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how to make a solar still | mother earth news

With high energy costs and a warming planet that needs cleaner fuel sources, the time has never been better to get involved with solar energy. DIY Solar Projects(Creative Publishing International, 2011) by Eric Smith contains how-to instructions for many achievable, clever projects you can make and install in order to create your own solar lifestyle. Hundreds of people are doing it, and you can too. The following excerpt is taken from the chapter, Solar Still.

Make your own distilled water from stream or lake water, salt water, or even brackish, dirty water, using these DIY Solar Still Plans. With just a few basic building materials, a sheet of glass and some sunshine, you can purify your own water at no cost and with minimal effort.

The principle of using the suns heat to separate water from dissolved minerals has been understood for millennia, salt ponds being the best example of how this knowledge has been put to use in the past. In salt ponds, seawater is drained into shallow ponds and then baked and purified in the sun until all that remains are crystals of salt. In this case, the pure water that gradually evaporated away was considered a useless byproduct, but as far back as the time of the ancient Greeks it was known that seawater could be made fresh and drinkable by this process.

A solar still works like a salt evaporation pond, except that the water that invisibly evaporates is extracted from the air; the minerals and other impurities are left behind and discarded. As the hot, moisture-laden air rises up to the slanting sheet of relatively cool glass sealed to the box, water condenses out in the form of small droplets that cling to the glass. As these droplets get heavier, they roll down the glass to the collector tube at the bottom and then out to the jug.

The box is built from 3/4 " BC-grade plywood, painted black on the inside to absorb heat. We used a double layer of plywood on the sides to resist warping and to help insulate the box, with an insulated door at the back and a sheet of glass on top.

Finding a good lining or container to hold the water in the inside of the box as it heats and evaporates can be complicated. The combination of high heat and water containing salt or other contaminents can corrode metals faster than usual and cause plastic containers to break down or offgas, imparting an unpleasant taste to the distilled water. The best liners are glass or stainless steel, although you can also coat the inside of the box with two or three coats of black silicone caulk (look for an F.D.A.-listed type approved for use around food). Spread the caulk around the bottom and sides with a taping knife. After it dries and cures thoroughly, just pour water inthe silicone is impervious to the heat and water.

We chose to paint the inside black and use two large glass baking pans to hold the water. Glass baking pans are a safe, inexpensive container for dirty or salty water, and they can easily be removed for cleaning. We used two 10x 15" pans, which hold up to 8 quarts of water when full. To increase the capacity of the still, just increase the size of the wooden box and add more pans.

The operation of the distiller is simple. As the temperature inside the box rises, water in the pans heats up and evaporates, rising up to the angled glass, where it slowly runs down to the collector tube and then out to a container.

The runoff tube is made from 1" PEX tubing. Stainless steel can also be used. However, use caution with other materialsif in doubt, boil a piece of the material in tap water for 10 minutes, then taste the water after it cools to see if it added any flavor. If it did, dont use it.

4. Glue and screw the remaining front and side pieces on, using clamps to hold them together as you predrill and screw. Use 1 1/4" screws to laminate the pieces together and 2" screws to join the corners.

6. Paint the inside of the box with black high-temperature paint. Cover the back and the door with reflective foil glued with contact cement. Let the paint dry for several days so that all the solvents evaporate off.

12. Shim the box level and tack a temporary stop to the top edge to make it easy to place the glass without smearing the caulk. Spread a generous bead of caulk on all the edges, then lay the glass in place. Tape it down around the edges with painters tape, then let it set up overnight.

The late Will Kinney, an aerospace engineer turned gardener who hosted an organic gardening show on KPFK , designed a version of this still that I saw in his Vista, Calif. garden back in the 80's. His used stainless steel for the pan and collection tube, leading to a GLASS 5-gallon jug, which were also used exclusively for storage. This kept leaching of organics from any plastic tubing or bottles. He also used a strong acetic acid wash on the glass cover before assembling it, and discarded the first several gallons before collection. Samples that he sent to North American Rockwell were so pure that they told him their water calibration STANDARD actually was less pure than his. The sealant he used was also silicone, and he stressed using the kind hospitals and food industry uses, so it doesn't leach into the water. A word on comments about distilled water (which I should point out to the RN commenter is NOT 'DI' water) and fears of leaching minerals from the body: I have been using DISTILLED water for drinking since the mid 70's when I was a lab assistant for a water chemist, Dr. David Gray, at Golden West College. The body's blood pH and electrolyte balance system is designed to KEEP that balance. If you're experiencing bone density loss, it's because of your commercial/processed food diet, DNA, age or lifestyle, not pure water.

