The Rapid Sand Filter (RSF) water treatment equipment differs from the Slow Sand Filter water treatment equipment in a variety of ways, the most important of which are the much greater water treatment filtration rate and the ability to clean automatically using back washing. The mechanism of particle removal also differs. Rapid sand Water treatment filter does not use biological filtration and depends primarily on mechanical straining, sedimentation, impaction, interception, adhesion and physical adsorption. In Rapid sand water filter the complete filtration cycle (filtration and back washing) occurs sequentially.
Water Treatment Filters that must be taken off-line periodically to back wash are classified operationally as semi-continuous. Water Treatment Filters in which filtration and backwash operations occur simultaneously are classified as continuous.
A further classification can be made based on the driving force as gravity Water Filters or pressure Water filters. Typically sand is used as the filtering material in single medium filters. Dual- medium filters usually consist of a layer of anthracite over a layer of sand. Multimedia filters typically consist of a layer of anthracite over a layer of sand over a layer of garnet.
In constant-rate filtration with fixed head, the flow through the filter is maintained at a constant rate. They are either in-fluent controlled or effluent controlled. Pumps or weirs are used for in-fluent control whereas an effluent modulating valve that can be operated manually or mechanically is used for effluent control.
In constant-rate variable filtration head, the flow through the filter is maintained at a constant rate. Pumps or weirs are used for in-fluent control. When the head or effluent turbidity reaches a preset value, the filter is back-washed.
In declining-rate filtration, the rate of flow through the filter is allowed to decline as the rate of head loss builds up with time. Declining-rate filtration systems are either in-fluent controlled or effluent controlled.
In the effluent controlled type of filters, the filter effluent lines are connected to a common header. A fixed orifice is built into the effluent piping for each filter so that no filter after washing will take an undue share of the flow. The filtered water header pressure may be regulated by a throttle valve which discharges to filtered water reservoir. Costly rate controllers are replaced with fixed orifices and therefore, would make the units economical particularly in large water works involving batteries of filters. For equal duration of filter runs the total output per day from a declining rate filter is higher than that in the conventional filters. In group of filters operating at an average rate of 10 m3/m2/hr, the fixed orifice will be so designed that a recently cleaned filter will begin operation at 15 m3/ m2/hr while the filter next in line for cleaning will have slowed down to about 5 m3/m2/hr. Usually the depths of filter boxes for declining rate filters are more than those for the conventional ones. These would permit longer filter runs and consequent reduced wash water requirements.
The filter beds are operated by scheduled cleaning in such a way that each of beds will be in different stage of filter cycle producing the required average flow. When the rate of flow is reduced to the minimum design rate, the filter is removed from service and back-washed. In an inlet-controlled filter, the rate of flow is controlled proportional to the rate of filtration with float control arrangement to the inlet valve. Inlet control reduces the amount of work which has to be done on the filter to just clean it.
The Above Figure shows a typical rapid sand filter water treatment with components. The filter is contained within a filter box, usually made of concrete. Inside the filter box are layers of filter media and gravel.
Below the gravel, a network of pipes makes up the under-drain system which collects the filtered water and evenly distributes the backwash water. Washwater troughs help distribute the in-fluent water and are also used in collecting the dirty washed water during backwashing.
In addition to the components mentioned above, most rapid sand filters contain a flow controller, or filter control system, which regulates flow rates of water through the filter. Other parts, such as valves, a loss of head gauge, surface washers, and a backwash pump, are used while cleaning the filter.
Operation of a Rapid sand filter during water filtration is similar to operation of a Slow sand filter. The influent water flows down through the sand and support gravel and is collected by the underdrain system is shown in the above Figure. However, the influent water in a rapid sand filter is already relatively clear due to coagulation, flocculation and clarification, so RSFs operate much more quickly than SSFs. The rate of filtration varies from 80 to 120 Lpm/ m2 (4800 to 7200 Lph/ m2) of filter bed area or 4.8 to 7.2 m/ h. The average rate of filtration for design purpose may be assumed as 100 Lpm/ m20f filter area or (6m/h).
The filter tank is generally constructed of concrete and is most often rectangular. Filters in large plants are usually constructed next to each other in a row, allowing the piping from the clarifier basins to feed the water treatments filter from a central pipe gallery or from a inlet channel. The sizes of the filters vary according to the quantity to be treated. The number of filters is selected to minimize the effect of removing the filter from service for washing on remaining filters. The larger the number, therefore, the better it is, for the proper operation. Ideally it should be possible to take three filters out of service simultaneously (one draining down, one washing and one for maintenance). A minimum of four filters is desirable, although two to three filters may be used for small plants.
Water treatment filter bed sizes vary from 25 to 100 m2 with lengths in the range of 4 to12 m and widths in the range of2.5 to 8 m and length to breadth ratio of1.25 to 1.33. The wash water collection channel is located on one side along the length of the filter. Filter beds of twice this size can be constructed as two identical beds separated by the wash water collection cham1el, thus limiting the length of travel of feed water to 5 m. A minimum overall depth of 2.6 m including a free board of 0.5 m is adopted. Fig shows the cut section of RSF box showing the under drainage system, gravel, sand media and wash water gutters.
The filter media is the important component of the water treatments filter which actually removes the particles from the water being treated. Water Treatment filter media is most commonly sand, though other types of media can be used, usually in combination with sand. The sand used in rapid sand filters is coarser than the sand used in slow sand filters. This larger sand has larger pores which do not fill as quickly with particles removed from the water. Coarse sand also costs less and is more readily available than the finer sand used in slow sand filtration. The filter sand used in rapid sand filters is prepared from stock sand specifically for the purpose. Most rapid sand filters contain 60 to 75 cm thickness of sand, but some newer filters are deeper. The sand used as filter media in RSF is generally of effective size of 0.4 to 0.7 mm and uniformity coefficient of 1.3 to 1.7. The standing water depth over filter varies between 1.0 and 2.0 m.
The water filter gravel at the bottom of the water filter bed is not part of the filter media and it is merely providing a support for media above the underdrains and allowing an even distribution of flow of water across the filter bed during filtering and backwashing. The gravel also prevents the filter sand from being lost during the operation. The filter gravel is usually graded of size from 2.5 to 50 mm (largest size being at the bottom) in four to five layers to total thickness of 45 to 50 cm, depending on the type of under drain system used. In case the under drainage system with pourous bottom or false floor no gravel base is required. The filter gravel shall be classified by sieves into four or more size grades, sieves being placed with the coarsest on top and the finest at the bottom.
The under-drainage system of the water filter is intended to collect the filtered water and to distribute the wash water during backwashing in such a fashion that all portions of the bed may perform nearly the same amount of work and when washed receive nearly the same amount of cleaning. Since the rate of wash water flow is several times higher than the rate of filtration, the former is the governing factor in the hydraulic design of filters and under drainage system, which are cleaned by backwashing.
The most common type of under-drain is a central manifold with laterals either perforated on the bottom or having umbrella type strainers on top. Other types such as wheeler bottom, a false bottom with strainers spaced at regular intervals or a porous plate floor supported on concrete pillars are all satisfactory when properly designed and constructed.
Wash-water troughs placed above the filter media collect the backwash water and carry it to the drain system. Proper placement of these troughs is very important to ensure that the filter media is not carried into the troughs during the backwash operation and removed from the filter. The upper edge of the washwater trough should be placed sufficiently nearer to the surface of sand so that a large quantity of dirty water is not left above the filter sand after completion of washing. At the same time, the top of the wash-water trough should be placed sufficiently high above the surface of the sand so that the sand will not be washed into the gutter.
