zinc ore flotation for sale

about-yantai jinpeng mining equipment, ore dressing process. equipment, ore flotation & beneficiation

JINPENG GROUP has more than 30 years experience in mining design and equipment manufacture. We can provide one-stop service that including research, design, manufacture, installation and commissioning, personnel training, after-sale service and management of dressing plant. To be the best EPC supplier of China is the goal of JINPENG GROUP, so we do our best in every step no matter in input or output. We had passed International Quality Certification of ISO9001:2008 ahead of our competitors.

Our service got good repution in Canada, Germany, Australia, Fiji, Turkey, Albania, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Ghana, Zambia, Tanzania, Morocco, Nigeria, Malaysia, Philippines, India, Vietnam, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, Mongolia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, etc, more than fifty countries.

mineral processing flowsheets

The Mineral Processing Flowsheets shown on the following pages are based on actual data obtained from successful operating plants. Metallurgical data are shown in these flowsheets which incorporate Crushers, Grinding Mills, Flotation Machines, Unit Flotation Cells, and Selective Mineral Jigs as well as other standard milling equipment.

The Flotation Machine, the Selective Mineral Jig and the Unit Flotation Cell have revolutionized flowsheet design and have made it possible for both small and large plants to increase recoveries and economical return.The Unit Flotation Cell and the Selective Mineral Jig have been perfected to meet the most important principle in ore dressing.

To recover this free mineral, either the Unit Flotation Cell or Jig or both can be installed in the grinding circuit without auxiliary equipment such as pumps or elevators, and for successful operation do not usually require more water than necessary for classifier dilution.

Many of the flowsheets given here have been made possible because of the fact that a coarse pulp (particles as coarse as 1/4)can be circulated in the Sub-A Flotation Machine without sanding or choke-ups and with high metallurgical efficiency.

Sub-A Flotation Machines have the gravity flow principle and flexibility that has made possible the development and application of many of these flowsheets. In fact, the elimination of pumps in handling concentrates for cleaning and recleaning has simplified flowsheets and reduced operating expenses to the operators advantage and profit. It should be pointed out that it is not only the cost of pump wearing parts but the time lost in shut-down for pump repair that is important in profitable mill operation.

Ore Testing takes the guesswork out of answering the question of can this ore be milled profitably. It also gives conclusive answers to the subordinate- questions of what type of flowsheet will give the greatest net return on this operation, and can increased value and/or increased mill capacity be obtained by the addition or substitution of equipment in the mill?

In other words, ore testing is the key to the basic question of the economic possibility of a mining operation. It gives the answer to this question at a minimum of expense without making a costly investment in equipment to learn it the hard way.

The results obtained through ore testing and the intelligent interpretation of the results very often lead to a simple method of treatment giving good profits, where some other treatment might mean less profit or an actual deficit. Our Labgives a good illustration of what proper selection of treatment methods based on ore testing can result in. Test results give you facts.

The 911MPEProcess Equipment Ore Testing Laboratory is continually being confronted with and solving such problems. Very often situations arise where the most common methods of treatment may not be successful but little known and ingenious methods may be applied. The flowsheet showed the results obtained from testing a complex lead-zinc-copper-iron ore containing values in gold. Exceptionally high grade and recovery were obtained in this instance. Utilizing a patented process special reagents made profitable production of lead/copper and zinc-iron concentrates and subsequent separation of these concentrates into four (4) separate products.

Although flotation has made profitable the bene-ficiation of many low grade ores both metallic and non-metallic, it is not always true that flotation will give the greatest economic retiirn. For instance, in many cases, cyanidation of gold ores either direct or as part of a composite method of treatment may be the answer to the question of, what treatment will give the greatest dollar value return on the mill investment ?

An ore sample was received at the 911MPEEquipment Laboratory of a character which would ordinarily respond to the counter-current decantation method of cyanidation for extracting gold. Samples of the Same ore gave results concurring with test work by others but this method was not recommended due to settling difficulties encountered.

Work was not stopped here, however. Eventually, a successful method for treating this ore was found by sacrificing a small loss in slime. The final flowsheet evolved with recoveries indicated which made profitable installation of a reasonable cost plant, overcoming the difficulty arising from the physical characteristics of the ore.

Change of reagents in a flotation circuit may give higher recovery, a better grade of concentrates or both. A Sub-A Unit Flotation Cell installed in the grinding circuit may permit an increase in tonnage milled, a decreased loss in slimes and a better overall recovery.

AMineral Jigs installed in the grinding circuit in cyanide mills have proved very successful in increasing recovery. It is always advisable to recover your mineral values as soon and as coarse as possible.

Typical flowsheets are shown for both metallics and non-metallics as well as industrial products, wastes, etc. De-inking of waste paper by flotation, for example, is coming into prominence with Flotation Cells as it is now possible to recover for the paper industry a useful and usable product on a much more attractive basis than in the past.

Your flowsheet should be designed without bottlenecks or weak links which present problems that can seriously effect operating efficiency. The old saying of one hours delay means no profit today is more true today than ever before due to higher operating costs. This adage emphasizes the importance of having your flowsheet designed efficiently and tailored for your specific operation, and the need for selecting standard reliable equipment designed to give you continuous service.

how to process low-grade lead zinc ore by flotation

The flowsheet above was designed to treat economically approximately 200 tons in 24 hours of a low-grade dump orecontaining lead and zinc values as well as some silver in both sulphide and oxide form. Due to varying specific gravities of the values, gravity concentration in addition to flotation was indicated. As is common in many such cases, the dump contained material over 2 in size as well as some debris. This necessitated an arrangement for scrubbing and separating this coarse material at the head of the circuit.

A Drag or Conveyor is used to bring the dump material to a Revolving Trommel Screen which discards all plus 2 material and debris. A thorough washing and some disintegration is given the ore by the trommel screen. The minus 2 material passes to a cone or Forced Feed Jaw Crusher and is reduced to approximately minus . A Cross-Flow Classifier isused to dewater this minus ore and also removes fine colloids. Classifier overflow is discarded.