Forty years ago I was an aircrew survival equipment technician in the Navy. We packed inflatable solar stills along with other items in the 20 man life rafts. I see such a still being sold online now called the aquamate in case anyone would like to check them out.

Great read! Thanks for sharing. I love how detailed and clear the instructions are. I'd just like to highlight though that there are quite a few things that people should bear in mind when using solar distillers in general as there might be some benefits to it, there's also some downside to this device. My article on solar water distillation will explore more on that point. I'd love to share it to anyone interested in trying this one out. You can check it out here: http://all-about-water-filters.com/ultimate-guide-to-solar-water-distillation/

I was curious as to how much distilled water these devices can practically produce? Does anybody have any examples of how much their system produces how big the device was and where they live or how much sunlight they receive at their location?

Is this just for desalination? I feel really like a nube here--but I must ask: Does this purify the water from antigens, bacteria, viruses, or parasites? Or are these not specific problems with salt water? So, to be clear: With salt water, the only problem is too much salt, and the antigens, bacteria, viruses, and parasites are not a problem in this situation?

Knowing how to make something like this is great for people after a disaster like we are living here in Nepal. I'm OK in my home, but so many are living outside and it's starting Monsoon. I expect drinking water to become an issue soon, hence the interest here. Like everyone else in Nepal, I have a project..Hope the admin forgives me this one indiscretion. http://travelstarter.com/projects/nepal_earthquake_restoration_changunarayan_village__project/260

I believe that people putting this story together just made an error. Mother Earth is good about correcting their mistakes. They're human just like us and they make mistakes too.

The article that came to me as an email said to make a' solar water heater', not a' solar water distiller'. That disturbes me. Say one thing and do another. Just another way to sell their books.

Caution with DI water, using it will result in electrolyte imbalance and mild to worse cerebral edema, aka brain swell. The gut can absorb 1 qt in 15 minutes of water. The salts are salts, these molecular structures are already so simple, there really is no such thing as organic salts. NaCl, table salt comes from a mine, the ocean or from your brow. It is an ionic bond, not a molecular bond and there can be pollutants in it. But it just isnt that hard to come up with clean salt. Its loss from our body leaving us Hyponatremic can leave us miserable on the path and really ill and an ICU patient on the extreme. Moderation is the key. I personally do not like the taste of DI water, never have even as a kid. Do not like over hard water either... Watch the wives tales, because it rhymes or has been passed along does not make it true. Other tales are gum collects in the gut, pepper collects in the gut, the colon becomes lined with whatever... RN, Nurse educator

While it is true that distilled water leaches minerals out of the body it should also be noted that the minerals leached are "inorganic" minerals. Inorganic minerals are the result of water passing through soil where rock and whatever else is present. "Organic" minerals, however, come from plants and animals that eat the plants. ie, plant digests soil (converts it to organic minerals through photosynthesis, which only a plant can do), man and animal eats plants with converted minerals and on up the food chain. The inorganic minerals are sludge to the body because we do not do photosynthesis. It is good to get the inorganic minerals out of the body. Distilled water is a solvent and based at pH 7.0 (neutral) not acidic. Because most bottled water is placed in plastic containers the plastic components (chemicals) can leach into the water. That is bad. Distilled water is the same as rain. All life forms survive better with pure water which is "distilled" water. It has the ability to break the connection between organic and inorganic minerals and will then clean the body of impurities. I had a guy tell me that distilled water would kill house plants. I laughed my butt off. Give your house plants distilled water and they grow strong, healthy and very green. This is the effect of a solvent in a mineral base. FYI, the myth of distilled water leaching minerals came from a water filter company who was trying to build a market for themselves through filter sales. I have been drinking distilled water for many years and have NEVER had a problem with it. The body demands it. The digestive system becomes very regular when drinking it. Distilled water is excellent and that is what people have drunk for thousands of years. The reason for using a charcoal filter is to remove the taste from the steam process. It makes it easier to drink if you are just starting out. In this particular process the VOC's could be a problem. Put it to glass instead.