Width of the filter bed must be equally divided by the troughs so that each trough covers an equal area of the filter. Maximum clear spacing between the troughs may be 180 cm. The horizontal travel of wash-water to trough should not be more than 90 cm. All the wash water troughs must be installed at the same elevation so that they remove the backwashed water evenly from the filter so that an even head is maintained across the entire filter. The troughs may be made with the same cross-section throughout its length or it might be constructed with varying cross-section increasing in size towards the outlet end. The bottom of the troughs should clear the top of the expanded sand by 50 mm or more. These wash water troughs are constructed in concrete, plastic, fiberglass, or other corrosion-resistant materials. The troughs are designed as free falling weirs.
Proper backwashing for cleaning the water treatment filter is a very important step in the operation of a water filter. If the filter is not backwashed periodically, it will eventually develop additional operational problems. If a filter is to operate efficiently during a filter run it must be cleaned regularly at every 24 to 48 hours. Treated water from storage is used for the backwashing. This treated water is generally taken from elevated storage tanks or pumped in directly from the clear water drain by passing in the reverse direction from under drains to the media. The below Figure shows the flow pattern during the backwashing.
During filtration, the grains of water filter media become coated with the floes, which plug the voids between the filter grains, making the filter difficult to clean. Backwash should, therefore, be arranged at such a pressure that sand bed should expand to about 130 to 150% of its undisturbed volume so as to dislodge the deposited floes from the filter media during the backwash. Washing causes the sand grains to impinge on one another and thus dislodging adhering floc and, the rising wash water carries the material and discharge into the gutters. The backwash flow rate has to be great enough to expand and agitate the filter media and suspend the floes in the water for removal. On the other hand an unduly high rate of flow will cause more expansion than needed, so that the sand grains will be separated further and scrubbing action will be decreased and the media will be washed from the filter into the troughs and out of the filter. A normal backwash rate is 600 Lpm/ m2 of filter surface area without any other agitation. The pressure of the wash water to be applied is about 5 m head of water as measured in under drains. Backwashing normally takes about 10 minutes, though the time varies depending on the length of the filter run and the quantity of material to be removed. Water filters should be backwashed until the backwash water is clean. For high rate back wash, the pressure in the under drainage system should be 6 to 8 m with wash water requirement being 650 to 850 Lpm/ m2 of filter (40 50 m/hr) for a duration of 6 to 10 minutes.
In most cases the filter backwash rate will not be sufficient to break up the mass on the top of the filter. During filter backwash, the media expands upwards and around the washing arms only. If air is forced through the under-drains until the sand is thoroughly agitated, for a period of about five minutes the expansion of sand media and complete removal of the floes could be achieved. In the air wash system, compressed air is used to secure effective scrubbing action with a smaller volume of wash water. The air may be forced through the under drains before the wash-water is introduced or through a separate piping system placed between the gravel and the sand layer.
Though the former results in better washing, the gravel is likely to be disturbed. The cleaning of water treatment filter with air agitation followed by backwash is a very efficient method but requires the installation of a large air blower to produce the air. The normal design of backwashing employing conjunctive air and water wash, air will be applied at 700 to 850 Lpm/ m2 of filter area (45 50 m/hr) and water at 200 to 250 Lpm/ m2 of filter area (12-15 m/hr).
The upper layer of the water filter bed becomes the dirtiest and any inadequate washing will lead to the formation of mud balls, cracks and clogged apots in the water filters. These troubles are overcome by adequate surface wash which can be accomplished by stirring the expanded water treatment filter bed mechanically with jet of water directed into the suspended sand. Surface washers spray water over the sand at the top of the filter breaking down mud-balls. The below Figure shows the surface wash arrangements.
I am an Engineer from Ogun State Water Corporation, Abeokuta, Nigeria. The Filters in our water sytem is collapsing daily, I see the need for total Rehabilitation. Please can you assist me the differences between Nozzle system and the Underdrain system. What is the physical properties of both? Kindly assist.
Just visit below link to get more information about Slow Sand Filters and Rapid Sand Filters. http://www.thewatertreatments.com/water-filters-filtration/rapid-sand-filters http://www.thewatertreatments.com/water-filters-filtration/slow-sand-filter-filtration by Admin.
Where P = pressure at the point = density of the fluid at all points in the fluid. Z = elevation of the point above some reference plane (i.e. distance from top and/or bottom surface of the filter media to the bottom reference plane in this case) V = fluid flow speed at a point on a streamline Non-ideal fluid: [P1/g] + Z1 + [V12/2g] = [P2/g] + Z2 + [V22/2g] + H (Where H = Head loss or energy head) H = [(P1-P2)/g] + (Z1-Z2) + [(V12-V22)/2g]
Sand filters are very common, easy to understand and use and inexpensive. They are considered the least effective type of filter, but are still incredibly popular. The swimming pool filter is filled with sand. Pool water is pulled into the filter and pressed through the sand. The sand filters out particles from the water.
Im a Chemical Engineering Student, Im doing my graduate work.. Im design a treatment water plant, with high problems with Ferrous, Oxided with aeration. I wanna filtrate those oxidous with a Rapid Sand Filtration.. But I cant find the parameters of design of this filters can u help me
Dear all, If back washing is carried out in a proper manner how long will the sand media (of a RGF) last. Is it absolutely necessary to replace the sand media after 5-7 years. Maintenance involves annual removal of the top layers os sand. Raw water is treated with alum and cationic poly electrolyte and then led to the single media filter after coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation. Water is sourced from a river. The filters are provided with header-lateral underdrains and backwashing consists of air scouring followed by water washing. Thanks and regards
Sir, I am an engineer and working for POublic water supply system.we are going to construct a rapid sand filter nozzle type.please inform whether the filters are placed in enclosed building or in open.Is there any disadvantage in keeping the filters open to sky.What i feel is the algae formation will frequently disruopt the working of filters.am i right or wrong.
Hello Mr.Subramani Yes your thinking is correct? No problems to keep sand filters as a outdoor unit.Keep such as maintaining adequate water circulation, proper filtration, a routine maintenance schedule, frequently of backwash and flushing time is need more for outdoor unit then only we can avoid algae formation.
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When you hear water treatment what is the first thing that comes to mind? Sewer water treatment? Certainly this is often the case. Municipal water treatment is classic water treatment requiring aeration, agitation and continuous fluid movement.
The object of this article is to look at some very typical industrial water treatment processes and various compressed air and energy savings projects that have worked well for our clients over the years. The basic fundamentals with regard to compressed air usage are similar to municipal water treatment a good starting point.
There are many types of blowers (rotary vane, liquid ring, etc.) used in industry, particularly in the smaller sizes. As in most air and gas compression equipment, larger, well applied central units may well prove to be the most energy efficient solution when conditions dictate. Each opportunity needs a specific evaluation.
** Note: With single-stage centrifugal blowers the ability to deliver higher pressures increases with the flow volume. The required horsepower to produce the flow varies with flow and pressure selection. The air mass flow units and the driving power is a direct function of the mass flow or weight of the air.
The lower the pressure the lower the energy cost per scfm of delivered volume of compressed air with the same type and class of compressed air operating equipment. This is generally true regardless of the type of compressed air generating unit as long as the pressure flow is within a given units operating parameters.