The dewatered minus ore from the classifier feeds to a 6x4 Peripheral Discharge Ball Mill. This type of mill was selected to produce a minus 10 mesh product for jigging with a minimum of overgrinding. A 4x8 Vibrating Screen separates the ball mill discharge at 10 mesh, the oversize returning to the classifier for additional grinding. The minus 10 mesh screen product passes over a 16x 24 Duplex Mineral Jig. This unit recovers not only a lead-silver concentrate in sulphide form but also recovers a high percentage of the lead carbonates and lead oxides.

The jig discharges into a 6 cell No. 24 Sub-A Flotation Machine which produces a high-grade lead concentrate which is dewatered in a Thickener. A Adjustable Stroke Diaphragm Pump discharges the thickener underflow into a 6 Disc Filter for further dewatering of the final lead concentrate. Flotation tails are fed to two Wilfley Concentrating Tables for additional recovery of the oxide values. These tables produce a final tailing (which is pumped to waste by a SRL Sand Pump), a lead concentrate and also a middling product containing both lead and zinc.

The table middlings are pumped by a SRL Sand Pump to a regrind circuit consisting of a 3x6 Ball Mill, a 24 CrossFlow Classifier and a 6 cell No. 15 Sub-A Flotation Machine. The classifier overflows a product at approximately 80 mesh directly to the flotation machine where a cleaned and recleaned lead concentrate is combined with the concentrate of the 4 cell lead flotation machine.

Tailings from the 6 cell regrind flotation machine contain the zinc values which are conditioned in a 5x5 Super-Agitator and Conditioner. The zinc is cleaned and recleaned in a 6 cell No. 15 Sub-A Flotation Machine. The zinc tailings pass over a Wilfley Table which gives the operator a constant, visual picture of the efficiency of the zinc flotation machine, and also recovers additional zinc values.

Zinc concentrates are fed to a Wilfley Table to remove any lead oxide values which may have floated with the zinc, and then are thickened in a Thickener. A Adjustable Stroke Diaphragm Pump takes the thickener underflow to a 6 Disc Filter.

This flowsheet takes advantage of recovering lead minerals at a coarse size not only by means of a Mineral Jig butalso by utilizing the ability of the Sub-A to handle a coarse feed. The two pilot tables, taking the coarse flotation tailings, cut down the tonnage fed to the regrind circuit.

One of the greatest difficulties in any flowsheet is the treatment of the middling product. Early removal of the slimes and the use of a regrind circuit greatly simplifies the problem of middlings in this mill.

By far the most important lead mineral is the sulphide, galena. In many of the ores in which it occurs it is associated with sphalerite or marmatite, and two-stage selective flotation is necessary to separate the two classes of minerals. When, however, the lead mineral is the only one of importanceand such ores are not uncommonit is usually extracted by gravity concentration in jigs and on tables, followed, after thickening and grinding if necessary, by the flotation of any middlings and tailings that are too high in leadvalues to be sent to waste; direct flotation is comparatively rare except for the treatment of tailing dumps.

The flotation of galena Pb is comparatively simple. It is usually carried out in subaeration machines, presumably because the cells provide a ready means of high-speed conditioning ; the proper pre-treatment with the necessary reagents of the various products as they come from the different parts of the gravity concentration plant might otherwise be none too easy. Single or double cleaning of the rougher concentrate of the flotation section is generally necessary, this operation often being done in pneumatic cells. Because of the variations in the flow sheets of gravity concentration plants, it is impossible to indicate the points at which the different reagents should enter the circuit, but their normal consumption is usually within the following approximate limits:

Pine oil is not often employed as it tends to produce too stiff a froth ; cresylic acid is preferred, reinforced, should the froth be too delicate, with a coal-tar creosote, or, more rarely, with pine-tar oil. The usual promoters are ethyl and amyl xanthates, either alone or in combination, or else aerofloat, either alone or with a small quantity of one of the dithiophosphates. Soda ash is commonly employed for maintaining the alkalinity of the circuit, but lime is replacing it to some extent, especially in those plants where amyl xanthate or aerofloat reagents are used. Sodium silicate is sometimes added as a deflocculator when the gangue has too much tendency to enter the concentrate. Should the ore contain an appreciable quantity of sphalerite, though not enough to warrant the production of a separate zinc concentrate, it can usually be depressed by the addition of sodium cyanide with or without zinc sulphate either to the grinding circuit or to a conditioning tank. It is not often that more than 0.1 lb. per ton of either reagent is required for this purpose.

The oxidized lead minerals, of which cerussite and anglesite are the most important, can generally be concentrated by flotation after their surfaces have been coated with a film of lead sulphide by a preliminary sulphidizing treatment. Since the consumption of the sulphidizing reagent is proportional to the surface area to be attacked,it is usual, particularly with a rich ore, to table out as much coarse mineral as possible before flotation. The table tailings, reground if required to a suitable size, are treated with soda ash to precipitate any dissolved salts which might react with the sulphidizing reagent, and with sodium silicate in addition, should it be necessary to deflocculate the gangue. The pulp is then conditioned with sodium sulphide, or, more rarely, with one of the other alkaline sulphides, the normal range of consumption being 2 to 6 lb. per ton of ore. The sulphidizing contact period may be as long as 20 minutes, but in many cases it has been found possible to reduce the time to a few minutes, especially when flotation is carried out in subaeration machines, the cells of which have the advantage that additional reagent can be introduced at any point if extra sulphidizing is needed. The minerals are floated with frothing and promoting reagents similar to those required for galena, amyl xanthate being very effective with this class of mineral.

gold processing,extraction,smelting plant design, equipment for sale | prominer (shanghai) mining technology co.,ltd

Prominer maintains a team of senior gold processing engineers with expertise and global experience. These gold professionals are specifically in gold processing through various beneficiation technologies, for gold ore of different characteristics, such as flotation, cyanide leaching, gravity separation, etc., to achieve the processing plant of optimal and cost-efficient process designs.