One major issue this article didn't adress is that distilled water is too pure for your body, because the water is acidic and demineralized, it will pull minerals out of your body when you drink it and it will pull contaminants out of whatever container you put it in. Also a distiller needs to have vents and a carbon filter to get rid of VOC's that build up from the distilling process. So #1. add vent holes and a carbon filter at the end of the tube before you bottle it in glass containers and #2 add about teaspoon of Himalayan salt per gallon of water to compensate for the minerals lost if you're using it for drinking.

Great Idea! But just one caution: PEX may not be the best solution since it is not intended for exposure to sunlight (UV). Some brands do have UV inhibitors, but probably should not be used in continual exposure settings. In my opinion, copper is a better choice. UV isn't an issue with copper, it doesn't "off-gas" and distilled water has little to no minerals (copper's enemy and the reason for most PEX installations). The cost difference shouldn't be a big issue given the minimal amount used in this project. Cutting copper is more difficult, but still possible using a number of inexpensive tools including a rotary tool (ex. Dremel) or hacksaw.

The plan overall sounds really good, but I wanted to point out a pretty major issue with the jug you show in the picture on the first page. The jug is 5-gallons, like the ones used for office drinking dispensers. Those however are made with BPA plastic and are among the worst of the leeching plastics. I can only imagine how much more placing the jug on your hot roof would speed up the poising of your "distilled water." A carboy could be a great alternative or I have 7.5 gallon totes I picked up from my local sporting goods store for water storage and they are BPA free. Thanks for the article, overall very good.

Hey, great DIY! I think I am going to do this. Only make two of these, bigger and run the drain lines into my basement into two 5o gallon containers. this way I can water the gardens and incase of emergency, we will have 100 gallons of fresh, drinkable water on hand. Im also hoping I can find a small, Solar powered pump to push the water hard enough to spray from a hose or to even tap it into our water system for the house! Just need to find a couple LARGE tanks for the distillers...Hmmmm....

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Whether you work for one of the major players in the lithium industry or are associated with a junior company trying to gain a foothold in the market, the right initial testing is the first step in speeding up the process. Commercial laboratories dont factor in technology and equipment testing, and that is why we have established two test centres in the US that serve global customers and help get battery grade lithium projects off to a head start.

Based on tests performed here, our engineers design the optimal process flowsheet and plant design for your site. The earlier you approach us, the better the outcome and collaboration, and the better the plant design. This results in lower CAPEX and faster time-to-market.

Our facilities test both brine and hard rock sources and we provide you with a full flowsheet of life-cycle equipment for either. Despite lithium mining being a relative new industry, we have pioneered this industry for more than 20 years. Combined with our more than 130 years of experience from relatable industries, your project is in the most experienced hands. This experience is highly valued by investors and eases the way to gain capital to move your project forward.

If you run a spodumene mine, you probably wish to reduce production costs, and if you run a brine deposit, producing more volume fast with the least environmental impact is most likely high on your agenda. If you run an ongoing project and need help removing bottlenecks, our years of experience also comes in handy. We monitor our equipment closely and benchmark equipment performance across projects. Best practise from one site is transferred to other sites as well.

This not only helps you remove bottlenecks but also to maximise performance of your equipment including avoiding unplanned stops. The data on thousands of pieces of equipment all across the world makes predictive maintenance easier and more accurate. Our equipment is backed with world-class support throughout its lifecycle.

Your battery-grade lithium is needed to make the world of electric vehicles enter the next era. Our testing facilities and full flowsheet of equipment makes it happen faster and reduces your time-to-market. Relying on one partner to provide the testing, the equipment, the commission and the service and maintenance also makes your project a more attractive choice for investors.

Lithium forecast indicate demand will more than triple over the next decade. With the newest technology, backed by years of experience in brine and spodumene extraction methods, we are your full solutions partner for major lithium processing operations.

FLSmidth provides sustainable productivity to the global mining and cement industries. We deliver market-leading engineering, equipment and service solutions that enable our customers to improve performance, drive down costs and reduce environmental impact. Our operations span the globe and we are close to 10,200 employees, present in more than 60 countries. In 2020, FLSmidth generated revenue of DKK 16.4 billion. MissionZero is our sustainability ambition towards zero emissions in mining and cement by 2030.