This looks somewhat simple just identify the minimum acceptable pressure that works and the required or current actual compressed air flow being used. Then, select the appropriate blower or air compressor. In an existing plant or operation this can often be challenging since many operators do not have nor know this information.
In the field you can measure the flow and inlet pressure, but to accurately estimate the probable lowest usable discharge pressure you will need to know the specific gravity of the solution and the overall height of the liquid or slurry material (depth) to establish the head pressure to be overcome.
Unlike a municipal sanitary sewer wastewater treatment facility this data is often not only not readily available but also may well vary over time and application in the industrial wastewater environment.
Generally compressed air is combined with some type of liquid or slurry pump appropriate to handle the material. Often this is an air operated double diaphragm pump due to its simple design and versatile application parameters. They are also relatively quick to repair and/or change. Electric driven pumps are often not even considered.
When aeration is not needed for the oxygen content and the compressed air is used (with or a process pump) primarily for agitation, additional opportunities exist to deliver the same agitation results at a lower energy cost. Even though compressed air power is very expensive, these other actions should always be carefully evaluated on specific case by case conditions to establish an accurate operation energy cost.
How They Work: Liquid pumped into the eductor nozzles exits at high velocity, drawing an additional flow of the surrounding solution through the educator. This additional flow (induced liquid) mixes with the pumped solution and multiplies its volume five-fold. The source of the pumped liquid (input) can be a pump or filter chamber discharge.
Example: The caustic production utilized two 40 tall tanks with 15 depth. Measured air flow was 240 scfm to both wastewater holding tank. The air was delivered through three 3/4" lines on three sides blowing air to keep the solids off the inside walls. There is also a 20-hp pump that continually circulates the mixture to keep the solids off the bottom and in suspension.
The project was to install a 2-hp electric motor driven centrifugal pump to operate the press the first 3.5 hours of the 4-hour cycle. The production processes is 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year with a blended power rate of $.10 kWh
Current use measured 220 scfm at 90 psig compressed air regulated to 15 psig to supply agitation to maintain clarity. The air is delivered to the bottom of each tank from which it bubbles up through the water.
The first alternate technology considered was utilizing the liquid flow eductors. However, the power to handle this tall and wide tank was 75-hp (62 kW) which was obviously not a calculated savings so the idea was abandoned. Supplying the low pressure air at 16 psig with a single-stage helical lobe blower was next explored.
A helical lobe blower using a 25-hp electric motor with 22 bhp power draw (22 x .746 90) or 18.2 input kW will deliver 239 scfm at 15 psig. With this, the primary estimated annual energy cost is $15,944/yr (18.2 x $.10/kWh x 8,760 hrs) or an annual electrical energy savings of $24,000/yr. The installed cost of the new blower package and piping was $14,000 (up to $28,000 depending on the package) installed. And a anticipated simple payback of 7 to 12 months.
The last case study example is in a steel mill wastewater treatment area where the limestone slurry tank is agitated with a 30-hp progressive Moyno cavity pump in a 12 tall by 8 diameter tank. The lime must be effectively kept in suspension to avoid channeling with solids buildup around the pump entry blocking effective agitation. The solids block the recirculation volume, which accelerate the fouling factor and significantly increases the number of expensive cleanings. This can be a significant environmental and time consuming issue to clean out and in all probability also affecting production.
The goal was to keep the solids and in suspension until the regular scheduled maintenance time. Premature fouling was currently avoided by adjusting fluid tank levels as required when maintenance personnel found time. This situation was not only troublesome but could lead to unplanned significant downtime with the current manpower situation.
After the tank was cleared of solids and reset to avoid a reoccurrence, a 3/4" air line at 90 psig entry pressure was opened into the bottom side of the tank. The measured flow was 80 scfm, it did do the job.
A mechanical mixing assist with paddles was added to replace the 1 air line (see drawing on previous page). This arrangement was driven by a 2-hp electric motor (2-hp x .746 .85) or 1.75 kW. This has proven to be very successful.
If air is needed for the wastewater treatment process and agitation alone is not enough, then there are really two choices blower air or air compressor air. The proper choice will have a very positive impact on energy cost and, correctly applied and maintained, should enhance productivity.
The second opportunity in this case is pump selection electric or air driven. With or without flow enhancers such as eductors, if air operated, the use of microprocessor stroke optimized controls on AODD pumps should be considered.
If only agitation is required, it is usually to keep solids in suspension, then there are a range of options to replace or reduce compressed air usage including such mechanical devices as propellers, paddles, etc.
Spraying Systems Co. -- IL (www.spray.com), Continental Blower -- NY (continentalblower.com), Dearing Air Compressor -- OH (dearingcomp.com), Elmo Rietschle/Gardner Denver -- IL (gd-elmorietschle.com), Monyo Inc. -- OH (Monyo.com), Serfilco Ltd, --IL (Serfilco.com)
The pH of the environment has a profound effect on the rate of microbial growth. pH affects the function of metabolic enzymes. Acidic conditions (low pH) or basic conditions (high pH) alter the structure of the enzyme and stop growth. Most microorganisms do well within a pH range of 6.5 to 8.5. However, some enzyme systems can tolerate extreme pHs and will thrive in acidic or basic environments. Fungi, for example, do well in an acidic environment. Most bacteria and protozoa, however, grow best in neutral (pH 7) environments. Abnormal or irregular pH in biological treatment processes can result in a significant decrease in the rate of removal of organic compounds from the environment, which will affect the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) measurements.
Many plants must control the pH of their process effluent within an acceptable range before it is mixed with biomass in the Aerated Stabilization Basin (ASB) or Activated Sludge System. Even short-term exposure (exposure lasting less than one minute) to extreme pH causes significant microbial destruction. Some influents (process effluents) are slightly on the basic side with pHs between 9.0 and 10.5. Because bacteria generate CO2 (an acidic gas) as a by-product of metabolism, they will self-regulate the pH to some extent, as long as the pH is not so severe as to completely stop the bacterias metabolism.
pH approximates the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. The pH value is the negative logarithm (base 10) of the concentration of H+ ions in the solution. In the laboratory, pH is measured by electrometric pH measurement which is the determination of the activity of the hydrogen ions by potentiometric measurement using a standard hydrogen electrode and a reference electrode. The pH probe is placed in the sample (while stirring) and the number is recorded once the readings have stabilized. Because it is on a logarithmic scale, it will take ten times as much acid or base (caustic) to raise or lower the pH two units as it did to raise or lower it one unit. For example, if it takes 10 gallons of a particular acid to lower the pH of an influent from 10 to a pH of 9, it will take 100 gallons to lower it from a pH of 10 to a pH of 8.
Effluent treatment plant is used for treated waste water which is come from different manufacturing industries where different types of chemicals and dyes are used for treated the materials. After treatment, waste water are discharge to the environment directly. This waste water is harm full for the environment. To protect the environment from the harmful effect of the waste water effluent treatment plant is used where waste water is treated and makes is not harmful to the environment.
In textile industry different types of dyes and chemicals are used in weaving, dyeing and garments washing plant. This waste water is treated in effluent treatment plant. Here I will give an idea about the biological waste water treatment plant. In dyeing process waste water is discharge from scouring, bleaching, washing and dyeing. This dyes and chemicals are supplied to the biological water treatment plant for purification.