Based on abundant experiences on gold mining project, Prominer helps clients to get higher yield & recovery rate with lower running cost and pays more attention on environmental protection. Prominer supplies customized solution for different types of gold ore. General processing technologies for gold ore are summarized as below:

For alluvial gold, also called sand gold, gravel gold, placer gold or river gold, gravity separation is suitable. This type of gold contains mainly free gold blended with the sand. Under this circumstance, the technology is to wash away the mud and sieve out the big size stone first with the trommel screen, and then using centrifugal concentrator, shaking table as well as gold carpet to separate the free gold from the stone sands.

CIL is mainly for processing the oxide type gold ore if the recovery rate is not high or much gold is still left by using otation and/ or gravity circuits. Slurry, containing uncovered gold from primary circuits, is pumped directly to the thickener to adjust the slurry density. Then it is pumped to leaching plant and dissolved in aerated sodium cyanide solution. The solubilized gold is simultaneously adsorbed directly into coarse granules of activated carbon, and it is called Carbon-In-Leaching process (CIL).

Heap leaching is always the first choice to process low grade ore easy to leaching. Based on the leaching test, the gold ore will be crushed to the determined particle size and then sent to the dump area. If the content of clay and solid is high, to improve the leaching efficiency, the agglomeration shall be considered. By using the cement, lime and cyanide solution, the small particles would be stuck to big lumps. It makes the cyanide solution much easier penetrating and heap more stable. After sufficient leaching, the pregnant solution will be pumped to the carbon adsorption column for catching the free gold. The barren liquid will be pumped to the cyanide solution pond for recycle usage.

The loaded carbon is treated at high temperature to elute the adsorbed gold into the solution once again. The gold-rich eluate is fed into an electrowinning circuit where gold and other metals are plated onto cathodes of steel wool. The loaded steel wool is pretreated by calcination before mixing with uxes and melting. Finally, the melt is poured into a cascade of molds where gold is separated from the slag to gold bullion.

Prominer has been devoted to mineral processing industry for decades and specializes in mineral upgrading and deep processing. With expertise in the fields of mineral project development, mining, test study, engineering, technological processing.

10 best ore beneficiation plants for sale (with costs) | fote machinery

Before purchasing an ore beneficiation plant, people have lots of concerns: Which equipment I should choose to process my iron ore? Is this ore processing flowsheet best? Can these machines help me remove sulfur in iron ore beneficiation? Would they increase the recovery rate of tailings?

Then how to choose the right ore beneficiation plant depends on a lot of factors including physical properties of raw ore, capacity demands, final ore product requirements, geological situations of ore mines, and so on.

Here Fote Group would love to share valuable information about mining market trends, ways to build a high-quality ore beneficiation plant, and ten different ore processing plants which have been proved successful by our customers. If you have any most pressing questions and concerns, please contact our professional engineers who can make customized solutions according to your actual situation.

Our ore beneficiation plants sale to many countries, such as India, Australia, the USA, the UK, Canada, Switzerland, Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, South Africa, Sudan, Egypt, Kenya, Indonesia, Nigeria, etc.

Nowadays, with ways of ore processing are getting more and more diversified and intelligent, the investment is not only limited to gold ore beneficiation but enlarged to many other items. From precious metals to coal, and to non-ferrous metals, investors can profit and bring more economic benefits to society.

Over 80 kinds of ores are widely used minerals in the world. Due to large output and high international trade volume, there are the several most common and important ores such as iron ore, copper ore, gold ore, bauxite, coal, lead&zinc ore, nickel ore, tin ore, and manganese ore, etc.

Nothing can replace iron ore in developing infrastructures as well as coal ore in the electricity industry, those ores making a great contribution to countries' economic growth. Gold ore mining ranks in a top position, attracting lots of investment for closed relations between the gold price and currency market.

The screening and crushing process is used to release useful minerals from the gangue. Different types of crushers reduce large sizes of raw ore into smaller ones, then vibrating screen with different mesh would help to get the desired size of ores. During the process, how many crushers need to be installed according to your real situation.

Usually, there are crushers with three crushing stages: primary crushers like jaw crushers, secondary crushers like cone crushers, roll crushers and impact crushers, tertiary crushers like compound crushers and fine crushers. Vibrating screens also have different types: Circular motion vibrating screens, horizontal Screens, high-frequency Screens, and trommel/ drum screens.

Only by crushers cannot get ore products with fine granularity, that's why mill grinding machines necessary in the beneficiation process. The mill grinding process is almost carried out in two consecutive stages: one is dry grinding (coarse grinding) and the other is wet grinding (fine grinding). The key grinding equipment are ball mills and rod mills, and the latter is now mostly used for wet grinding to finally produce fine and uniform ore products.

The beneficiation process is most crucial during the whole plant, helping people extract high value and pure ore concentrate products from ores no matter its grade high or low. The beneficiation process can be carried out in a variety of ways as needed but you ought to select a piece of optimal equipment to avoid inefficiency and waste in the entire process. The most common beneficiation equipment includes flotation machines, electrostatic and magnetic separators, and gravity beneficiation equipment.

Ore drying equipment may appear in any stage of a mineral processing plant (from raw ore-concentrate-finished product). The purpose of drying is to remove the moisture contained in the ore, ensuring the integrity of the product, and maximizing the value. In addition, drying process can also reduce product transportation costs and improve the economic efficiency of storage and processing.

With almost 50 years' extensive experience, Fote engineers are professional in integrating, designing, fabricating, commissioning, maintaining, and troubleshooting various beneficiation plants. The company aims to provide customers with the best mining equipment and the most reasonable beneficiation plants. Its final goal is to increase the potential profit that customers can obtain from the ore and enable mining companies to improve the overall profitability.

