good product quality. It is widely used for grinding all kinds of non-metallic ores with Mohs hardness below 7 and humidity less than 6%. It is used for grinding 100 mesh non-metallic ore powder, with twice the result with half the effort and higher powder capacity.

HCQ reinforced grinding mill is an new-type environmental grinding mill equipment. It has a large conveying capacity and a large amount of shovel material. It adopts maintenance free grinding roller assembly and new plum blossom frame structure, which makes the operation of the equipment more reliable and the maintenance more convenient. It is a special equipment for grinding 100 mesh non-metallic mineral powder project.

How much does the grinding mill cost? As a manufacturer, HCMtakes the customer as the center, and scientifically customizes the selection and configuration scheme according to the grinding requirements of each project, because the quotation of Raymond mill equipment is more scientific and reasonable.

Focusing on the grinding fineness, production capacity, equipment installation area and other information required by the project, HCM R & D team and solution team will scientifically customize exclusive selection and configuration scheme for customers and friends, and create considerable market value for each milling production line.

Thenew Raymond mill of HCM equipment, vertical roller mill, ultra-fine mill, super-fine vertical grinding milland other equipment save energy and reduce consumption. It is an ideal ore powder processing grinding mill. 100 mesh Raymond mill equipment of HCMilling(Guilin Hongcheng)is selected to grind 100 mesh ore powder, which has high pulverizing rate, noise reduction and environmental protection.

Simply complete the form below, click submit, you will get the price list and a Hongcheng representative will contact you within one business day. Please also feel free to contact us by email or phone. ( * Denotes a required field).

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