In Bangladesh; a lots of dyeing and textile industries established for processing textile products. To protect the environment from the harmful effect of the waste water the Department of Environment, Government of Bangladesh fixed the following parameters for the waste water which will discharge in the environment after treatment.
I AM MASUD RANA WORK AN EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT AS MANAGER- E.T.P. I THINK ETP IS IMERGENCY ESSIU IN OUR COUNTRY AND FOR A BIOLOGICAL PLANT NEED A QUALIFIED PERSION. WHO CAN PROPER TAKE CARE ETP OPERATION PROPERLY. I AM IN THIS FIELD FOR 7 YEARS TILL NOW. I WANTS TO DEVELOP MY SELF IN THIS FIELD. if any one need help about biological ETP please be inform me.
ABS a US bioteh company is looking for a suitable person to market Bacterial Enzyme & nutrient product for Biological treatment in Bangladesh. If you are interested please send your C.V with relevant ETP/WTP chemical & Biological experience.
Dr Md Shohidullah Miah (PhD) Chairman, Japanese ETP consulting Firm and Director and Coordinator College of Agricultural Sciences IUBATInternational University of Business Agriulture and Technology 4 Embankment Drive Road, Sector 10, Uttara Model Town, Dhaka 1230, Bangladesh Cell: 01748190474 , E-mail: [email protected]
Dear every helpful person, I am Mizanur , I worked CETP at Apex Holdings Ltd. I am studying Msc. Environment Science at State University .I need a job Emergency . Dear respect person Plz help me. 01911416895 ; 01680156938
We are ceramic membrane manufacturting company for waste water plant for waste water treatment plant, STP, ETP, MBR. Please visit our product details in our website for your kind perusal. Best regards, Das
Im from Wock Oliver based in India managed by Australia based professionals who are in ETP and STP field since long. Wock Oliver is one of the best water, waster water and effluent solution provider. Its unique prefabricated & pre engineered biological effluent treatment plant is the best in its class. For more info mail your requirement to [email protected]
Sir, I am Mohsin Ahmad. Completed Diploma in Engineering on Environmental Engineering Department from Dhaka Polytechnic Institute.I deternine that ,I like to buildup my career on ETP.I need some help by youplice. Mohsin Ahmad01680974284
sir I am taim khan I am a asst in charge in etp&wtp of tanaka group I know all etp test in chemical process plz give me a perfect job I am diploma in environmental technology I am read in b.s.c civil and environmental engineering plz help me 01718829442 its my contact number
Sir ..i am pravez alam ..recently i joind a texatile company so ETP is quit new for me ..so sir i just need to about the main components of ETP and their works .like working of collection tank aeration tank .etc.
Hi Masud, Your vision in the field of ETP is well appriciated. Kindly share your experience in the field of fully bio logical ETP for textile dyeing units. As per my knowledge operating fully bio ETP is very difficult due to change in parameters.
i am taim khan. i am works in e.t.p (biological)&w.t.p of purbani group. i know all test e.t.p & w.t.p. i bbuild up my carrear this job. so i nneed a perrfect job please anyyone help me.leave in gazipur, dhaka,bangladesh. phone no 8801718829442
I am a student of textile engineering in DUET.. what is the main process in waste water processing thats use in industry..Could you inform me ??? i have a new idea to waste water processingif you kindly inform me those of this process, then i share my knowledge to this.
Dear Textile Technologist/ Writer of this main article, I am so sorry to say that you do not have any basic idea regarding waste water chemistry. In 3rd Paragraph of your articles, mentioned the waste water characteristics as like BOD- 300 mg/l and COD-200 mg/l. Do you exactly know what is BOD and what is COD?
The hydrocarbon(e.g. starch) which can be oxidized by micro-organism through their metabolic process can be indirectly measured by BOD. The relationship is if 23 gm oxygen is required to oxidized 12 gm carbon, so if you know the oxygen lost from the water, you can calculate the amount of carbon present in the waste water. Usually BOD is measured for 5 days period or in some cases for 3 days period or some time the ultimate BOD is also calculate. For your information, the hydro carbon which can be metabolized by bacteria can also be oxidized by Chemical Oxidizer (such as K2Cr2O7, KMn04, H202, 03, etc.). It is also for your information, a good oxidizing agent like dichromate can oxidize 100% of organic carbon but bacteria can not metabolized all hydrocarbon (especially which is known as persistant organic matter, or long chain complex organic matter). So, the information what I want to give you that COD value can not be less than the BOD value it can be maximum equal for very easily biodegradable compound like cooked rice. But for textile, COD will be at least 1.5 times higher than BOD. Also note, BOD is a term which the ETP designer use rather they use COD and break down it in to two parts. The term which we use at BOD is mentioned as bCOD by them. The formula is
Hi,I am Ruhul amin from Rajshahi I am completed Diploma in Environmental Technology.Now working at effluent treatment plant and water treatment plant.i can that water parameter ph.Tds.Do.Th.Bod.cod.etc but I went a environment related jobs so please help me anyone.please contact me 01725020389
Am student in M.sc Microbiology from Periyar university,i choosing my M.sc final year project topic is PAPER EFFLUENT OF WATER TREATMENT (dye degrading method).but, now am confused for the methodology,so please anybody help the project methodology..please help me,send methodology from this mail id [email protected] Thank you.
We mainly deal with bacterial enzyme, which you can use in Biological tank to maintain required BOD, COD & TSS. We are a USA based waste water treatment company selling biological product in Bangladesh through our local agent.
Hi dis is pallavi.p student of Msc environmental science ,now finished the PG , so am in search of job in effluent treatment plant so if vacancy is there please inform me , mail me [email protected]
assalamu alaikum, I am Munna, from DUET (textile dept.). I am a seeker about ETP. can anyone help me by giving an opportunity to visit your ETP mechanism? plz mobile: 01819675269 email: [email protected]
Dear All, we have been applied Boi-Chemical ETP. Capacity 50m3/hr since 2010 to till on operation condition, At present will prepared to Extend Capacity 120m3/hrs. but additional space is limit (app: 2100 Sft). Would like to proper advice regarding apply modern technology , low operational cost , maintain proper parameter etc.
This is Azad hossain from Gazipur, I am working as a maintenance manager, thank u very much for these very helpful feature , may I know something more about your product, such as how sizes spaces u need for 100 m3 /hr capacity ETP, & what type of chemical (if any) do need to run it & its consumption, Thanks
I am completed diploma in environmental technology. I also working at ETP & WTP. I know manually and digital parameters all water test ETP and WTP. I also know Environmental issue Bangladesh standard waste water from industrial surface water ECR 1997 and Environmental low 2003. I buildup my career this field now I am working at DBL group biggest ETP it is 7500 m3 per day..I am working ETP technician post. any big offer for me..plz 01750951580
Hello I am Mohammad Shuvo. I work at Effluent Treatment Plant a reputed garments factory. My job designation Executive Environment and my jobs responsibility is Environmental Compliance, Environmental Clearance Certificate, Environmental All Project, Energy & GHG,Higg Project , Sipp Project, Waste management, Chemical Management, Effluent Treatment Plant(ETP)Operation ,ETP Cost Analysis, Environmental Health & Safety, Waste Water Test, Risk Assessment etc. Im saying my job Experience ETP is Emergency issue in our country . Most of the buyers and Department of Forest Sought 100% proper functional ETP all factory. One of the best functional Plant is Biological Plant but some problem for Biological Plant i means operational problem this problem solve with qualified person. Who can take care ETP operation properly in your Plant. I am in this field for last 3 years till now. I want to Develop my self in this field. If any one need help about Biological and Chemical ETP please be inform me.