5TPH low-grade gold ore beneficiation plant in India 10 TPH gold ore beneficiation plant in South Africa 20-35TPH gold ore beneficiation plant in Egypt 10 TPH iron ore beneficiation plant in the USA 10-50TPH copper ore beneficiation plant in Pakistan 50-100TPH manganese ore beneficiation plant in Kenya 150TPH Bauxite ore beneficiation plant in Indonesia 50TPH lateritic nickel ore beneficiation plant in Philippines 200TPH zinc & lead ore beneficiation plant in Nigeria 250TPH chrome ore beneficiation plant in Russia

As a leading mining machinery manufacturer and exporter in China, we are always here to provide you with high quality products and better services. Welcome to contact us through one of the following ways or visit our company and factories.

Based on the high quality and complete after-sales service, our products have been exported to more than 120 countries and regions. Fote Machinery has been the choice of more than 200,000 customers.

china zinc ore flotation machine, zinc ore flotation machine manufacturers, suppliers, price

China manufacturing industries are full of strong and consistent exporters. We are here to bring together China factories that supply manufacturing systems and machinery that are used by processing industries including but not limited to: flotation machine, mining machine, flotation cell. Here we are going to show you some of the process equipments for sale that featured by our reliable suppliers and manufacturers, such as Zinc Ore Flotation Machine. We will do everything we can just to keep every buyer updated with this highly competitive industry & factory and its latest trends. Whether you are for group or individual sourcing, we will provide you with the latest technology and the comprehensive data of Chinese suppliers like Zinc Ore Flotation Machine factory list to enhance your sourcing performance in the business line of manufacturing & processing machinery.

xrf analyzer equipment for sale

Were going to do a quick intro to pXRF and pXRD principles and how they work. Then, were going to focus on pXRF, and work through the products, some of the suggested operating procedures, and then spend a bit of time looking at good references, case studies, and applications.

Were have complete geoscience solution; we have diffraction, which can gives us quantitative minerology. So if were looking at this slide, on the top left we can actually derive the amount of minerals so they can quantify them. We have X-ray fluorescence, which is chemistry. We get very good, almost lab grade results if were doing the right job. And then, we also have the ability to look at structural properties of geo sites as well through microscopy, or optical minerology, or petrology, which is again, the backbone of what we learn at university when were looking at minerology. Its the gold standard in a lot of ways.

Breaking it down to the products. And again, today were just going to focus on the portable products. This is our XRF products. Again, chemistry. We have the new VANTA Series handheld, which Ill explain a little bit in the next section. We have the DELTA, which has been the workforce for a good six or seven years now. Many people are familiar with our DELTA Series handheld. And then, Im just going to mention we have some portable bench-tops, some sort of customized smaller systems, as well as our process, and online, and sorting systems as well. If youd like more information about the other products, feel free to get in contact with us after the webinar.

And the one slide which Ive got for microscopy is that we have a bunch of solutions from stereo microscopes to the polarizing microscopes and the metallurgical microscopes, which are all around optical mineralogy. Again, if you need more information, we can point you to the product managers and the specialists in the microscope business.

With XRF and XRD, as you wouldve read in the webinar intro, this talk is essentially targeting people whove got an existent background in the physics. So, Ill keep it quite simple. But again, if you need more information about how the fundamentals work, we can provide you with that. X-ray fluorescence, we shot an X-ray on the sample, we use a technique called EDS, so its Energy Dispersive XRF, where were basically able to get characteristic X-ray back for each element. We measure them in a spectre, we quantify them, and thats what we use to get a quantitative result for each element. Diffractions collect different. Were basically getting the shinning and x-Ray on a sample, were looking at diffraction of the mineral layers within each compound. Theyre all crystal structure. And we end with a diagnostic fingerprint for each mineral. And then, again, we can quantify that using processing techniques.

Many of you know the periodic table continues to give better coverage and better sensitivity. Weve looked at this many times over the years. And essentially, what were looking at in the grain is elements that we can get down to low PPM levels. So with modern X-Ray tubes and with silicon drift detectors, we can now do a really good job across pretty much the whole periodic table. And especially the light elements. The new systems give us the ability to things like magnesium, aluminum, silicon, to labels that weve not been able to do before.

And if we start to look at the market now, we play work different parts of industry. We call it the Mining Value Chain. We start with geoscience research, with geological surveys, we then move to mineral exploration, where were developing around existing operations. We then move into the grade control area where weve got systems trying to make real-time decisions around materials and destination of materials. From there, were able to use that to form the processing division of the business around geometallurgy and aspects of decision-making on chemistry and minerology. And then, at the very backend of the business, we can also play a role in mine closure, and in the environmental business around looking at solar irradiation and contaminated land. Theres one separate business, which we have a nice sort of segue way into, which is around maintenance. A lot of our tools we use for NDT, and for Alloy, and PMI, and things like oil. And again, if youd like more information on that, which Im not going to cover today, we can point you in the right direction.

To dial it down a little bit, and to focus on XRF in particular and this is where Id like to just quickly talk about our new offering. In September, weve released our fifth generation handheld called VANTA. Its a complete revolution in the industry. Its ten plus years of, basically, building an instrument thats been specifically designed for our market. And when I say that, the core pillars are around ruggedization. So we now have IP67 rating, dust and water proof, we have very high temperature ratings, up to 50 degrees C for geocycle. And one of the cool things that will detect a shadow, the mechanical eye lid that come down and protect the detector. We also revolutionary XRF technology, which is all about better accuracy, better precision, and higher cap rates, which means we can do more work faster, with higher accuracy and higher precision. And in the productivity space, we have a whole bunch of new cool stuff coming around cloud-enabled data processing, we have things like embedded GPS, new software its a revolution in handheld XRF.

The products aside, where weve really established ourselves as, essentially, the industry leaders is We all know that XRF can do a great job, but theres a bunch of things that we need to do. And its very similar to what the lab has to do when they process our samples, its all around best practice. We put out a blog, and we had a week called Geoscience Week where we put out a guide called A Quickstart Guide for Best Practices in Portable XRF.

So, we look at the start. We need to start with designing an orientation survey. A lot of that is around standard operating procedure, chain of custody, QA/QC, all things that as geologists were very comfortable dealing with our normal lab regime. This paper that was published and I was a co-publisher, it was a cornerstone paper, which goes to each one of these procedures, around each part of the procedure. Selecting a sample. Preparation what do we want to look at around sample preparation? Data handling, data custody. And then, what do we actually want to do with the data when were finished.