I am Nasiruddin. I am complited Dploma in Environmentl Techonology.I am a sub assistant engineer in Padma Bleaching & Dyeing Ltd.I also working at ETP & WTP.I build up my carrear this job.so i need perfect job plz help me..01939133691 andm gmail [email protected]
This lecture is so much needed for students also the owner who plans to established a garments factory.. and one thing to admin your lectures we can not copy.. but i need it.. if u can, plz send in my email.. thanking shahadat
Hi, I am sultan mahmud chand mia. working in a physico-bio-chemical etp as a asst. in-charge from 2010. I am from general student. passed H.S.C in 2005. looking a college or university for academic certificate in etp. anyone here can help me? Its me- 01755109667.
hello I am Md Saiduzzaman. I am complited Diploma In Environmental Technology.I built up my carrear this job. presently I am searching good job ETP/WTP .Now I work Padma bleaching & dyeing limited. So plz help me. Phone 01969228965 Email [email protected]
We have the solution for Textile ETP plant which is very advanced solution. please send me your Letter of intent to Director Intl sales [email protected]ch.com 1MLD Plant will be cost $2M . The out put water can be reused safely . Thanks Dev
Water purification, process by which undesired chemical compounds, organic and inorganic materials, and biological contaminants are removed from water. That process also includes distillation (the conversion of a liquid into vapour to condense it back to liquid form) and deionization (ion removal through the extraction of dissolved salts). One major purpose of water purification is to provide clean drinking water. Water purification also meets the needs of medical, pharmacological, chemical, and industrial applications for clean and potable water. The purification procedure reduces the concentration of contaminants such as suspended particles, parasites, bacteria, algae, viruses, and fungi. Water purification takes place on scales from the large (e.g., for an entire city) to the small (e.g., for individual households).
Most communities rely on natural bodies of water as intake sources for water purification and for day-to-day use. In general, these resources can be classified as groundwater or surface water and commonly include underground aquifers, creeks, streams, rivers, and lakes. With recent technological advancements, oceans and saltwater seas have also been used as alternative water sources for drinking and domestic use.
Historical evidence suggests that water treatment was recognized and practiced by ancient civilizations. Basic treatments for water purification have been documented in Greek and Sanskrit writings, and Egyptians used alum for precipitation as early as 1500 bce.
In modern times, the quality to which water must be purified is typically set by government agencies. Whether set locally, nationally, or internationally, government standards typically set maximum concentrations of harmful contaminants that can be allowed in safe water. Since it is nearly impossible to examine water simply on the basis of appearance, multiple processes, such as physical, chemical, or biological analyses, have been developed to test contamination levels. Levels of organic and inorganic chemicals, such as chloride, copper, manganese, sulfates, and zinc, microbial pathogens, radioactive materials, and dissolved and suspended solids, as well as pH, odour, colour, and taste, are some of the common parameters analyzed to assess water quality and contamination levels.
Regular household methods such as boiling water or using an activated-carbon filter can remove some water contaminants. Although those methods are popular because they can be used widely and inexpensively, they often do not remove more dangerous contaminants. For example, natural spring water from artesian wells was historically considered clean for all practical purposes, but it came under scrutiny during the first decade of the 21st century because of worries over pesticides, fertilizers, and other chemicals from the surface entering wells. As a result, artesian wells were subjected to treatment and batteries of tests, including tests for the parasite Cryptosporidium.
Not all people have access to safe drinking water. According to a 2017 report by the United Nations (UN) World Health Organization (WHO), 2.1 billion people lack access to a safe and reliable drinking water supply at home. Eighty-eight percent of the four billion annual cases of diarrhea reported worldwide have been attributed to a lack of sanitary drinking water. Each year approximately 525,000 children under age five die from diarrhea, the second leading cause of death, and 1.7 million are sickened by diarrheal diseases caused by unsafe water, coupled with inadequate sanitation and hygiene.
Most water used in industrialized countries is treated at water treatment plants. Although the methods those plants use in pretreatment depend on their size and the severity of the contamination, those practices have been standardized to ensure general compliance with national and international regulations. The majority of water is purified after it has been pumped from its natural source or directed via pipelines into holding tanks. After the water has been transported to a central location, the process of purification begins.
In pretreatment, biological contaminants, chemicals, and other materials are removed from water. The first step in that process is screening, which removes large debris such as sticks and trash from the water to be treated. Screening is generally used when purifying surface water such as that from lakes and rivers. Surface water presents a greater risk of having been polluted with large amounts of contaminants. Pretreatment may include the addition of chemicals to control the growth of bacteria in pipes and tanks (prechlorination) and a stage that incorporates sand filtration, which helps suspended solids settle to the bottom of a storage tank.
Preconditioning, in which water with high mineral content (hard water) is treated with sodium carbonate (soda ash), is also part of the pretreatment process. During that step, sodium carbonate is added to the water to force out calcium carbonate, which is one of the main components in shells of marine life and is an active ingredient in agricultural lime. Preconditioning ensures that hard water, which leaves mineral deposits behind that can clog pipes, is altered to achieve the same consistency as soft water.
Prechlorination, which is often the final step of pretreatment and a standard practice in many parts of the world, has been questioned by scientists. During the prechlorination process, chlorine is applied to raw water that may contain high concentrations of natural organic matter. This organic matter reacts with chlorine during the disinfection process and can result in the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs), such as trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, chlorite, and bromate. Exposure to DBPs in drinking water can lead to health issues. Worries stem from the practices possible association with stomach and bladder cancer and the hazards of releasing chlorine into the environment.
Are you leaving for Dolomites and want to travel with your tent? Your dream is to sleep under the starry sky or do you love the idea of a low-cost travel? Beware, its not so simple. Italy is well known for having one of the most complicated bureaucracies in the Western World, and camping rules are not so clear. So it is much better to ask before leaving, so as not to incur in sanctions. Below I give you some indications.
First of all, there is no one law in Italy that regulates overnight stay in the tent throughout the whole National territory. As in many other cases, the Regions or Parks issue different laws depending on the area. For this reason, you may find different laws depending on the area you are visiting.
For Italian law, it is defined as camping to stay in a tent site for at least 48 hours. This is generally prohibited in all areas not specifically dedicated to camping (camping, caravan parking areas, and similar). In this case, if you settle down for more than 48 hours in the same place you are definitely be punishable by law. For a closer look at the rules in the various Italian regions, take a look here (in Italian). In any case, in the 2 Regions that particularly concern to us (Veneto and Trentino-Alto Adige), camping is strictly forbidden outside the areas specifically dedicated to. It is different for the night-time bivouac.
For night-time bivouac is meant to spend the night outdoors from evening to morning, which can be done in the mountains either by necessity (f.e. impossibility to reach a hut, bad weather, physical difficulties), and by choice (and it is the case that we are seeing).
But what if I would sleep in my tent? Can I do it? Here we go into a not very clear regulation. In general, the night-time camp for necessity or emergency is always allowed, but of course in case of control of the Forestry Guards you should explain why, if you did not think about sleeping outdoors, you had a tent with you. And if we check the website of the Parco delle Dolomiti Bellunesi we see that the ban applies only to camping. However, I wrote to the Park and the answer was that both the campsite and the night bivouac are always forbidden. During my excursions it happened to me to find hikers with tents.