And the next slide is all about selecting what sample. What are we working with? Are we working with bio-geochemical samples? Are we working with soils? Are we working around a drill rig where were taking precaution, or where we actually want to look at drill quill? So, we have to make a decision about the way were going to analyze that sample, and then move forward with the process.

And this slide encompasses a few of the really key aspects. Probably the main one, in the top right corner, is grainsize. And we know that if we have homogenous good materials, were going to get a good result. But if were analyzing course grain materials, were going to get very erratic and heterogeneous results. Similarly, if were running through bags, were going to get attenuation thats obviously going to affect the calibration, its going to dilute our results. So were able to do that, but we need to make sure sap specific calibration is built up to take care of all of those things. And on the left, its an example of how to actually select the right type of soil to get out a sample. Were looking at a soil horizon here, with different parts of the stratigraphy to leave different types of metal due to things like redox and chemical reactions going on in the ground itself. Were actually able to use portable XRF to tell us what sample has the accumulation of metals, and which sample is going to get us the best results.

As the manufacturer, we do the best job we can to give you guys a robust calibration out of the box. We do have lots of different standards, and lots of different samples, but at the end of the day, you want to make sure that youll qualify an instrument, and youre doing the right thing around looking at the performance of the XRF versus certified reference materials. Theres an example of a company, very well-known with research in Australia, who have very good standards that we can after. And this shows portable XRF versus them. Its iron, in this particular case. And if were doing the right thing, we get the same result. So, its very encouraging.

And this is XRF instrument which you can go and buy off the shelf. Theres some pricing there. This is the packaging. You get a nice little portable XRF standards package you can take out into the field for any sampling regime.

The next step in the process that were really very comfortable and very used to doing, is coming on site, and developing site-specific standards. Were working with site-specific standards because the final refinement, or the final tuning or tweaking call it what you will is actually tailoring the XRF to do the absolute perfect job for the type of rocks that youre working with. And what we can see in the bottom left hand corner here is a set of 45 or 47 samples for a very low range metal. In this particular example, its copper and iron in an IOCG deposit. And we built a calibration, and basically, tweaked the calibration so wed get a one to one rating and a 99% correlation to make sure that youre very confident that the analyzer is doing the right job.

As I mentioned earlier, one of the critical points with portable XRF is around sample presentation. And again, we have a whole lot of solutions and a whole lot of expertise around providing that guidance, and providing recommendations on what sort of tools and equipment we can use in the field. Again, if youd like more information, we can certainly point you into the right direction with some of these companies, whether itd be drilling a hole in a sample, or taking a sample right through lead-based, you know, a ring mill or a jewel crusher to get 95% of your sample passing 75 micron. The more that we get towards that, the better results we can achieve in the field.

And if we just want to spend a few seconds focusing just of field-based sampling solutions, theres some fairly well-known bits of equipment out there which you can go and purchase, including this rock grinder for sample either across a wall or a phase underground, or theres this small hammer mill up on the right hand side, which we can use for crushing things like RC chips or soil thats not quite homogenous enough in the field. And you can take these out in the field, run them off 12 volt system off a car. And you can quite easily obtain lab grade results in the field.

And then, more of the Complete Solution level. We have a company that we work in tandem with around creating and developing a full solution. And thats crushing and grinding. We have a sample press. A sample press enables to create a puck without a consumable, it doesnt require a window, which means that youre getting a lot better XRF performance without having attenuation. They also have systems, which flows in the laboratory. Its a laboratory information management system, which manages the chain of custody, the standards, it merges the real-time QA/QC actually while youre running the sample. So, it gives you confidence that youre getting good results whilst youre actually running the samples.

And a key part of what were dealing with is how do we deliver our data in real-time. And anybody who uses the portable XRF knows that we can generate a lot of data very, very quickly. Weve got spreadsheets of multi-element data arriving all over the place. I quite often see people with laptops where theyve got 20 or 30 spreadsheets altogether on the one page, and it gets quite difficult. But having solutions, like this one Ive got up on the screen, the data can arrive into a real-time web portal, it can be QA/QC validated, it can be managed remotely, and then we can get an output, which is designed to be doing exactly what the client would like to see. Roll out of bed in the morning before they go and see the drill rig, and they can see the data on their iPhone, and say, Oh, look, were drilled through the contact, now we need to stop the drill, and make that decision, save lots of money, and then move the drills to the next site. Its all about real-time decision-making.

And then, once we have all that data, its what do we do with it. And as geologists, we generally pass that into a 3D model, we use that 3D model for a lot of things, we use it for mine design, we use it for vectoring towards mineralization, were targeting where were going to drill next. And we have tools, where we have our portable XRF data arrive into a classification system, as in the right hand corner there. The rocks get classified, and then passed straight into a 3D model. So its all about expediting the chain of custody of the data that usually can take months, even up to half a year to get this data into a model and start working with it.

And then, the one small part Im going to talk about a little bit is about how we take that data, and how do we report that data to the market. And again, its been quite controversial in the past, myself and a few others involved around pXRF technologies spent some time with this and said, Well, lets include some of these sampling techniques, some of the recommended procedures when people want to report the data so they can go to table one, we can get some information, and we can get some recommendations on what we need to do to report it. Again, for those whod like more information, weve got lots of good examples with companies who do this the right way, and what you should be looking at to put out in the market.

One of the very well-known industry initiatives that happened a couple of years ago, up here, in Canada, ran by a very well-known geochemist, where we had a bunch of industry companies who sponsored, and we worked through the quality control and assessment of portable XRF. It was all about bench marking. What can XRF do? How can we develop standard operating procedures on variable media? And how can we recommend the best use? Again, thats a great reference, its about 500 pages of reports and data there. And you can go to the its actually on the Association of Applied Geochemists website and download the report. Its a great reference.