My personal impression is that Regions and Parks try to limit the number of overnight stays in the tent, and this is understandable, considering the protection of the environment, security reasons (not each hikers is well prepared to sleep in the Dolomite enviroment!) and all the unforeseen events that can happen during the night on the mountains.
It is not possible for the Forestry Guards to sanction each hiker or hinder those who want to move to the mountains by going to the tent, however they try not to publicize this possibility. In any case, the best choice is to ask the Tourist Office or the Alpine Guides Office closer to the Dolomite town you are, and of course to get all informations about the areas where you are going.
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Chemical use is no exception in wastewater treatment plants. Wastewater treatment plant itself is a process of removing waste and dirts. This also works as a system to offer soluble and environmentally result of industrial waste. The contaminants in the sewage are removed and in turn produced safer wastewater for the environment.
The first chemical in wastewater treatment plant is aluminum sulfate. Aluminum sulfate in wastewater plant acts as purifier of the wastewater. The chemical itself is soluble and easily reacts to the chemicals in wastewater. As a result, it produces protein antigens that break insoluble and hazardous chemicals.
Moreover, it also helps to regulate the ph level of the chemical, making the wastewater less dangerous to environment. Despite the good functions of aluminum sulfate, excessive use of aluminum sulfate can also backfire. It will be a threat to environment when the level of aluminum sulfate is above the recommended one. Nevertheless, it is one of the most critical elements in water purification.
The next chemical used in wastewater treatment plant is sodium aluminate. Sodium aluminate is a chemical belongs to inorganic compound. The liquid form of it works well as phosphorus remover. Wastewater often contains phosphorus that is a kind of phosporic calcium able to create hard substance on environment.
To avoid such thing to happen, sodium aluminate functions to remove phosphorus and elevate the ph level of wastewater with extremely low ph. However, sodium aluminate is inorganic insoluble chemical and it is only soluble with some chemicals. Thus, one has to be careful to only to use it in the right dosage to avoid misuse and damage to the environment..
Polymer is a well known chemical to have many function in industry especially those related to plastic. It is also beneficial in wastewater treatment plant. The function of polymer is to coagulate any solids dirts and work in diluted water in order to free these materials from suspension.
In order to use polymer in wastewater treatment, people need to dilute polymer with water with a concentration around 0,5 percent. After that, pour it along with mechanical tool to get rid of those suspended solid. By using polymer, any waste that has the potential to block water environment and more will have better treatment and the wastewater is cleaner than before.
Another chemical that works as a substance in wastewater treatment plant is sodium hydroxide. Sodium hydroxide belongs to inorganic compound with symbol NaOH. In wastewater treatment plant, sodium hydroxide has some functions such as ph stabilizer, metal precipitant and alkaline cleaner.
The combination of sodium, hydrogen,and dioxide makes this chemical works well for wastewater treatment especially for the critical waste and potentially pollutant one. By using sodium hydroxide, a more free wastewater as well as safer waste is possible.
A chemical that is also present in wastewater treatment plant is ferric chloride. Ferric chloride is a corrosive chemical used in water purification and sewage treatment. The function of ferric chloride is to remove metal substance from the waste that highly possible will harm environment as well as living being. It will dewater the metal works and make it a less dangerous substance.
After a use of it, there will be a slight color from the residue. This substance is very good for sewage treatment due to its effectiveness to deal with the heavy chemicals in most industry waste. To use ferric chloride, pour the liquid form of it in the dose mentioned on the label. Leave it until its corrosive effect wipes out the metal and heavy substance.
In some products of wastewater treatment plant, they also use polyaluminum chloride. Polyaluminum choride is a chemical belongs to chloride class. The common function of polyaluminum cloride is as coagulant in waste management as well as water purification.
Moreover, it also helps reduce chemical sludge, higher ph and clearer water. This chemical itself is a derivation from some substances including polymer. Furthermore, expert claims PAC to be more stable and efficient as coagulent as its production itself is premeditated and intended for its very reason.
Ferrous chloride is similar to ferric acid but they are not the same. While they belong in the same class of iron oxide, ferrous chloride has different funtion in wastewater treatment plant. The function of ferrous chloride in it is as solution to remove fabric dye and other insoluble dye.
Moreover, it also has the corrosiveness of its sibling ferric chloride. Therefore, it is also effective to get rid of metal chemical from wastewater. In wastewater product, ferrous choride often comes together with other chemicals in wastewater treatment plant such as alum and polymer.
While some chemicals work to elevate ph level, there are also chemicals to lower it. One of them is hydrochloric acid. While the chemical has many uses in industry, it also works for wastewater treatment. Its function is to lower the ph of the wastewater.
Since wastewater often includes many waste of industrial chemicals, the ph tend to be in extreme level either higher or lower than normal. If the ph is higher, people can use hydrochloric acid as one of the compounds to lower the ph in water. By using this chemical, the ph of the water will be more acceptable when company has to pour the wastewater in nature.
In the production process there will always be waste. Those waste are not to be thrown recklessly and irresponsibly. Companies are responsible to make sure that the wastewater is friendly to nature. That is all about list of chemicals used in wastewater treatment plants.
Equalization Tank in any Treatment Plant serves the purpose of maintaining desired flow rate as well as for making mixture homogeneous. It is evident that effluent of any industry is heterogeneous in nature , to bring the best out of any wastewater treatment plant homogeneous mixture is must
Homogeneous mixture in Equalization Tank is done via the actions of coarse bubble diffusers , oxygen transfer efficiency of a coarse bubble diffuser is 10%-20% and are capable of delivering 6 - 12 m3 / hour air , typical diameter of coarse bubble diffuser is 150 mm , coarse bubble diffuser is shown below
The operator has to access the inside of the tank for periodic cleaning and to maintain the diffusers. The tank has relatively low oxygen level and the raw wastewater emits hazardous gases and strong odor. So the operator must be provided with safety Equipments such as mask, gloves, full body harness, gum boots . The following features must be present, at minimum: Ventilation to dispel the gases/odor Good lighting that reaches inside the tank Platform that allows easy reach inside the tank
Diffusers in sufficient number to cover the entire floor Uniform placement of diffusers The aeration is uniform across the surface. To prevent the solids from settling in dead zones (which in turn avoids the necessity to clean the tank frequently )
For complete evacuation of contents by pump. Floor slope is given so that during tank cleaning, all the water is collected in the suction pit of the pumps and the equalization tank is evacuated by pumps alone, with minimum manual cleaning required.
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On February 22, 2017, NASA astronomers have announced thatseven Earth-sized planets have been discoveredaround an ultra-cool dwarf star named TRAPPIST-1 which is located around 39 light-years from the Earth. And whats more three of them are orbiting their star in the habitable zone.Then, an international team of astronomers led by the Swiss astronomerVincent Bourrierfrom the Observatoire de l Universit de Genve used the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope to estimate whether there might be water on the planets of TRAPPIST-1 system.Now, on August 31, 2017, the team announced that their findings suggest thatthe outer planets of the system might still harbor substantial amounts of water, including the three planets within the habitable zone of the star TRAPPIST-1e, f, and g. This result lends further weight to the possibility that these planets may indeed be habitable.Continue reading TRAPPIST-1 System May Contain Water
Then, an international team of astronomers led by the Swiss astronomerVincent Bourrierfrom the Observatoire de l Universit de Genve used the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope to estimate whether there might be water on the planets of TRAPPIST-1 system.Now, on August 31, 2017, the team announced that their findings suggest thatthe outer planets of the system might still harbor substantial amounts of water, including the three planets within the habitable zone of the star TRAPPIST-1e, f, and g. This result lends further weight to the possibility that these planets may indeed be habitable.Continue reading TRAPPIST-1 System May Contain Water
Now, on August 31, 2017, the team announced that their findings suggest thatthe outer planets of the system might still harbor substantial amounts of water, including the three planets within the habitable zone of the star TRAPPIST-1e, f, and g. This result lends further weight to the possibility that these planets may indeed be habitable.