And as part of that work, an editor of Geo Magazine, we put together a thematic set. So, two complete issues of Geo which were completely dedicated to portable XRF. And that was where companies and institutions submitted papers on best practices and what theyve done. So, its a great reference out there for those who are looking for papers and for direction on where to head.

An example in Finland, was put together in a special report, which has a whole chapter on portable XRF. And for this particular example, it was looking at Geo chemistry, and how theyre effectively using portable XRF to do that. And in light of that, and actually many years ago, about 15 years ago this is an example of geological survey of Canada with using a similar technique, theyre using litho-geochemistry, so using the chemistry to tell us what part of the stratigraphy and what rock types are in. And what were looking at here, on this downhole plot is the blue data is ICP thats lab data and the red data is XRF, and were getting very agreeable results between the two datasets. And from there, theyre able to work out the rock type, determine the stratigraphy, and basically, adapt and design their drill program in real-time.

Moving forward, an organization that weve worked with a lot in Australia, kind of the coalface and the cutting edge of pXRF technology is that we know the data is very, very good. And when we look at these plots, we can see extremely good agreement between elements. In geoscience, we use certain elements to tell us certain things. We use arsenic as a very string proxy for gold mineralization, we use things like titanium, zirconium, and chrome. They are mobile to mobile element ratios to tell us what are rock types are. And if take that dotted board, were actually able to use that to start to predict and work out what rock types are, and take the subjectivity and some of the fuzziness out of logging rocks. And what were looking at here, its an advanced algorithm its actually called wavelet tessellation where were using iron through a project that was developed through a group which was a large research initiative in Australia. And we can use iron through a wave of tessellation to, basically, break out the rocks and start to break it down into different scales of features that were seeing, you know, first order versus second order versus third order features, and to help that and assist us in breaking up the rock types, which may not be visually obvious for people to pick out in the field.

Moving from the R&D and the geo survey applications, its the first place that we tested XRF and our businesses, generally around soil sampling. So soil sampling works very, very well if fine-grained samples are able to move about on the surface of the earth. And that geochemistry very, very rapidly. And in this particular example, we managed to cover this area, and basically, build up a real-time geochemical map very rapidly. From there, we could move around, we could decide where were we going to go next, and we can use that as a decision-making tool on how were going to change our sample program on the site. One of the really cool things about having assay data right from the field is that you dont just get one element. In the last example we were just saying copper, but now, in this particular example, which is the same dataset, we can see every element side by side. So we have copper, lead, zinc, and we get to see the way the different metals are moving around in the system, and we can see whats mobile and whats not. We can see contamination overprint. For working in an area around the mine, we can see where theres sulfur and sulphides that have been delivered around roads and things like that.

And if we start to talk about the return on investment, and what we ca actually get out of portable XRF, well, the value proposition, the current example I have up on the screen was one of the users in Australia, and it shows what can be achieved with one month with one instrument. And in this particular example, they were able to go out and do very detailed, very fine geochemical sampling over a known area of mineralization its South Australia, around the Burra Copper deposits, which is one of the biggest copper deposits in the world and delineate exactly where they were going to go and drill next. And again, this is several years ago as the technology was emerging. It got the company into the place that they needed to to make those decisions.

As we go further down the value chain, once we have an anomaly, once we have a target, the first thing were going to do is start drilling it. And some of the early drill procedures we might use XRF. In this particular example, were using auger drilling in West Africa. We can see the samples are being brought into a bench-top system. Weve got a small little XRF added in the hood. The samples are being run in a very good chain of custody with great validation. And then, were using that data to classify the rock types, because in that area we cant actually tell what the geology is. Were in an area of residual surface. In this example, we can actually map out the grainstone built amongst the sediments, and then we know where to go and target, because were looking for orogenic gold. So its a very, very powerful tool for delimitating the stratigraphy through what would usually be very difficult to look at.

And sticking on the gold theme, the next example I have up on the screen gives us an example of what the geochemical signatures and what the common pathfinders are that were going to use for going out and looking for gold. And one of the things that Ill state up front and we have for many years is that portable XRF is not very good for gold, but theres a whole host of elements which we can use to go and look for gold, which we call pathfinders. And in this example, at the top here, we can see one of those elements, with ICP versus the same element with portable XRF. And were getting exactly the same map, which means that were very confident that portable XRF is doing the same job.

A little bit of a gold theme here. And thats because the gold business, to us, has been a very effective place where weve, obviously, put a lot of instruments into. And its also an application, weve developed a lot of tools and techniques. This particular paper which I have now on the screen was an example several years ago. A fellow who put together a program at Plutonic Gold Mine to, basically, define stratigraphy and use it for geometallurgical work, which were going to have a look in a couple of slides on the next page.

He was able to, basically, reconstruct the stratigraphic model around Plutonic. Basically, its a sequence of bath salts where the bath salts flow in the basis, so in-between flows the gold deposits along those surfaces and substrates, which in the top corner, the red circles, were looking at chrome versus gold. So, as we step down the stratigraphy, the gold accumulates on the stratigraphic boundaries. Now, when theyre able to do 3D surfaces of that, where they can actually model that, and then use that as a tool for vectoring and for modeling where they think the next gold occurrence is going to be, or look for extensions of the orebody. He was also able to take that data and domain it out in a deposit thats quite difficult. Its a refractory gold deposit, its got high arsenic, its got free milling gold versus refractory gold. Essentially, as the arsenic grade goes up, the recovery drops. So what they were able to do was blend and change the process and technologies so they could optimize recovery based on the material that was being delivered to the mill. And again, its an excellent example of having a dataset which they didnt have the past to drive better recoveries, and to get better results in the mill.

The other cool things weve added in the last few years is the camera and collimator feature. And what they give you the ability to do is actually use the XRF with a focusing mechanism. So, with using the camera, we can collimate down so we can change the size of the zoom to look at a bit smaller things. We can actually use that microstructural assessment. Were looking at grain particular or phase particular work. We have some gold grains in those particular examples, which would be quite difficult to observe by the eye, but with an XRF and a camera, we can do a great job.