On September 1, 2017, a potentially hazardous asteroid named 3122 Florence skimmed past Earth from a mere 4.4 million miles (7 million km) distance. The huge asteroid, which is around 2.7 mile (4.4 km) wide, was the biggest object passed this close to Earth since the NASA program to detect and track near-Earth asteroids began, according to Paul Chodas, manager of the Center for Near-Earth Object Studies at NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. The close flyby was captured with an amateur astronomer using an 80 mm F5 Apo telescope and a Canon 6D camera, and published on YouTube.
You may have heard it has been said that if our planet were shrunk down to the size of a billiard ball, it would be smoother than it. In other words, the Earth is smoother than a billiard ball. Is that true?Back in 2008, on the Bad Astronomy blog on discovermagazine.com, in the article titled Ten things you dont know about the Earth, Phil Plait wrote about that, and he saidaccording to the World Pool-Billiard Association, a pool ball is 2.25 inches in diameter and has a tolerance of +/- 0.005 inches.and after making some calculations, he concluded that the urban legend is correct. If you shrank the Earth down to the size of a billiard ball, it would be smoother.Continue reading Is Earth as smooth as a billiard ball? No, heres why
Back in 2008, on the Bad Astronomy blog on discovermagazine.com, in the article titled Ten things you dont know about the Earth, Phil Plait wrote about that, and he saidaccording to the World Pool-Billiard Association, a pool ball is 2.25 inches in diameter and has a tolerance of +/- 0.005 inches.and after making some calculations, he concluded that the urban legend is correct. If you shrank the Earth down to the size of a billiard ball, it would be smoother.
Identifying the largest dinosaurs ever lived isnt an easy task, because its very rare to unearth a complete fossil. Furthermore, only a tiny percentage of these amazing animals ever fossilized, and most of these lucky bodies will remain buried underground forever. So, we may never know exactly what dinosaur was the biggest (or the tiniest) ever.Despite this fact, size always has been one of the most interesting aspects of these prehistoric animals. There are extreme variations in their size, from the tiny hummingbirds, which can weigh as little as three grams, to the titanosaurs, which could weigh as much as 70 tonnes, or even more.Here are the largest dinosaurs ever lived.Continue reading Largest dinosaurs ever lived
Despite this fact, size always has been one of the most interesting aspects of these prehistoric animals. There are extreme variations in their size, from the tiny hummingbirds, which can weigh as little as three grams, to the titanosaurs, which could weigh as much as 70 tonnes, or even more.Here are the largest dinosaurs ever lived.Continue reading Largest dinosaurs ever lived
The Earth rotates from west to east with a linear velocity of 465.1013 m/s (1674.365 km/h) at the equator. But what would happen if the Earth stopped rotating abruptly? Online magazine Tech Insider presented a video demonstrating the development of events in this case.
You have probably heard references been made to the dark side of the Moon theres even aPink Floyd albumwith that name. But, in fact, theres no dark side of the moon. Because our satellite is not illuminated by the Earth, it is illuminated by theSun. All the surface of the moon gets lit by the Sun as the Moon rotates. But, yes, we see only one side of the moon, and heres why.
In the last few years, a series of photos circulating over the Internet via email and online, usually with the title of Man Who Befriended a Great White Shark, showing close encounters between a man and a great white shark. The sites who publish these photos (and sometimes PowerPoint presentations) claim that an Australian fisherman named Arnold Pointer once freed a great white shark from a fishing net, and the shark has followed him around ever since.
Here are the top six largest fish species (within around 33,100 described species).But, first of all, what is a fish? At first, it looks like an easy question, but in fact, it is not. There is a wide range of animals we call fish, so it is not easy to define what makes a fish a fish. A general description: a fish is any member of a paraphyletic group of organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits (Wikipedia).All fishes have a brain protected by a braincase, and an obvious head region with eyes, teeth, and other sensory organs.Continue reading Top 6 largest fish species
But, first of all, what is a fish? At first, it looks like an easy question, but in fact, it is not. There is a wide range of animals we call fish, so it is not easy to define what makes a fish a fish. A general description: a fish is any member of a paraphyletic group of organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits (Wikipedia).All fishes have a brain protected by a braincase, and an obvious head region with eyes, teeth, and other sensory organs.Continue reading Top 6 largest fish species
Our civilization emits so much CO2 into the Earths atmosphere, that only planting trees is not enough, according to a new study.Limiting global warming to below 2C above compared to preindustrial times requires not only massive near-term greenhouse gas emissions reductions but also the application of negative emission techniques that extract already emitted carbon dioxide from the atmosphere called tCDR (terrestrial carbon dioxide removal). One method to remove already emitted carbon dioxide from the Earths atmosphere is the establishment of extensive plantations of fast-growing tree and grass species (biomass plantations).Continue reading We emit so much CO2 into the Earths atmosphere that only planting trees is not enough
Limiting global warming to below 2C above compared to preindustrial times requires not only massive near-term greenhouse gas emissions reductions but also the application of negative emission techniques that extract already emitted carbon dioxide from the atmosphere called tCDR (terrestrial carbon dioxide removal). One method to remove already emitted carbon dioxide from the Earths atmosphere is the establishment of extensive plantations of fast-growing tree and grass species (biomass plantations).
The SBR, MBR and MBBR are used as sewage treatment plants. To separate the contaminants from the wastewater is the only motto of every SBR or MBR sewage treatment plant in India. These all have a various purpose and they have their process to clean the waster water.
MBR water treatment plant uses the membrane bioreactor for Wastewater Treatment Plant Design that is the combination of the biological waste-water process and membrane process. This membrane bioreactor design is the most used process to treat sewage water.
SBR- sequencing batch reactor plant uses the activated sludge to treat the wastewater. It is used for reducing the organic matters. It separates the water and activated sludge through the oxygen bubbles.
MBBR- moving bed biofilm reactor sewage treatment plant is used in very less space, and that is known as a biofilm process. These are the common definitions of all the sewage treatment plants. But what you have to choose is dependent on the situation as well as how you want to use them?
The main difference between MBR and SBR water treatment plant is MBR uses the membrane technology and SBR uses the phase separation with the gravity setting method. Membrane the physical barrier for separation gives more importance to treat sewage water than other methods.
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First high resolution cyclostratigraphic study of a marine Rhaetian (Late Triassic) record.Proposed minimal duration for the Rhaetian: 6.69 myr.Suggested age for the Norian-Rhaetian boundary: 208.05Ma.