Moving on to grade control now, we have an example here of iron ore in Australia where our neo systems have the ability to take something that amounts to a 90-second test, and do it within 15 seconds. So what weve got here is iron, essentially in 90 seconds versus 15 seconds, and against Silicon. This is an example where a lot of elements perform extremely well. And its hard to believe even for myself that we can deliver such good data in such rapid time, which means that you can put a lot of samples through that you may not have been able before, and you can make decisions much faster than youve ever been able to before.

On the second slide, were looking at aluminum and phosphorus. In looking at the deleterious settlements in iron ores. So the last example I have here, its a very hot topic at the moment, the whole lithium factories business is, obviously, very energized at the moment pardon my pun. And its technique where we can actually use portable XRF and XRD together. Because if were looking for lithium, theres a bunch of very cool elements in the periodic table, one being rubidium. It fractions into lithium within the same sort of ratios that we see in lithium. And the other thing that we need to do is look at the minerology. So, we might have a lithium deposit, but it doesnt necessarily mean we can mine it. The XRD is a fantastic tool. Were looking at what phase is it in, were looking at if its spodumene, or if its petalite.

Its been one of the applications weve had a lot of success with. And for those geologists that have worked particularly in various gold deposits, its the hydrothermal fluids, I mean particularly orogenic and epithermal or high solvation systems. They generally have different elements that come along with them. Arsenic is probably the silver bullet. We get very strong association in some orebodies obviously, not all where we can use arsenic in a ratio to give us a ballpark relatively, not always absolute of the gold grade. We have many examples, and many published examples that show how well that can work.

What is X-ray fluorescence and what is XRF? XRF is X-ray fluorescence; thats what it stands for and its a method to get fast, non-destructive elemental information about the sample that you have in front of the analyzer.

What type of samples or applications would you be using XRF? The most common application is for scrap sorting. A scrap dealer gets more money if he knows that his stuff is all the same thing. So when they go to melt it off, they can make new stuff out of that. So, thats really what we do as we say okay, its this grade of metal or that particular grade of metal. And they can sort it into light piles and sell it for more money, and so thats where the value gets added, by knowing what you have.

What other type of applications is XRF being used for? Theres some other metal applications which are for positive material identification which are in oil refineries. You need to know that the pipes that you install there are what theyre supposed to be, so they dont corrode too fast and leak and create a health hazard. But theres a lot more than just metals it can go on to soils for mining or for environmental, if youre looking at like lead in soil and a number of other things like that. Theres consumer products looking to make sure about lead in toys, its even used in archaeometry to look at what paintings are made of, because its non-destructive you can use it on pretty much anything.

Do you have to be highly trained to understand how to use this equipment? No, all the difficult mathematics and all that stuff goes on kind of behind the scenes, so weve made it pretty straightforward to use. With a quick safety training in most regions of the world you can be up and running in a couple of minutes.

Are there any other alternatives to XRF? XRF has kind of a unique space in that it gives you quick answers out in the field because you can take the portable instruments out to your sample. And there are a bunch of laboratory techniques that can be a lot more precise, but those usually involve bringing the sample back to the lab, they require like a lot of digestion and work and sample preparation in the lab, and they also destroy a little bit of the sample. So they have some limitations. Some people would send things into a lab, youre doing this more on location.

How long does it take to do a sample? That really depends on what kind of answer you want to get. For a lot of the scrap sorting, we can get an answer in a second or two in terms of what type of metal it is. Some of the metals are more challenging, it might take 15-20 seconds. In the mining kind of space, theyre looking for usually some very detailed information and the test can take a minute or two. But its again relatively quick compared to the hours of digestion you might have to do in the lab or when you send it off to a lab out, waiting for them to get to it. If you expedite it and pay the extra fees, cause youve got that much time in transit time alone sending it off to a lab. So the immediacy of XRF is really one of the big selling points for it.

All XRF instruments are designed around two major components: a X-ray source, commonly an X-ray tube and a detector. Primary X-rays are generated by the source and directed at the sample surface sometimes passing through a filter to modify the X-ray beam.

When the beam hits the atoms in the sample, they react by generating secondary X-rays that are collected and processed by a detector. Now, lets look at what happens to the atoms in the sample during the analysis. A stable atom is made out of a nucleus and electrons orbiting it. The electrons are arranged in energy levels or shells, and different energy levels can hold different numbers of electrons.

When the high energy primary X-ray collides with an atom, it disturbs its equilibrium. An electron is ejected from a low-energy level and a vacancy is created, making the atom instable. To restore stability, an electron from a higher energy level falls into this vacancy. The excess energy released as the electron moves between the two levels is emitted in the form of a secondary X-ray. The energy of the emitted X-ray is characteristic of the element.

This means that XRF provides qualitative information about the sample measured. However, XRF is also a quantitative technique. The X-rays emitted by the atoms in the sample are collected by a detector and processed in the analyzer to generate a spectrum, showing the X-rays intensity peaks versus their energy. As we have seen, the peak energy identifies the element. Its peak area or intensity gives an indication of its amount in the sample.

The analyzer then uses this information to calculate a samples elemental composition. The whole process from pressing the Start button or trigger, to getting the analysis results can be as quick as two seconds, or it can take several minutes.

Compared to other analytical techniques, XRF has many advantages. Its fast, it measures a wide range of elements and concentrations in many different types of materials, its non-destructive and requires no or very little sample preparation and its very low-cost compared to other techniques. Thats why so many people around the world are using XRF on a daily basis to analyze materials. If you want to find out more about our range of XRF analyzers, please visit our website.

Gold, silver, platinum and their alloys, the gold XRF analyzer can measure them all. The gold analyzer quickly and accurately determines the karatage of gold items, the purity of silver items and any other metals that are in the piece. The gold analyzer was designed with the jewelry industry in mind. Its small footprint wont take up valuable counter space and it can test any piece of jewelry in seconds.

Testing couldnt be easier. Just place, close and tap. The gold XRF analyzer is safe for any user. It can only test samples when the lid is shut, and the flashing light on the top lets you know when the test is actually taking place. Compact, accurate, fast.