The establishment of the Late Triassic time scale has given rise to considerable controversy, particularly regarding the Rhaetian duration and the inferred absolute age models. In this respect the astronomical polarity time scale (APTS) established from the continental successions of the Newark Basin (eastern North America) is considered as a reference record, although its completeness is questioned. Numerous magnetostratigraphic correlation schemes have been proposed between the APTS and biostratigraphically well-constrained Tethyan marine sections. This has led to two main contrasting options: a short Rhaetian duration (about 45 myr), and a long one (about 89 myr). Astronomical calibration of the Tethyan Rhaetian and estimate of its duration is necessary to help advance this debate. We have undertaken a cyclostratigraphic analysis of a Rhaetian composite record built from four overlapping Austrian reference sections. Magnetic susceptibility variations of the 131.5m thick record are astronomically paced by the precession and 405-kyr orbital eccentricity cycles. 405-kyr orbital tuning allows to establish a floating time scale, and thus to suggest a minimum duration of 6.69 myr of the Rhaetian stage. Given the well-established radioisotopic age of the Rhaetian-Hettangian boundary of 201.36Ma, an age no younger than 208.05Ma for the Norian-Rhaetian boundary can be proposed. This result will contribute to the refinement of the Late Triassic time scale, but it does not solve the long-standing debate on bio-magnetostratigraphic correlations between the continental Newark APTS and the Tethyan marine sections, nor the question of the completeness of the Rhaetian Newark Basin.
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Biological wastewater treatment is the most common sanitation method in the world. This technology uses different types of bacteria and other microorganisms for the treatment and purification of polluted water.
Wastewater treatment is as essential to human health as it is to the protection of the environment. The use of these bacteria accelerates the process of treating pollution on a small surface: the wastewater treatment plant. Its better than letting the river handle it, because even though its the same purification process that occurs in nature, the quantities of pollution discharged today are too high to keep the natural cycle intact. Thus, sewage treatment plants can prevent eutrophication of rivers, for example, but also prevent the diffusion of diseases.
Municipal and industrial effluent is the main source of wastewater. And thanks to the use of micro-organisms, we are able to degrade the content of these organic wastes as they are used as a source of food and energy to grow and multiply.
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Everywhere, from the water arriving at the treatment plant to its outlet. The operating parameters defined in the treatment tanks influence the development of various microbial structures and species. This complex combination of micro-organisms, rich in species, achieves a high level of biodegradation over a wide range of substrates, unlike the use of single species. This is the main factor influencing the quality of treated wastewater.
Usually, these organisms swarm and aggregate into a flake-like structure within the free culture called the Floc. These flocs, visible to the naked eye, contain living and dead cells of bacteria, fungi, protozoa and metabolic products. They agglomerate around the suspended organic matter on which they feed. This is the case, for example, with activated sludge. In addition, in fixed cultures, similar biofilms develop on contact surfaces. For example, biofilters and biological disks are fixed cultures.
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First, before we know who they are, we need to understand the parameters that influence their growth. Firstly, geographical location. Secondly, the type of pond in which bacteria will be grown. Thirdly, the characteristics of the wastewater entering the plant. Finally, the operating parameters of the system, such as aeration, agitation, chemical injection. All of these factors create quantitative changes between autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. In municipal wastewater treatment plants, for example, gram-negative bacteria of the proteobacteria type are predominant (21-65%) of which Betaproteobacteria is the most abundant class, largely responsible for the elimination of organic elements and nutrients. The other branches are Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi (Nielsen et al., 2010; Nguyen et al., 2011; Wan et al., 2011; Hu et al., 2012; Wang et al., 2012). The most numerous types of bacteria are Tetrasphaera, Trichococcus, Candidatus Microthrix, Rhodoferax, Rhodobacter, Hyphomicrobium (McIllory et al., 2015).
Among fungi, Ascomycetes are the most common, accounting for 6.3 to 7.4% of micro-organisms. Then come the archaeobacteria, with Euryarcheota (1.5% of micro-organisms, Wang et al., 2014b). In addition, in presence of ammonia and oxygen, Nitrosomonas is very present. Finally, a high sludge age allows protozoa and rotifers to colonize the environment.
Temperature affects the presence of certain species. Thus, the effect of geographic location affects species composition. On the other hand, in industry, for example, the presence of predominantly well-defined micro-organisms can be explained by their ability to biodegrade specific components of industrial wastewater.
Bacteria are further categorized by how they get oxygen. In wastewater treatment, there are three types of bacteria used to treat wastewater entering the treatment plant: aerobic, anaerobic and facultative.
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There are generally three ways to restore an effective treatment. First, by changing the operating settings, and waiting for the right species to colonize the environment again. Second, by completely removing the microorganisms in place when the first solution did not work. Be careful, this method is not recommended because the biomass will take several days to develop, so the water will not be properly treated during this period. The third solution consists in injecting specially selected, cultured and multiplied bacteria in order to recover the advantage over the undesirable bacteria present in the environment.
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Microbial biotechnology offers innovative scientific applications of high ecological and economic interest. It maximizes the natural degradation processes and thus eliminates pollution at significantly lower costs than conventional physicochemical or mechanical treatment processes.
The use of bacteria differs from common process techniques in that it involves simple and natural methods, the end-result of which makes it possible to eliminate pollution without generating new pollution. Most of the time, their implementation requires the use of a dedicated bioreactor, as well as the nutrients needed to multiply them in large numbers. The dosing is easy and requires very little operating time.
The colonization of an environment by the needed bacteria and microorganisms necessary for the purification generally lasts between 4 and 8 weeks. Once again, it is the temperature that has the most influence on this growth time.
The technique consists in recirculating a well-adapted combination of substrate and selected bacteria so that they settle very quickly. Under these favorable conditions, bacteria develop flocs or biofilms very quickly. Under these favorable conditions, bacteria develop flocs or biofilms very quickly. Finally, after a few days, the habitat is ready and wastewater can be discharged.
On activated sludge plants, the presence of filamentous bacteria is a real problem. First, the solution consists of extracting as much sludge as possible and increasing aeration. The good bacteria can take several days to recover the environment. If this does not work, then it is possible to destroy these bacteria with chlorine. The problem is that it kills all bacteria. Then it will take a few weeks for normal conditions to be reached again.
While the majority of operators continue to inject chlorine, we recommend the injection of dedicated bacteria. As for the accelerated start-up of a plant, the massive addition of these good populations makes it possible to quickly restore the balance in the tanks.
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Lipophilic bacteria are specialized in the decomposition of animal and vegetable fats and oils in urban WWTPs and industrial treatment plants. These bacteria are easily adaptable to all current treatment systems.
On the market, there are products such as completely natural bacteria and enzymes, designed and selected for their ability to dissolve and digest fats and sludge. Some bacteria are so specialized in the degradation of fats that they are capable of degrading high loads, up to 300,000 mg/L COD.
Comme on peut sy attendre, la technique consistant injecter un mlange de substrat adapt et de bactries slectionnes est encore la plus efficace. Ainsi, listallationtrs rapide de celles-ci dans le milieu permet damliorer les rendements dpuration sur les systmes suivants :
The majority of micro-organisms generally develop more rapidly at high temperatures, up to 38c max. However, their development becomes very slow below 12c, or almost nil below 5C. These low temperatures are often reached when sewage treatment plants are located in geographic areas such as Canada or northern Europe. During the snow melting, these bacteria must treat the pollution while living in cold water. The main parade consists in significantly increase the size of the plant to compensate the lack of microbial activity. However, this solution, although still widely practiced, is very expensive.
This is why there are effective bacterial mixtures for the treatment of different types of water. Thus, before a cold event, for example, it is possible to pre-seed the biological reactor with specially selected bacteria for these conditions. They will then take over the existing populations, and ensure effective treatment under these difficult conditions.
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