Gold XRF testing is completely nondestructive. The sample is not affected or harmed in any way. The gold analyzers viewing window and well-lit chamber allows both operator and customer to see the sample as it is being analyzed.

Karat Mode or the more comprehensive Chemistry Analysis Mode can be selected. The gold analyzer uses X-ray fluorescence, a nondestructive and fast analytical method to test samples. Its easy to use and adapts to nearly any sample size or shape. An integrated camera allows the gold analyzer to focus on and get results from individual components. This is useful when testing pieces that include gemstones.

The gold XRF analyzer offers the convenience of portability as well. An optional battery pack allows testing on the go. The gold analyzer weight only 22 pounds, about 10kg and combined with its custom carrying case can go anywhere you need it to.

minerals downunder

The Earth's crust is constantly moving up, down and sideways. This constant movement is applying heat and pressure to different part of the Earth, and over very, very long periods of time this action causes various minerals to form and others to change. Rocks are made up of a collection of minerals grains which have been crystallised or cemented together. The types of minerals found in a rock determine things like its colour, texture and value

Rocks are classified into three main categories, depending on how they were formed - sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic. Scan a picture and use the clue to position the photo with its correct rock type and location.

Sedimentary rocks form when soil, sand, mud, animal matter, vegetation and other rock fragments are washed into rivers, lakes and the sea. The sediment settles in layers which eventually harden. Sedimentary rocks also form when rocks are weathered by wind and ice.

Valuable minerals which form in large amounts in one area are called deposits. If a deposit is rich enough in minerals to make it worthwhile to mine, it is then called an ore body. Minerals are mined in every state of Australia, however only 0.26% of Australia's land mass is used for this purpose. Metals such as aluminum, copper, gold, iron, lead, managenese, nickel, silver, tin, titanium and zinc are all formed from minerals.

Coal is mined extensively in eastern Australia and many products are made from Australian petroleum, including oil, gas, petrol and diesel. Uranium is an energy source also mined in Australia. It is exported to other countries where it is used for nuclear fuel. Australia produces most of the world's precious opals and is a major supplier of diamonds and sapphaires.

Australia also supplies building and industrial materials which are used for a wide variety of purposes. These include: basalt, clay, corundum, diamonds, diatomite, garnet, granite, gravel, gypsum, limestone, magnetite, marble, mica, salt, sand, sandstone, scoria, slate, talc and many more.

Special exploration teams are always searching for potential mining sites to meet the human demand for minerals.Teams include geophysicists, geologists and geochemists. They are looking for clues as to what minerals might be located below the Earths surface. This is done with the help of satellite pictures, aerial photographs and geological maps.

Geophysicists collect more information using ultra-modern equipment on the ground and in aircraft to measure the makeup of rocks found both on and under the surface. They look for differences in the density of rocks, whether they have magnetic capabilities and whether they conduct electricity. The level of natural radioactivity, the temperature and the speed with which sound can travel through rocks are also measured.

With the permission of the land owner, geologists conduct a field survey and samples are collected by hand from the area and tested. Geochemists discover what lies underground by analysing the mineral content of the water and soil that is present in the area.

Diamond bit drills fitted to the back of a truck drill narrow holes up to 1.5 kilometres below the Earths surface. Core samples of rock from these holes are collected for more detailed testing. Further drilling and tests attempt to establish the shape and size of the mineral deposit.

Exploration teams must carefully manage the natural environment. They replant any vegetation they disturb during exploration and cover drill holes to make them safe and to prevent small animals from falling into them.

A large number of tests and feasibility studies are conducted on an area, sometimes for up to 15 years, before millions of dollars are committed by a mining company to establish a mine. The company must be convinced that the costs including exploration, development of the mine, environmental management and royalties to be paid will be covered, if mining is to proceed. Very few identified mineral deposits ever become mines, in fact, only about one in every 1,000 is established.

Mining companies must decide the most cost-effective, safe and environmentally sound way of mining and separating the ore from the surrounding gangue (i.e. soil and rock that do not contain useful minerals). Click panels to see more.

The boxes below show the major stages involved in one method of processing copper ore. Match the descriptions on each of the photographs with number shown.

This finely ground ore is then carried on a conveyor belt to a machine called a 'concentrator'. Here water and chemicals are added to the ore in a process called 'flotation'. Copper minerals separate from surrounding material and float to the surface by attaching themselves to bubbles. Waste material is left behind. The bubbles contain the copper concentrate.

This ore body contains minerals from which the metal copper can be extracted. A copper bearing mineral is one from which the metal copper can be extracted. Azurite and malachite are examples of minerals which contain copper.

The copper anodes are then taken to a refinery where they and stainless steel plates called cathodes are lowered into a special chemical bath which has electricity flowing through it. Copper transfers from the anode to the cathode and the end product is pure copper sheets. This process is called electro-refining.

Land is used for many purposes including agriculture, cities, housing, roads, recreation, industry and mining. Every land use has some degree of environmental impact. Government statistics estimate 0.26% of land is used for mining.

Mining is undertaken to provide us with the minerals we need to make the things we use. The nature of mining means that it does impact on the surrounding land, water and air. Environmental staff are employed at mines to continually plan, undertake and monitor rehabilitation of mine sites so as to reduce and manage the impacts of mining.

All of our current lifestyles rely on a great variety of minerals that come from rocks found in the Earth's crust. Some rocks are used with little or no processing by the building industry and for making roads. Other rocks are crushed and changed in many different ways to form other substances. These substances are then used to make many of the goods we use on a daily basis or to generate energy like electricity.

Anna Meares grew up in Queensland, in fact in the mining town of Middlemount! She became Australia's youngest female track cyclist and our first to win an Olympic gold medal at the 2004 Athens games. She won a silver medal at the Beijing Olympics in 2008. At the London 2012 Olympic Games Anna Meares won GOLD in the individual women's sprint. BHP Billiton is a proud sponsor of Anna's quest to "go for gold" once again.

zinc ore manufacturers | zinc ore suppliers

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